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North Care i: .10 State Library 

©iograpf)ical ^fetorp 
of Qortti (Jarolina 

From Colonial Times 
to the Present 


Samuel A. Ashe 
Stephen B. Weeks 
Charles L. Van Noppen 


Charles L. Van Noppen 


Greensboro, N. C. 


ft f:it 

C. o? 

Copyright, 191 7 
By Charles L. Van Noppen 

All Rights Reserved 

Kemp P. Battle . 
*JoHN C. Buxton 

Theo. F. Davidson 
*JuNius Davis 


*Thomas J. Jarvis 
James Y. Joyner . 

*Charles D. McIver 
William L. Poteat 

*James H. Southgate 

Chapel Hill 


. Asheville 

. Wilmington 




. Greensboro 

Wake Forest 





Contents ^^^^ 

Advisory Board v 

Contents . vii 

Portraits ^ci 

Contributors xv 

Alspaugh, John Wesley . . .... . . . i 

Alston, John . 6 

Argo, Thomas Monroe ji 

Ashe, Samuel 17 

Ashe, John Baptista, 2d . . . . . ". ... 26 

Ashe, William Shepperd .30 

Ashe, Thomas Samuel . ... . . . . . . 37 

Baker, Joseph Henry .0 

Baker, Julian Meredith c^ 

BuRGwiN, John ; ^ eg 

Burgwyn Harry King, Jr ^ ^- 

BuRGWYN, William Hyslop Sumner . . . ... 73 

Butler, Marion : ; gj 

Carr^ Elias : ^ Qj 

Clement, John, Marshall 98 

Clement, Louis Henry 102 

Clement^ Hayden . . . ^ ^ jqc 

Cone, Moses Herman . . . . . . . . ^ ^ jop 


Cone, Ceasar 117 


Davidson, John 132 

Davis, James 139 

Dixon, Hugh Woody 149 

Eller, Adolphus Hill 154 

Gaither, Eprhaim Lash 162 

Gordon, James Byron 167 

Grove, William Barry 173 

Hale, Edward Jones 179 

Hale, Peter Mallett 185 

Hale, Edward Joseph, Jr 19.1 

Harnett, Cornelius, Sr 200 

Helper, Hinton Rowan 204 

Hicks, Thurston Titus 215 

Hill, John Sprunt 223 

Hines, Lovit 232 

Hinton, Mary Hilliard ' . . . 237 

Hood, Robert Clarence 244 

Horner, James Hunter 253 

Horner, Jerome Channing 262 

Horner, Junius Moore 2.67 

Jackson, Herbert Worth 272 

Lane, Ralph 276 

Latham, James Edwin 280 

Long, Jacob 286 

Long, William Samuel 292 

Long, Daniel Albright 296 

Long, Jacob Alson y^ 

Long, George Washington 304 

Long, Benjamin Franklin 306 


Lyon, Zachariah Inge 314 

Lyon, George Leonidas 317 

McCuLLOH, Henry 322 

Merrimon, Augustus Summerfield 334 

Miller, Robert Morrison, Jr 342 

MiLLis, James Henry 346 

MoFFiTT, Elvira Worth . . . 349 

Moore, Godwin Cotton 354 

Moore, John Wheeler 359 

Moore, John Wheeler, Jr 365 

Moore, Charles Augustus 369 

Moore, Frederick 376 

Moore, Roger 380 

Overman, Lee Slater 390 

Owen, John . 399 

Parrish, Edward James 403 

Payne, Robert Lee 409 

Penn, John 414 

Perry, Joseph William 425 

Ragan, George Washington 429 

Rogers, Sion Hart 435 

Sanderlin, George Washington 441 

Shearer, John Bunyan 445 

Shearer, Lizzie Gessner 456 

Shuford, Abel 'Alexander 462 

Shuford, George Archibald 467 

Simmons, Furnifold McLendell 475 

Spencer, Jesse Smitherman 490 

Stagg, James Edward 495 

Winston, Laura Annie 499 

WuLBERN, Mary Love Stringfield 504 

Cone, Moses Herman . Frontispiece 

Alspaugh, John Wesley . . facing i 

Argo, Thomas Monroe ........ " ii 

Ashe, William Shepperd " 30 

Ashe, Thomas Samuel . . . . . - ; . . " 37 

Baker, Joseph Henry " 49 

Baker, Julian Meredith . . ..*... " 54 

BuRGwiN, John . . . ... . , . ; " 58 

BuRGWYN, Harry King Jr. . . ... . . " 6y 

BuRGWYN, William Hyslop Sumner .... " 73 

Butler, Mai^ion " 81 

Carr, Elias " 91 

Clement, John Marshall " 98 

Clement, Louis Henry ........ " 102 

Clement, Hayden " 105 

Cone, Ceasar . " 117 

COTTEN, SaLLIE SoUTHALL ......; " 122 

Dixon; Hugh Woody ..." 149 

Eller, Adolphus Hill " 154 

Gaither, Ephraim Lash " 162 

Gordon, James Byron " 167 

Hale, Edward Jones . . . " 179 

Hale, Peter Mallett " 185 



Hale, Edward Joseph Jr 

Hicks, Thurston Titus . . . . 

Hill, John Sprunt 

HiNES, Lovit 

HiNTON, Mary Hilliard . . . . 
Hood, Robert Clarence . . . 
Horner, James Hunter . . . . 
Horner, Jerome Channing . 
Horner, Junius Moore . . . . 
Jackson, Herbert Worth . . 
Latham, James Edwin . . . . 

Long, Jacob 

Long, William Samuel . . . . 

Long, Jacob Alson 

Long, Benjamin Franklin . 
Lyon, Zachariah Inge . . . . 
Lyon, George Leonidas . . . . 
Merrimon, Augustus Summerfield 
Miller, Robert Morrison Jr. . 

MiLLis, James Henry 

MoFFiTT, Elvira Worth . . . . 
Moore, Godwin Cotton . . . . 
Moore, John Wheeler . . . . 
Moore, John Wheeler, Jr. . 
Moore, Charles Augustus . 

Moore, Frederick 

Moore, Roger 

Overman, Lee Slater 

Parrish, Edward James . . . . 

Payne, Robert Lee 

Perry, Joseph William . . . . 



Ragan, George Washington . 

Rogers, Sion Hart 

Sanderlin, George Washington 
Shearer, John Bunyan . 
Shearer, Lizzie Gessner . 
Shuford, Abel Alexander . 
Shuford, George Archibald . 
Simmons, Furnifold McLendell 
Spencer, Jesse Smitherman . 
Stagg, James Edward .... 
Winston, Laura Annie . 
Wulbern, Mary Love Stringfield 






Samuel A. Ashe, LL.D. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 
G. Samuel Bradshaw 
Eugene C. Branson, A.M. 
Eugene C. Brooks, A.B. 
William Hyslop Sumner 

Burgwyn, A.B. 
Walter Clark, LL.D. 
Plato Collins 
Henry G. Connor, LL. D. 
Robert D. W. Connor 
Locke Craig, LL.D. 
Stuart W. Cramer 
Eula L. Dixon 
Robert D. Douglas 
J. J. Farriss 
William Preston Few, Ph.D., 

O. Max Gardner 
Robert T. Gray 
Olivia B. Grimes 
Rev. D. L. Harden 

Marshall DeLancey Hay- 

Thurston Titus Hicks 

Thomas Hume, D.D.,LL.D. 

James Y. Joyner, LL.D. 

Theodore F. Kluttz 

James B. Lloyd 

A. W. McAlister 

Mrs. W. S. Manning 

Julius C. Martin 

Paul B. Means 

Iredell Meares 

Arch. D. Monteath 

Rev. E. C. Murray 

James A. Myrover 

Frank Nash 

John U. Newman, Ph.D., D.D. 

George P. Pell 

L. J. Picot, M.D. 

James A. Robinson 

Jethro Rumple, D.D. 

John B. Shearer, D.D.,LL.D. 

W. W. Staley, D.D. 

Charles W. Tillett 

Stephen B. Weeks, Ph.D.,LL.D. 

Mrs. Ellen Hale Wilson 

Peter M. Wilson 

William A. Withers, A.M. 

George T. Winston, LL.D. 

"■w ij,J'd-'^<^/''{^y^s ^£r^ .A/y 





,OHN WESLEY ALSPAUGH, formerly one of 
the leading business men of Winston, N. C, 
was born in Forsyth County, N. C, on July 22, 
1831. He was of German descent. His grand- 
father, Henry Alspaugh, came to North Caro- 
lina from Germany about the time of the Revo- 
lutionary War. He settled among the Moravians at Salem, and 
was a soldier in the War of 1812. 

Henry's son, the Rev. John Alspaugh, born in 1804, was ad- 
mitted to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church when 
about twenty years of age, and continued in the active service 
of that church until, upon attaining the age of seventy-six, he re- 
tired from his regular charge. He was a gifted and eloquent 
preacher and enjoyed the love and reverence of the people. His 
walk in life, no less than his Christian ministrations, aided much 
in strengthening the Methodist Church in Forsyth County, which 
was the field of his labor. When twenty-one years of age he 
married Elizabeth Lashmit, a daughter of Elias Lashmit, who 
had served during the Revolution as a soldier in the Continental 
Army, and was severely wounded at the battle of Guilford Court 
House. With such a lineage, an intrepid spirit naturally pervaded 
the household of John Alspaugh, and all were fervid Southerners 
in the great war. Two of his sons, James and Albert, gave their 
lives to the Confederate cause, Albert being killed in a charge at 


the head of his company in the battle of Gettysburg. The family 
was large, and although Mr. Alspaugh was a man of sound judg- 
ment and great energy and, in addition to his numerous labors, 
industriously cultivated the farm on which he lived, having ten 
children he was unable to give them more than a rudimentary 
education, there being no public schools at that early date in his 

The subject of this sketch, whose early life was passed in the 
country, where he did all the necessary work of a boy on a farm, 
grew up healthy and strong, and, while industrious, was fond of 
athletic games and sports, especially hunting and fishing. He had 
a bright, strong mind, and feeling the disadvantages of his want 
of education, to remedy his deficiency in that respect, after be- 
coming of age, entered Trinity College, graduating with distinc- 
tion at that institution in 1855, receiving the degree of A.B., and 
later also the degree of A.M. While there he profited greatly by 
the morning lectures of Dr. Craven, who had such a potent in- 
fluence on the lives of the young men enjoying the privilege of 
being taught by him. 

After leaving college, Mr. Alspaugh studied law in the office 
of Judge Dick at Greensboro. Having obtained his license in 
1857, he opened an office at Winston. But his need for ready 
money was pressing; and hardly had he entered on his practice 
before he was led to seek employment in the office of the Western 
Sentinel, a Democratic paper that had been established at Wins- 
ton. This occupation being agreeable to him and well suited to 
his active mind and intellectual gifts, he soon became the sole 
editor and proprietor of that periodical. He was admirably qual- 
ified for this literary work. Bold, yet conservative and just in 
the conduct of his paper, he soon attained distinction as an editor. 
The Sentinel under his management became a strong influence in 
that section of North Carolina. He continued the publication of 
the Sentinel during the war, ably maintaining the cause of the 
South and of the Confederacy. Prominent as an editor and much 
esteemed by the members of his party, he became chief clerk of 
the senate of North Carolina in 1858, and his personal charac- 


teristics, accuracy and courteous demeanor, established him in the 
confidence and respect of the public men. Notwithstanding po- 
litical changes made during the war, he was constantly re-elected, 
and he kept the legislative records of the senate until the State 
government was overthrown in 1865. Indeed, he was so highly 
esteemed, during" these important years as an editor and strong, 
careful writer, that he was before long offered employment as 
editor of the Charlotte Democrat, a leading paper in the State, bu^ 
he preferred to remain among the people of his town, and 
declined these offers. During the Reconstruction era the Sen- 
tinel was faithful to the interests and welfare of the people, 
but in 1872 Mr. Alspaugh retired from his post as editor and 
practised law until 1877, confining his practice exclusively 
to civil causes. His high character and well-known integrity 
brought him the very best class of clients, and his attention to 
business and faithfulness to the interests committed to his charge 
soon resulted in a lucrative practice. His reading had been largely 
the biographies of great men, and these had inspired him to con- 
ceive high ideals and to endeavor faithfully to carry them into 
execution. Interested in whatever concerned his community and 
was identified with its prosperity, he became known for his pub- 
lic spirit and was accorded in public estimation the position of a 
leading man in his community. As such, many of those who had 
amassed means in the general prosperity of his section, having 
confidence in his judgment and integrity, made their investments 
through him; and conceiving that the necessities of that section 
needed more financial facilities, he determined to withdraw from 
the practice of law and to establish a national bank at Winston. 
So, in 1876, he promoted the organization of the First National 
Bank and became its cashier, the capital stock being originally 
$100,000. He continued as cashier for sixteen years, managing 
the bank's affairs with success. Later he became its president. 
It was with pleasure that he availed himself of his opportunities 
to aid in the establishment of many of the manufacturing enter- 
prises which have enriched and developed the little village of 
Winston into a prosperous city. 


He was of great service especially to the young men of his 
community. He was always a leader in every enterprise that 
tended to the advancement or improvement of Winston, and was 
instrumental in securing the construction of all the railroads that 
now afford adequate transportation facilities for the growing 
traffic of that city. But he did not confine himself to aiding en- 
terprises which relate only to the material progress of the town. 
He was a liberal contributor to the erection of schoolhouses and 
churches in the community, and was one of the originators of the 
Winston graded school ; also of the city water-works and of the 
electric light system. Indeed, he devoted himself largely to in- 
augurating those progressive measures which have so marked the 
onward course of the city. A devoted Methodist, an alumnus of 
Trinity and greatly attached to his alma mater, he was always 
interested in the fortunes of that institution, and when the col- 
lege was in financial straits, and almost all others had abandoned 
it because of the indebtedness which it seemed impossible to re- 
move, he gave his energy and skill to the management of its dif- 
ficult affairs, and by liberal contributions helped tide over its em- 
barrassments. To him more than any other man is to be at- 
tributed the credit of maintaining the college in existence until 
it was reorganized and endowed through the liberality of the 
patriotic coterie of wealthy gentlemen residing at Durham, 
whither the college was removed. Mr. Alspaugh was a member 
of the class of 1855, ^^^ at the time of his death was the earliest 
living graduate. He became a trustee in 1869, and served con- 
tinuously until his death. He was president of the Board of 
Trustees from 1880 to 1897. One of the dormitories on the 
Trinity campus is called the Alspaugh Building, in honor of his 
name, and as a tribute to the notable service he rendered the in- 
stitution in its darkest hours. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Alspaugh's success in life, and he was 
unusually successful as an editor, as a lawyer and as a banker, he 
was never an aspirant for public position, nor did he seek politi- 
cal preferment. He did, however, serve as mayor of the town, 
and as commissioner, with the object of promoting its advance- 


ment. Always identified with the Democratic party, he took a 
great interest in political matters, especially as he considered that 
the welfare of the country depended on the supremacy of his 
party. He was a Mason, and had most of the degrees of that 
order, having occupied all the stations in his local lodge. His 
religious affiliations were with the Methodist Church, and he was 
a liberal contributor to all the good works of the denomination. 

His chief ambition, outside of leading such a life as would meet 
the approval of his own conscience and attract the esteem and 
confidence of those with whom he was associated, was to secure 
the establishment of Trinity College upon a firm basis and to build 
up and establish the city of Winston as the market for all of the 
western section of the State, of which it is the natural center. In 
these regards his career was eminently successful. 

Mr. Alspaugh died in Winston, N. C, November 4, 1912. He 
was twice married : first to Olivia G. Stedman, and again, in 
1872, to Celeste Tucker, daughter of Thomas Tucker of Iredell 
County,, and to them were born three children, two of whom 
survive: Celeste, now the wife of Mr, T. N. Page, and John 
Wesley Alspaugh, Jr. 

S. A. Ashe. 


lORTH CAROLINA has ever been democratic 
in the extreme. It is a place where aristocracy 
and special privilege have never flourished. As 
a result comparatively few "old families" have 
attained and held an unusual place through sev- 
%, eral generations. This has been true from the 
earliest colonial days and was due no doubt to the policy of the 
Proprietors of making few large grants of land and so encourag- 
ing the immigration of commoners who would take up small 
holdings and improve them by intensive cultivation. The result 
was that poor men came into the province, secured the controlling 
power, retained it, and have to a large extent thus prevented the 
growth of that landed aristocracy which so flourished in Virginia 
and South Carolina. 

Among the few families who have come down from the seven- 
teenth century none have played perhaps a more significant part 
in North Carolina than the Alstons. For two hundred years they 
have been inseparably connected with its history. 

The history of this family has been traced with great labor 
by Dr. Joseph A. Groves of Alabama from the time of their first 
coming to America to the present and through many and widely 
scattered branches in his book, "The Alstons and Allstons of 
North Carolina and South CaroHna" (Atlanta, Ga., 1901). Un- 
fortunately the book is not in the best genealogical form but is 


withal a work representing immense labor and it brings together 
a vast mass of scattered and otherwise inaccessible facts. 

According to this account the family of Alston is a very ancient 
one of Saxon origin, as its name indicates, for it means ''most 
noble" or "most excellent." Their seat was for many years at 
Saxham Hall, Newton, County Suffolk, and from this as a center 
they spread into other counties. From about 1564 the genealogy 
becomes clearer. William Alston, of Newton, County Suffolk, 
made a will February i, 1564, and was the father of Edward of 
Saxham Hall, Newton, who was the father of William of Saxham 
Hall ( 1 537-161 7), father of Thomas of Gedding Hall in Polstead, 
County Suffolk (i 564-1619), who was father of Thomas 
(d. 1678), who was knighted, and on June 13, 1642, created a 
baronet as Sir Thomas Alston of Odell in Bedfordshire. His 
brother, the fourth son of Thomas of Gedding Hall, was John 
Alston of the Inner Temple and of Parvenham, County Bedford 
(1610-87). This John Alston married Dorothy Temple, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Temple, who traced his line back through the Lady 
Godiva (of Coventry fame) to Alfred the Great. This John 
Alston had a son, Wilham Alston of Strixton, who married 
Thomasine Brooke and was believed by Dr. Groves to have been 
father of the John Alston, later Allston, who settled in South 
Carolina. The fourth child of John Alston (1610-87) was also 
named John (d. 1704). He married Anne Wallis, who is believed 
to have been the daughter of John Wallis (1616-1703), theolo- 
gian, scholar, mathematician, Savilian professor of geometry in 
the University of Oxford and one of the earliest members of the 
Royal Society. Their oldest son, John, was baptized at Felmer- 
sham, County Bedford, December 5, 1673, and is beHeved to be 
the same as the North Carolina immigrant. 

Dr. Groves believes that these two cousins, both named John, 
came to Carolina with Governor Archdale in 1694-95 ; that they 
disagreed and that the elder John moved on to South Carolina, 
where he added an extra "1" to his name and became the ancestor 
of all the Allstons of South Carolina, including Governor R. F. W. 
Allston, Colonel Joseph Alston, who married Theodosia Burr and 


was governor in 1812-14, Washington Allston and others. Such 
is Dr. Groves's account, but Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr., has recently 
proved beyond question that the John Alston who founded the 
South Carolina family was the son of William Alston of Ham- 
mersmith, Middlesex (a part of London) ; that he came to South 
Carolina as early as 1682 as an apprentice; that he spelled his 
name "Alston," and that his connection with the North Carolina 
family is unknown. 

Dr. Groves's conjecture as to the origin of the South CaroHna 
family then falls to the ground. His account of the Enghsh an- 
cestry of the John Alston who founded the North Carolina family 
as given above is presented here because his work is the standard 
authority on the subject and has not yet been proved erroneous. 
But the reader is cautioned that little is known with absolute cer- 
tainty of the history of this John Alston till he appears in the 
North Carolina public records. It is believed that during the 
early period of his residence in North Carolina he was closely 
connected with the Quakers, although there is no evidence that 
he was a member of the Society. He seems to have lived at first 
in Pasquotank and to have married there. The first mention we 
have of him in the public records is when he was given a grant 
of 270 acres of land on the northwest side of Bennett's Creek 
in 171 1. This was then Chowan, now Gates, and it is possible 
that his land was about where Gatesville now stands. In 171 3 
he began to enter lands in the names of his sons. In 1724 we 
find his son, Joseph John Alston, reporting that a tract of 
200 acres entered by his father and lying on Bennett's creek, on 
the north side of the bridge, had not been "saved as the law 
directs" and praying a lapse patent for the same, which was 
granted. In 1725 John Alston received a lapse patent for 450 
acres lying in Chowan precinct. In 1732 he reports for payment 
of quit rents 1,431 acres lying in Bertie and 688 acres in Chowan; 
in 1 741 he received a grant for 200 acres in Edgecombe. 

From Pasquotank he moved to Chowan, and here the greater 
part of his life was spent ; his earhest appearance in a public 
capacity seems to have been as a juror at a court held at the 


house of Henry King, April 20, 171 5. He was a grand juror of 
the oyer and terminer courts in 1721, 1722, 1724 and a juror 
again in 1740. In 1724 he was a justice of the peace for Chowan, 
and again in 1739. He became assistant or associate justice of 
the general court of oyer and terminer and goal delivery, the 
supreme court of the colony, on October 24, 1724, when the 
Council ordered "that a commission issue directed to Thomas 
Pollock, chief justice; Cullen Pollock, William Downing, of the 
South Shore of Chowan ; Isaac Hill, John Allston and Robert 
Lloyd, Esqs." He went upon the Bench three days later, and 
this position he continued to fill by reappointment from 1724 
to 1729. 

In December, 1746, he was sheriff of Chowan County. This 
was during the period when the older counties were struggling 
to retain their right to send five members each to the Assembly, 
and Alston as sheriff" required the people of the county to give 
security to indemnify him against any damages that might occur 
to him for returning five members. 

He was called captain until 1725; then major till 1729, and 
later colonel. In 1725 he was appointed revenue collector of the 
King. On April 3, 1738, he was elected a vestryman of St. 
Paul's Parish, Chowan, and served till 1747 or later. His will 
is dated February 20, 1755, and was probated December 2, 1758. 
The will mentions twenty-five negroes by name, but the amount 
of his lands is not given ; his yotingest son, James Alston, was 
made his sole executor. 

The w^ife of John Alston was Mary Clark. If not a Quaker 
herself, she had Quaker associates and connections. They had 
five sons and five daughters : 

I. Joseph John Alston (1702-80), who lived in Halifax, a 
justice of the peace, a member of the Assembly in 1744-46, and 
a planter who left an estate of 100,000 acres and 150 negroes. 
He was twice married and left a large family. One of his sons 
was that Colonel Philip Alston who lived in Moore and Chatham 
counties and had lively experience during the war of the Revo- 
lution with David Fanning, the Tory; a grandson was Willis 


Alston, member of Congress 1803-15, 1825-31 and chairman of 
the Ways and Means Committee in 1812. 

2. Solomon Alston, of Warren, died 1785, married Ann Hinton. 
A part of this family removed to Mississippi before the close 
of the Revolution ; others went to South Carolina and Alabama ; 
a grandson of Solomon, Lemuel J. Alston, was in Congress from 
South Carolina, 1807-11. 

3. William Alston, of Halifax, married Ann Kimbrough. 

4. Philip Alston married Winifred Whitmel, of Bertie. 

5. James Alston, of Craven, later settled on Ellerbee's Creek 
in Orange, married Christian Lillington. His youngest daughter 
married William Cain and became the ancestress of the Cains 
of Orange and Durham. 

Mary Alston married Samuel Williams. 

Sarah Alston married Thomas Kearney. 

Charity Alston married John Dawson. 

The other daughters married, but died without issue. 

The family now has many representatives in Halifax, Warren, 
Wake, Durham, Orange and other counties, and has broadened 
out , and covered the South, with many representatives in the 
North and West. It has had marked characteristics. In personal 
appearance they have been tall, erect, muscular, with florid com- 
plexion, blue eyes and brown or flaxen hair. They have been 
wealthy, but not mere sordid money-getters and have not often 
sought public honors. They have tended rather to reproduce 
their English life as wealthy country gentlemen. They have been 
strong in their attachments, unyielding in their antagonisms, and 
more than one member of the family has ''died with his boots 
on"; but they have been ever ready to aid a friend, defend the 
innocent, befriend the weak or fight against injustice, wrong and 

Stephen B. Weeks. 



CT^'^^iJ^ PinA.A^^ 

c5'->v. G^ 


[HOMAS MONROE ARGO, eldest of seven 
children, and son of William Hammond Argo 
and Julia Cain, was born at McMinnville, 
Tenn., on April 30, 1844. His family was 
originally from North Carolina, and his father 
was of French Huguenot extraction. The sub- 
ject of this sketch received his early education in the schools of 
McMinnville, Tenn., and entered the University of North Caro- 
lina in i860, and was graduated in the class of 1863 as first honor 
man. Immediately upon graduation from the University, he 
entered the Confederate army, enhsting in the First North Caro- 
lina Heavy Artillery, and was commissioned second lieutenant of 
Company 10 by Governor Vance. Among others, he took part 
in the campaign for the defense of Fort Fisher, where he was 
sHghtly wounded and captured. He was confined a prisoner of 
war at Governor's Island, N. Y., until the latter part of March, 
1865, and though paroled, was not exchanged until the close of 
hostilities. He returned to Chapel Hill, and began the study of 
law in 1865 and 1866, under the Hon. WiUiam H. Battle, a for- 
mer judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, and then 
professor of law in the University. He received the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to the Bar in 1867. He 
began the active practice of his profession at Chapel Hill. In 


1868 he was elected a member of the Legislature from Orange 
County, and served during the sessions of 1869. This Legis- 
lature was noteworthy as the first under the new constitution, 
and the one which passed the constitutional amendment. 

In speaking of this Legislature, and the part taken in it by Mr. 
Argo, Mr. M. DeLancey Haywood, who has consulted the orig- 
inal records of the various sessions, remarks: *'Mr. Argo bore 
a very creditable part in its proceedings, always voting with the 
Conservatives." Mr. Haywood further adds more specifically: 

"The General Assembly of North Carolina met on July i, 1868, when the 
most widespread chaos of the Reconstruction period reigned in the State, 
and Mr. Argo appeared in that body as a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives from Orange County. Throughout the whole of this session he 
was in active affiliation with the Conservative party (as it was then called), 
which was opposed by the dominant Republicans of that day. The first con- 
test of this session was for the office of speaker of the house, between 
Plato Durham, Conservative, and Joseph W. Holden, Republican. Mr. 
Argo voted for Mr. Durham, but the Republican candidate was victorious. 
Of the resolution requesting Congress to remove the disabilities of all 
persons who had sided with the late Confederacy he was an active sup- 
porter. He opposed the proposition for unlimited suffrage. Upon the 
occasion of the ejectment of a reporter of Josiah Turner's paper, the 
Sentinel, from the floor of the house by order of the speaker, Mr. Argo 
joined in 'a solemn protest against this tyrannical infringement, by 
the dominant party, on the liberties of the press, thus preventing the 
people of the country from obtaining true information of what is done 
in the General Assembl3^' On demand of its signers, this protest was 
spread on the journal of the house. In the contest for the United 
States Senate, for the term ending in 1873, between John Pool, Republi- 
can, and ex-Governor William A. Graham, Conservative, Mr. Argo voted 
for Graham, though Pool was elected; and, in the senatorial contest for 
the term ending in 1871, Mr. Argo voted with the minority for ex-Judge 
Matthias E. Manly, Conservative, against Joseph C. Abbott, Republican, 
When a resolution was introduced in the house empowering the governor 
to request General Grant to send two regiments of United States troops 
to North Carolina 'as a present safeguard to the peace of the State.' 
Mr. Argo voted to table the resolution. He was one of the leaders of 
the opposition to the bill authorizing the raising by the governor of a 
'Special Militia,' and fought this measure at every stage, Alore than once 
in the progress of this contest, when his party was outvoted, he changed 
his vote in order to be able, under parliamentary rules, to move a recon- 


sideration. Despite the opposition of Mr. Argo and other Conservatives, 
this bill was enacted into a law, and the State troops raised under its 
provisions became the infamous 'Kirk's Militia' of Reconstruction times." 

Mr. Argo was also a prorainent character in the fight to drive 
the carpetbaggers from the State. In 1872 he removed to Raleigh 
and engaged in the practice of law in the capital city. This 
change of residence took place after the death of his first wife, 
whom he had married in 1864. She was Mattie Henshaw Hub- 
bard, daughter of the Rev. Fordyce Mitchell Hubbard, D.D., and 
Margaret Henshaw Bates. Dr. Hubbard was for many years 
professor of the Latin language and literature in the University 
of North CaroHna, and it was during his college days that Mr. 
Argo first met Miss Hubbard. 

In 1876, Mr. Argo married again, his second wife being the 
daughter of the Hon. Henry W. Miller and Frances Devereux 
Miller, and widow of Captain George D. Baker. Quietly prac- 
tising his chosen profession during these comparatively unevent- 
ful years, there is little to record of interest in the life of Mr. 
Argo. However, in 1884, he was prominent in the formation of 
the State Bar Association, and served as secretary of the organi- 
zation for some time. 

In 1886, he was elected solicitor of the fourth judicial district, 
known as the metropolitan district of the State, and filled the 
office vmtil 1891. Running as an independent candidate against 
the regular Democratic nominee, he was nevertheless elected by 
a substantial majority. His fulfillment of the duties of his of- 
fice was praiseworthy. 

During his term he handled many important cases, notably that 
of Cross and White, the officials of the State National Bank of 
Raleigh, who, having wrecked the institution, fled to Canada. 
In connection with this case, he engaged in a controversy with 
the late Hon. Fabius H. Busbee, as to the legality of an agree- 
ment which the latter, acting as the representative of the gov- 
ernor of the State, had entered into with Cross and White, in 
regard to the offenses for which they were to be tried upon their 
return to North Carolina. The position taken by Mr. Argo was 


approved by many of the papers of the State, notably the Char- 
lotte Chronicle and the Goldshoro Daily Argus. The letters 
written in this controversy signally illustrated Mr. Argo's ability 
to single out the fundamental legal issue involved in a question, 
and to set it forth by a calm, judicial exposition of the law. 

For many years he was connected with much of the impor- 
tant litigation in the courts of Wake and the adjacent counties, 
and frequently as leading counsel. He also practised in many 
other counties of the State. Notable among his cases were Sam- 
uel Coley vs. Southern Railway, the Winston registration cases, 
the Haywood case, and that of Gattis vs. Kilgo. 

Mr. Argo served as a member of the board of directors and 
on the executive committee of the Insane Asylum. He was also 
a member of the Masonic fraternity. While not engaging act- 
ively in pohtical life, preferring the more quiet life of a studious 
lawyer, Mr. Argo had decided political convictions and was for 
many years a conservative Republican in national politics. In 
State and local issues he was an independent. His political af- 
filiation, as may be imagined, circumscribed his career to some 
extent, at least, in a community so largely Democratic, and char- 
acterized in former years more conspicuously than in the present 
by political intolerance. 

Having lost his second wife by death in 1886, Mr. Argo was 
married again in 1893, his third wife being Miss Ernestine 
Spears, daughter of LeRoy D. Spears and Arrenda Clifton 

In 1897, Mr. Argo was highly recommended to President 
McKinley for appointment to the Federal judgeship of the East- 
ern District of North Carolina, made vacant by the death of 
Judge A. S. Seymour. The list of persons supporting his candi- 
dacy is noteworthy, because it shows that the movement em- 
braced Democratic as well as Republican lawyers, among whom 
Mr. Argo was held in high esteem. 

It had been Mr. Argo's ambition for many years to excel sim- 
ply as a lawyer and an advocate, and to this end he became a 
profound student of the law, not only in its technical aspects. 




but in its philosophical bearings, seeking to master fundamental 
principles rather than specific applications; and also a close and 
appreciative student of the great masters of forensic eloquence, 
notably of Cicero, in whom he found a loved model and guide. 
That he had succeeded measurably in attaining his ambition the 
estimate of his confreres attest. 

In 1900, Mr. Argo departed from his usual custom of non- 
activity in poHtical matters, and both spoke and wrote in favor 
of the proposed constitutional amendment, which was intended 
to emancipate the State from the bondage of an ignorant and 
vicious electorate. His article, appearing in the Raleigh Morn- 
ing Post of July 24, and setting forth his views as to the neces- 
sity, constitutionality, and effect of such an amendment, fur- 
nished an example of his usual clear thinking and forceful pres- 
entation of fact and argument. 

If one considers more intimate traits and characteristics, cer- 
tain salient features of Mr. Argo's personality at once impress 
us. He was a markedly domestic man in his tastes, loving his 
hom,e above all places, and happier there with his family, his 
dogs, his books and his pipe, than anywhere else ; not averse to 
social life, indeed, but caring little for it, and infinitely bored 
by the frivolity of "society" so called. His intellectual tastes 
were refined and cultivated. He was, for instance, a great 
reader of the Bible, noting and emphasizing always the spirit 
of the law, and indifferent to its mere letter. His knowledge of 
the sacred book was patent both from his conversation and from 
his effective use of it in many speeches and addresses. He was 
also exceedingly fond of Shakespeare, while the very human 
touch of Robert Burns appealed to him strongly. He was ex- 
ceptionally kind-hearted, especially toward the poor and the un- 
fortunate, and toward animals. He was an ardent lover of 
nature, of the woods and fields, and a student of birds and 
flowers. While fond of hunting, he was a discriminating sports- 
man, and the Audubon Association found him an interested mem- 
ber. A conspicuous feature of his character was his intense dis- 
like of the false and pretentious, while notably considerate toward 


the lowly. He had a large number of genuine friends among 
colored people. It can be truthfully said that Mr. Argo was a 
forceful and able man, and the possessor of an estimable, attrac- 
tive, and in many respects noble personality. 

During 1908, it became apparent to Mr. Argo's friends that 
his health was failing, and he died on January 14, 1909. 

The Nezvs and Observer, in an editorial on January 15, said 
of Mr. Argo : 

"Mr. Thomas M. Argo. of the Raleigh Bar, who died yesterday, was 
easil3^ one of the most effective men before a jury this generation has 
known. He was built on the Websterian plan. He was brilliant and 
original to a degree that made him easily the foremost man as an advo- 
cate at the Raleigh Bar. He had the largest natural gifts, and in a 
great city would have shone w^ith men like Bourke Cockran and John R. 
Fellows. He had the bearing, the mien, the voice of a masterful orator. 
His diction was of the books and classic, with the range to address him- 
self to convincing the ignorant as well as the learned. He charmed men 
by an indescribable sort of power in his arguments to a jury, and won 
many verdicts by his ability at summing up and his mastery of logical 
statement, as well as the eloquence of his appeal. 

"Colonel Argo died in full practice, as the leader of the advocates 
at the Bar. For years he had been counsel in nearly every criminal 
case, and had a large civil practice. The story of important litigation in 
Wake superior court in jury cases is largely a story of Mr. Argo's 
practice. He loved an oratorical and intellectual contest. Flis home 
was in the court room in a hard-fought case, and there he Avas like a 
lion. He gave and received hard blows, and gloried in the conflicts. He 
loved his profession, in which he was a leader, and he loved his brethren, 
by whom he was highly esteemed. A bright light has gone out. A man 
of brilliant mind and many virtues and noble qualities. Colonel Argo 
will be remembered with the most eloquent men who have for a century 
given the Raleigh Bar a high place in the State." 

^. A. Ashe. 


AMUEL ASHE, judge and governor, was the 
younger brother of General John Ashe, who as 
speaker of the Assembly was the leader in the 
Stamp Act troubles of 1765-66. He was born 
in 1725, while his father, John Baptista Ashe, 
represented Beaufort Precinct in the Assembly, 
of which he was the speaker, and at the same time was receiver 
of the powder money at Bath. About that time his father re- 
moved with his family connections and settled on the Cape Fear. 
Early bereft of his parents, for his father died in 1734 and 
his mother still earlier, the subject of this sketch was reared by 
his uncle and guardian, Sam Swann, who had succeeded to the 
mantle of his uncle, Edward Moseley, as the head of the Popular 
party, and for a cjuarter of a century as speaker of the Assembly 
was the most trusted representative of the people. 

Old Governor Dobbs represented to the Crown that Republican 
principles were more rife in North Carolina than in any other 
colony, and the headquarters of the leaders holding those prin- 
ciples were at Rocky Point among the members of this connec- 
tion. It was in such an atmosphere that Sam Ashe grew to 
manhood, in the midst of kinsmen who had steadily year by 
year opposed the prerogatives of the Crown and maintained the 
liberties of the people. His elder brother, gifted with marvelous 
oratory and inheriting an ample fortune, had chosen a public 

North CaroHna State Library 


career, so the younger brother, after finishing his education 
at the North, studied law, and before the Revolution became 
assistant attorney for the Crown in the Wilmington district. He 
was a man of large frame, strong physically as well as intellec- 
tually ; he was self-reliant, independent in his views and sturdy in 
maintaining them and he became eminent in public consideration. 
When the royal Governor Martin was a fugitive and his powers 
had been invested by the revolutionists in the Council of Safety 
of thirteen members, he, in reporting the matter to the King, 
wrote disparagingly of all the others, but said that Mr. Samuel 
Ashe and Mr. Samuel Johnston had the reputation of being men 
of integrity. In a communication to the Legislature in 1779, 
when he was presiding judge of the Supreme Court, Judge Ashe 
mentioned incidentally : 

"In the earliest period of our dispute with Great Britain I arose among 
the first in defense of our common rights. No lucrative expectations 
nor hope of exalted honor under our present government could then 
have influenced me, nor did any particular resentment at, or disappoint- 
ment from, the former government actuate me. On the contrary, I had 
well-grounded expectations of holding under it an office similar to my 
present, had that government continued and courts been established." 

He added that 

"the feelings of a free man, for himself and for his country, ready to be 
enslaved, warmed me into resentment, impelled me into resistance, and 
determined me to forego my expectations and to risk all things rather 
than submit to the detested tyranny." 

Thus in a spirit of lofty patriotism "he arose among the first" 
and broke ground in favor of popular resistance. 

In the summer of 1774 the revolutionists wished the Legisla- 
ture to meet, but the governor would not convene that body. 
In that exigency some of the inhabitants of the Cape Fear met 
at Wilmington, July 21, and appointed a committee of eight, 
Sam Ashe being one of them, to prepare an address to the people, 
calling on each county to elect delegates to meet at Johnston 
Court House on August 20. This was the origin of the first 
Revolutionary convention held in North Carolina. In the sue- 


ceeding January the inhabitants of New Hanover organized a 
Committee of Safety, and Sam Ashe was chosen one of the 
members. He was now the soul of activity, not only at home but 
in other counties, explaining to the people the grounds of the 
movement, allaying apprehensions, strengthening the wavering, 
persuading the doubtful and urging on the Revolution to a suc- 
cessful issue. He was indeed a leading force in putting the ball 
in motion. Becoming a member of the Provincial Congress in 
1775, he was a chief factor in its business. He was on all impor- 
tant committees and largely directed its work. One of the Coun- 
cil of Safety of thirteen, in 1776 he became its president. While 
his brother was in command of the military forces of the State, 
hedging in the British on the lower Cape Fear, he as president 
of the Council was giving direction to State affairs and, at the 
meeting of the Council at Wake Court House, in August, 1776, 
he organized the expedition, under General Rutherford, against 
the Indians across the mountains. In the congresses he took a 
leading part, being the most esteemed member of the legal pro- 
fession in full accord with the democratic element. Thus he was 
designated as one of "the commissioners to prepare bills con- 
sistent with the genius of a free people to be laid before the next 

At the Halifax congress, on November 13, 1776, a committee 
of twenty-four of the most prominent members was appointed 
to frame a constitution. He was a member of that committee. 
For a month the committee sat preparing the instrument, and on 
the completion of their work reported the constitution to the 
congress. In the case of Bayard against Singleton, May, 1785, 
Judge Ashe observed : 

"At the time of separation from Great Britain we were thrown into a 
similar situation, with people shipwrecked and cast on a marooned island, 
without laws, without magistrates, without government, or any legal 
authority. That being thus circumstanced the people formed that system 
or those fundamental principles composed in the constitution dividing 
the powers of the government into separate and distinct branches, assign- 
ing to each several and distinct powers, and prescribing the several 
limits and boundaries." 


And in a letter to the General Assembly in 1786 he said : 

"If my opinion of our constitution is an error, I fear it is an incurable 
one, for I had the honor to assist in the forming it, and confess I so 
designed it, and I believe every other gentleman concerned did also." 

Immediately following the adoption of the Constitution, Gov- 
ernor Caswell appointed Ashe a judge to hold a term of court, 
the first court held under the authority of the State. 

At the first session of the Legislature under the new Constitu- 
tion Ashe was elected speaker of the senate, and by that Legis- 
lature was chosen presiding judge of the Supreme Court of the 
State and served as such until 1795, when he was elected gov- 
ernor. The judges, Ashe, Spencer and Williams, were lawyers 
of experience and strong men intellectually. They made some 
notable decisions, one in particular being that of Bayard vs. 
Singleton, in which the court held an act of Assembly void, that 
being the first decision of the kind ever rendered either in Eng- 
land or America. Judge Haywood in Moore z's, Bradley (2d 
Haywood's Reports), referring to this decision, said: 

"One of the judges illustrated his opinion in this manner : 'As God said 
to the waters, so far shall ye go and no further ; so said the people to the 
Legislature.' Judge Ashe deserves for this the veneration of his country 
and of posterity." 

Another case also was worthy of remark. In 1792 an order 
had been made by a United States judge to remove a case by 
certiorari to the Federal court. The state court refused to obey 
the order and the Legislature thanked the judges for their con- 
duct in disobeying the writ of the Federal court. (McRee's ''Life 
of Iredell," ii, 303, 337.) 

The judges at least were independent, self-sufficient and reso- 
lute in administering what they believed to be the law. 

While Judge Ashe was on the Bench, questions growing out 
of the war gave rise to much animosity between some of the Bar 
and the court. The Legislature had not agreed to those pro- 
visions of the treaty of peace which required the restoration to 
the Tories of their property which had been confiscated. The 


lawyers were favorable to the Tories, from whom they expected 
considerable fees, but the members of the court were not in sym- 
pathy with the Bar. This and an air of superiority which Mac- 
laine and some of the other lawyers assumed led to a violent 
clashing. The lawyers now attempted to write Ashe off the 
Bench, but says AIcRee, *'the tradition in the profession is that 
he got the better of his adversaries. Some very competent judges 
who had seen his controversial efforts have expressed to me 
great admiration of their vigor and sarcasm." (''Life of Iredell," 
ii, 96.) 

The lawyers then sought to alter the court law, and by that 
means to change the personnel of the Bench ; but in this they 
likewise failed. The controversy nevertheless continued with 
more or less rancor, one of the chief actors being Mr. Hay, and 
the subject of contention being for the most part the treatment 
of the Tories, and personalities between the Bar and the court. 
In August, 1786, Hay was elected to the Assem.bly, and at the 
November session oft'ered resolutions charging the judges with 
misconduct, among the cliarges being negligence of their duty, 
delay of business, ill-behavior to Mr. Llay and their treatment. 
of the Tories. (McRee, "Life of Iredell," ii, 154; S. R., xviii, 
423.) The judges being notified to attend the Assembly, Wil- 
liams and Spencer did so, but Ashe instead wrote a letter to that 
body, in the course of which he admitted that ''though the delay 
in the trial of causes has arisen from the Bar, the Bench are 
blamable." He examined the various matters with judicial calm- 
ness until he came to the charge of oppressing the Tories, when 
he gave vent to temper and blazed out against Hay in the ver- 
nacular. The Assembly not only sustained the judges but passed 
a resolution thanking them for their good conduct in office and 
especially in the matters of which they were charged. The Bar 
violently opposed this resolution, but the Assembly stood stead- 
fastly by the judges. Speaking of this effort of Hay's to impeach 
the judges, Hooper wrote that it "was conceived in spleen and 
conducted with such headstrong passion that the evidence was 
wanting to support it." Later the Bar, taking exception to what 


Judge Ashe had said about their being the cause of delay in the 
trial of cases, published a reply, to which Ashe made answer with 
vigor and warmth, in which he said to the Bar that he was "in- 
dependent in principle, in person, and in purse^ and should neither 
court their love nor fear their enmity." (McRee's "Life of 
Iredell," ii, 6oi.) 

In 1795, at the age of seventy, he was elected governor, which 
position he filled for three terms, covering a very interesting 
period of our State's history. 

It was while he was governor that the land frauds in Tennessee 
were brought to light, involving Glasgow, the secretary of state. 
Governor Ashe, in calling the council of state together, an- 
nounced "An angel has fallen," and then acted with his usual 
energy. An attempt was made to burn the state house to destroy 
incriminating evidence, but it was discovered in time. A great 
trial followed, memorable in the annals of the State. 

In his youth Ashe had been trained to advocate popular rights, 
and he early became a Republican ; and later he stood for state's 
rights and for the rejection of the Federal Constitution; and he 
was an earnest adherent of Jefiferson's policies. But when war 
with France was imminent his action was determined by his 
patriotism. He appointed Davie, a strong Federalist, to com- 
mand the state forces and sought to unite the people in support 
of the government. Sam Johnston, writing from Raleigh in No- 
vember, 1798, says: "I was very much surprised to find even 
Governor Ashe so perfectly anti-Gallican ;" and he says further : 
"All the members with whom I have conversed are wonderfully 
Federal — I say wonderful because I never conceived it possible 
that there could be so universal a conversion in so short a space 
of time." That the governor led his friends to the support of 
the government, and contributed to effect this change of senti- 
ment, is evident. But when the occasion had passed, and the ship 
of state was again in placid waters, he resumed his attitude of 
political hostility to the Adams administration. He threw himself 
into the campaign of 1800 with great vigor and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing Democracy triumph over Federalism. In 1804 he 


was a member of the electoral college and was chosen to preside, 
but declined that honor. 

He was president of the board of trustees of the University 
and he and his friends liberally subscribed for the support of the 
institution. He was also a trustee of the Innes Academy, and 
was one of those appointed to construct the church at Wilming- 
ton in colonial days. While he was still living his fellow-citizens 
manifested their appreciation of his character and services by 
naming for him the town of Asheville and also the county that 
bears his name. 

Governor Ashe married early in life his cousin, Mary Porter, 
by whom he had three sons: John Baptista Ashe, Samuel Ashe 
and Cincinnatus Ashe. On the death of his wife he married Mrs. 
EHzabeth Merrick, also a kinswoman, by whom he had a son, 
Thomas, the ancestor of Judge Thomas S. Ashe. 

On retiring from the executive office, Governor Ashe resided 
in the winter on his Rocky Point plantation and in the summer 
at Hawfields. He died at Rocky Point in 181 3, at the age of 
eighty-eight years. As the sons of General Ashe left no children, 
all who bear the name are descendants of Governor Ashe. 

Of his first son, Lieutenant-Colonel John Baptista Ashe, a 
sketch appears elsewhere. 

The second son of Governor Ashe, Samuel Ashe, Jr., when 
just sixteen entered the Continental service as a private, was 
promoted as ensign at Charleston, was surrendered with the other 
North Carolinians by General Lincoln, was subjected to a pain- 
ful confinement as prisoner of war, was exchanged and delivered 
on the James, served under General Lafayette and then under 
General Greene as lieutenant in one of the regiments of North 
Carolina Continentals until the army was disbanded. 

After the war, when parties came to divide, he adhered to Gen- 
eral Washington and the Federal party, thus differing with his 
father and with Major Sam Ashe, the son of General John 
Ashe, who was the local leader of the Republican party in New 
Hanover County. However, on one or two occasions Lieutenant 
Sam Ashe represented New Hanover in the Assembly, but only 


once did he make a great political effort. In opposition to Jeft'er- 
son, of whose cause his father was the chief champion in the 
Cape Fear section, he organized the Federal forces and made a 
campaign that was memorable in the annals of that district. It 
was one of the notable contests of the State. 

Notwithstanding his Federalism, when troubles with England 
became acute he voted for Madison, who in the War of 1812 
appointed him to a colonelcy, and he became known as Colonel 
Ashe. Like his father, he resided at Rocky Point. He married 
in 1807, at the age of forty-three, Elizabeth, a daughter of 
Colonel William Shepperd, thus becoming the brother-in-law of 
William Barry Grove, of David Hay, of Sam Porter Ashe and of 
Dr. John Rogers the famous educator. 

He had among other children John Baptista Ashe, a repre- 
sentative in Congress from Tennessee in 1843, who later moved 
to Texas, where his children now live at Houston ; William S. 
Ashe ; Thomas Henry Ashe ; and Dr. Richard Porter Ashe, who 
after serving in the Mexican war, located in San Francisco, mar- 
ried Caroline Loyall, whose sister was the wife of Admiral Far- 
ragut. Dr. Ashe's children reside in California, except a daugh- 
ter, Mille, who, having married Flarold M. Sewall, resides at 
Bath, Me. Colonel Ashe late in life removed to Fayetteville, 
where he died on November 3, 1835. It was of him that Mr. 
George Davis spoke in his Chapel Hill oration : 

"It was not my good fortune to know but one of these distinguished 
men. In my early youth I remember an old man, bowed by age and 
infirmities, but of a noble front and most commanding presence. Old and 
young gathered around him in love and veneration to listen to his stories 
of the olden time. And as he spoke of his country's trials and of the 
deeds and sufferings of her sons, his eye flashed with the ardor of youth 
and his voice rang like the battle charge of a bugle. He was the soul 
of truth and honor, with the ripe wisdom of a man and the guileless 
simplicity of a child. He won strangers to him with a look, and those 
who knew him loved him with a most filial affection. None ever lived 
more honored and revered ; none ever died leaving a purer or more 
cherished memory. This was Colonel Samuel Ashe, The last of all the 
Romans !' " 



The third son of Governor Ashe, Cincinnatus, was appointed 
an ensign to serve with General Greene in South Carohna but, 
perhaps because of the return at that moment of many Conti- 
nental officers from captivity, he was not needed, and he became 
a captain of marines and sailed on a privateer toward the close 
of 1 781, along with his cousin, William Ashe, a son of General 
John Ashe, and was lost at sea, the vessel never having been 
heard of after saiHng. 

5. A. Ashe. 


I HERE have been a few families in North Caro- 
Hna which, by reason of inherent abihty, have 
jW produced in each generation some member who 
has risen above the level of his times and con- 
tinued unimpaired the best traditions of his an- 
'^^^^^ cestors. In this respect no family in North 
Carolina has a more marked record than that of Ashe. John 
Baptista Ashe (2d), who died while governor-elect, represented 
the third generation in North Carolina. His grandfather was 
John Baptista Ashe (ist), of whom a sketch has been printed in 
volume 4; his father was Governor Samuel Ashe, whose sketch 
appears in this volume. He was born in 1748, at Rocky Point, 
in the Cape Fear section, and grew to manhood there. 

His first appearance in public life was at the time of the Regu- 
lation troubles. He was a lieutenant in the New Hanover de- 
tachment, and when he and John Walker went out after night to 
leconnoiter they fell into the hands of the Regulators, were 
stripped, tied to trees and severely whipped with hickory switches. 
Negotiations were entered into for the surrender of these two 
men for the seven prisoners made by the government forces, but 
the Regulators were slow, and the fiery Tryon, fearing that he 
might lose the glory as well as the joy of battle, cut short the 
negotiations and undertook to settle matters with the sword. 


After the battle Ashe and Walker were found in a garret, where 
in the hurry of action they had been left to shift for themselves. 

Lieutenant Ashe was with General Alexander Lillington at the 
battle of Moore's Creek, on February 2y, 1776, and was appointed 
captain in the Sixth Regiment of North Carolina Troops on 
April 16, 1776. He was promoted January 26, 1777. On January 
I, 1778, when the North Carolina Continentals were at Valley 
Forge, he was transferred to the First Regiment in place of 
Major James Emmet, and in November became lieutenant- 
colonel. In February, 1781, under the temporary arrangement 
of the officers of the North Carolina Line, he was assigned to 
the command of a regiment. In the spring of 1781 he was with 
Sumner in western North Carohna, and in July was ordered 
by him to lead a detachment of about 300 men to reinforce 
Greene, who was then in South Carolina. Upon his arrival 
there he took over the command of all of the North Carolina 
Continental Line then with Greene and incorporated them into the 
First Regiment. At Eutaw Springs he commanded a regiment 
of about 400 men, some of whom had been condemned to the 
regular service for running away from the battlefield of Guilford 
Court House. At Eutaw, as at Augusta, these same men behaved 
admirably and almost annihilated a British regiment. Ashe 
resigned soon after the battle of Eutaw, and thus ended his mili- 
tary career. 

We next hear of him as a member of the house of commons 
in 1784, 1785 and 1786, when he represented Hahfax County. 
He was chosen speaker of the house November 20, 1786. Since 
he was proposed for this honor by Davie, we may assume that he 
was more conservative than his brother-in-law, Willie Jones, and 
his objection to the confiscation act is another proof of the same. 
At the second convention to consider the constitution of the 
United States, held at Fayetteville, in November, 1789, he repre- 
sented Hahfax County, Willie Jones not being a member; and 
as chairman of the committee of the whole presided over the 
deliberations of that body, and favored the adoption of the con- 
stitution. In 1789 also he was in the senate from Halifax 


County; was made speaker of the senate pro tem ; was chairman 
of the finance committee and protested against the bill which 
proposed to pay the state certificates of indebtedness at about 
one-fifth of their face value, claiming that it was unconstitu- 
tional, a violation of the public faith and "as impolitic as it is 
unjust." This Assembly elected him a colonel of artillery. 

He was nominated as a delegate to the Continental Congress 
in December, 1785, but failed of election; on December 15, 1786^ 
he was chosen, along with James White, Alexander Martin^ 
Timothy Bloodworth, Benjamin Hawkins and Thomas Polk, to 
represent the State in that body and was in attendance in New 
York in April, 1787, and was present as late as August 16, 1787,. 
perhaps later. On the admission of North Carolina to the Fed- 
eral Union he was chosen a member of the Federal house of 
representatives from the Halifax District, and was again chosen 
for the second Congress, serving 1790-93. Even then the sec- 
tional spirit was discernible in Congress, and Colonel Ashe was 
true to his section. In 1795, when his father w^as a candidate 
for governor, Davie gave way, and he represented the town of 
Halifax in the house. 

On November 20, 1802, he was chosen governor by the Legis- 
lature, but when the legislative committee attended at his resi- 
dence in Halifax to notify him, they found him ill, and he died 
on November 2^ of that year, thus passing away before attain- 
ing the highest dignity in the State. His death was formally 
announced in the senate on November 29, and James Turner 
of Warren moved "that in honor to the memory of the de- 
ceased, and as a token of the respect and consideration for his 
patriotism and many exalted virtues, the Legislature will go in 
mourning for thirty days," etc. This resolution was concurred 
in by the house, and Turner was chosen to fill his place in the 
gubernatorial chair.. The town of Asheboro, Randolph County,, 
was named in his honor. 

Colonel Ash^ married early in life. Miss Eliza Montfort, 
daughter of Cglonel Joseph Montfort of Halifax. It was she 
who made the celebrated retort to Colonel Tarleton, then an 


unwelcome guest in the house of her sister, Mrs. WiUie Jones. 
Tarleton had been wounded on his hand by Colonel William 
Washington at the battle of Cowpens. He was now remarking 
on the illiteracy of Washington, saying he understood that he 
could hardly write his name. Mrs. Ashe replied, with a glance 
at Tarleton's hand which bore the scar, **but you will at least 
agree that Colonel Washington can at any rate make his mark." 
Colonel Ashe had only one child, a son, Samuel Porter Ashe, 
who married Mary, daughter of Colonel William Shepperd. He 
resided in Fayetteville and represented Cumberland County in 
the Assembly in 1823- 1825. At the session in December, 
1824, he introduced a bill to establish public schools in the dif- 
ferent counties for the education of poor children at the expense 
of the State, — one of the several efforts of similar scope out 
of which grew later the public school system. After this date 
he removed to Tennessee and died in Brownsville, leaving three 
children, whose descendants still live in that section. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


HE third son of Colonel Samuel Ashe was 
William Shepperd Ashe, born at Rocky Point, 
September 14, 1814. His mother was EHzabeth 
Shepperd, a daughter of Colonel William Shep- 
perd ot Hawfields, who had been a zealous offi- 
cer during the Revolution, a man of great 
energy and patriotism, serving in the provincial congresses and 
Legislature, and discharging many important duties for his com- 
munity and State. Mr. Ashe was educated at Trinity College, 
Conn., and studied law under Judge Toomer. A few months 
after his father's death he married, in January, 1836, Sarah Ann 
Green, of Brunswick County, a descendant of the Granges, and 
he received his license two or three days later. 

While his father, like nearly all the other gentlemen of the 
Cape Fear, had opposed the Jackson administration, he, follow- 
ing the traditions of the previous generation, attached himself 
to that wing of the Republican party which became known as 
the Democratic party. Immediately on receiving his license he 
was elected county solicitor for four counties on the lower Cape 
Fear and at once took his place as a leader of the Democracy. 
His planting interests and his social disposition, which was at 
variance with the exactions of a professional life, led him, how- 
ever, to abandon the practice of the law, but he read much and 

C^^'. £. f'^n 7\/^/o-/7^/T, /^^//j7-s/ 


was a profound student of political questions. He served as 
presidential elector and in 1846 represented New Hanover in 
the state senate ; again, in 1848, he was elected to the senate, and 
at the same election he was chosen a representative in Congress. 
He was gifted with very unusual intellectual powers, and, al- 
though a strong party man, he was a progressive statesman and 
favored all measures that tended to the advancement of the 
State or people, notwithstanding his party frequently differed 
from him in public policy. 

Particularly was he interested in internal improvements, at 
that time claiming attention. In the west Governor Morehead 
and others were pressing for a road from Charlotte to Danville, 
cutting the State in half. Governor Graham and his council of 
state recommended that the Raleigh and Gaston Road should 
be put in repair at a cost of $500,000, and a feeder be built west 
from Raleigh, with the expectation that in the years to come it 
would be extended to Charlotte, connecting with the road from 
Columbia, likewise carrying the produce of the western counties 
to a Virginia city. Governor Graham in the great internal im- 
provement convention of 1835 had advocated north and south 
lines, but had been successfully opposed by Joseph A. Hill of 
Wilmington, who urged that western North Carolina should be 
connected with the seaports of the State. 

Neither Governor Morehead's measure nor that of Governor 
Graham was satisfactory to those who advocated a North Caro- 
lina system. In antagonism to them both, Mr. Ashe drew and 
introduced in the senate a bill to construct a road from Charlotte 
to Goldsboro, connecting there with the road to Wilmington. 
He utterly ignored the Raleigh and Gaston road, not even provid- 
ing for any connection with it. His bill appropriated $2,000,000 
by the State for the work, an amount so large that it staggered 
the other friends of internal improvements. Eventually, the 
Graham bill was taken up in the house, and by common consent 
the Ashe bill was substituted for it. However, the bill failed to 
pass, but a motion was made to reconsider, and the friends of 
internal improvements from all over the State hastened to 


Raleigh to urge its passage. The Fayetteville section was drawn 
to its support by the promise of a plank road to Salem, and with 
this accession of strength, the bill passed the house. In the 
senate, the result was still doubtful. At first, the bill failed by a 
single vote; but on a second attempt the vote was a tie — and 
then the tie was broken by the casting vote of Speaker Graves, 
who up to that moment had preserved an impenetrable silence. 
As the speaker rose and voted for the bill, the great crowd 
assembled at the capitol that had awaited in breathless suspense, 
carried away by excitement and enthusiasm, gave unrestrained 
shouts of applause, the church bells and all the bells of the town 
rang out peals of joy, and the people on the streets hurrahed. 
North Carolina had burst her old bonds and had started on a 
career of progress and improvement. 

The building of this road was the most stupendous work ever 
undertaken in the State. It has not only proved the greatest 
blessing to the people in its uses, influences and results, but as the 
dividends have more than paid the interest, it has not cost the 
people anything, while the stock can be sold for nearly double 
the amount of bonds issued in its purchase. 

Taking his seat in Congress in December, 1849, Mr. Ashe 
acted with the ultra-southern men in opposition to the compro- 
mise measures of that sectional crisis. He always felt that the 
Southern States made a mistake in not seceding at that time, 
for he was a firm behever in the "Resolution of 1798" and of 
the rights of the States as sovereign communities. On the elec- 
tion of President Pierce, in 1852, he visited him and secured the 
appointment of Mr. Dobbin as secretary of the navy. His inti- 
macy with Mr. Dobbin was close ; he became a member of the 
Naval Committee and co-operated in the great and important 
changes that were made in the naval service at that period. A 
man of great capacity and genial in his disposition, he speedily 
became a member of influence ; indeed, few men were so success- 
ful in managing other men. 

Wishing to improve the Cape Fear River, he introduced a bill 
making an appropriation for that purpose. His party was in the 


majority in the house, but the Democratic members were opposed 
on principle to such appropriations. He prevailed on most of 
them to leave the chamber and let the Whigs pass his bill. 

In 1854 he became president of the Wilmington and Weldon 
Railroad, and under his administration that road was prosperous 
and paid good dividends. In its interests he went to England and 
made a very advantageous arrangement in regard to its bonded 
debt. He addressed himself particularly to relieving travel of 
its tedium, and built up a large Florida travel while fostering 
local business by every means in his power. Intimate with 
Senator Yulee, who was at the head of the Florida railroads, 
he co-operated with him in developing southern railroad inter- 
ests, which even at that time became of great importance. He 
established regular steamboat connections between his road at 
Wilmington and New York ; and when the North Carolina Rail- 
road was finished, he arranged with Colonel Fisher, its president, 
to run through freight trains from Charlotte to Wilmington. 
Thus in 1858 he gave practical eftect to the great measure he had 
introduced ten years before to transport the freights of western 
Carolina to the sea and send them to the marts of the world 
from a North Carolina port. 

In 1858 Governor Morehead proposed to make a great efifort 
to build a railroad from Greensboro to Danville, thus cutting the 
State in two ; and Mr. Ashe became a member of the state senate 
again in order to prevent the accomplishment of that purpose, 
which he at that time considered detrimental to the best interests 
of North CaroHna. He succeeded in defeating the proposed char- 
ter. As interested as he was in that matter, he attached still 
more consequence to the passage of the homestead law by that 
Assembly, which he thought the most important legislation ever 
adopted for the benefit of the people. 

In i860, prior to the meeting of the Charleston convention, 
Governor Ellis and many other influential Democrats of the State 
met at his home at Rocky Point and arranged for the presentation 
of his name for the nomination for vice-president, for there were 
but few if any southern gentlemen who had as strong a personal 


influence with the leading Democrats in the northern States. 
The course of events at Charleston rendered it inexpedient to 
present his name in that connection; and in the crisis that fol- 
lowed he became one of the most urgent secessionists in North 

He was a member of the convention of 1861 and was a leading 
member of that body. He warmly favored the amendment to the 
state constitution admitting Jews to the right of holding office, 
and otherwise manifested his liberal spirit, while strenuously ad- 
vocating every measure tending to the success of the Confed- 
erate cause. In the summer of that year, however, as his repu- 
tation as a railroad manager was not surpassed at the South, 
President Davis asked him to take charge of all the government 
transportation from the Mississippi River to Virginia, and ac- 
cepting that employment, he resigned from the convention, being 
succeeded by John L. Holmes. His appointment in the Confed- 
erate service was at first as major and then as colonel in the 
quartermaster's department, and for a year he rendered the serv- 
ice desired of him, exhibiting high administrative talent. 

In the spring of 1862, when North Carolina was invaded, al- 
though there were many regiments organized, there were no arms 
to equip them for the field, while the people had many serviceable 
weapons in their homes. At the request of President Davis and 
General Lee, Colonel Ashe undertook to collect guns from the 
citizens, paying for them, for the use of the soldiers, and he took 
steps to that end. The proposition greatly excited some of the 
editors and politicians who were not in sympathy with the Con- 
federate government, and who pretended to see in it a purpose 
to disarm the people and deprive them of their constitutional 
right to carry arms. Governor Clark was led to issue a hasty 
proclamation on the subject, but himself soon afterward arranged 
with the sheriffs of the counties to collect the arms for the State. 

Shortly afterward, however, the Confederacy received through 
the blockade a considerable supply of rifles, and the necessity of 
relying on shotguns passed away. 

Colonel Ashe's relations with the President, with whom he had 


long been on terms of friendship, were most agreeable; but his 
great desire was to be in the field, and in the summer of 1862 the 
President commissioned him as colonel and authorized him to 
raise a legion of infantry, artillery and cavalry, to be commanded 
by himself. His purpose, however, was frustrated by his un- 
timely death by accident. He with some others had started salt 
works at Wrightsville Sound. Returning from them one even- 
ing in September, 1862, he received information that one of his 
sons — with Jackson's corps — had been taken prisoner. The other 
was also in Lee's army in Maryland. Much concerned, he pro- 
cured a hand car to hasten home — some fifteen miles distant. 
On the way, just at dark, a train without a headlight ran into 
the hand car, so wounding him that he expired after three days 
of suffering. 

In those days the whole State was in mourning for the gallant 
and honored sons who were falling thick and fast on the battle- 
fields — too numerous for even a bare mention of their names in 
the newspapers ; but his death was regarded as a particular 

The Wilmington Journal, in announcing his death, said : 

"Perhaps there is no announcement that will strike our readers with 
more grief and our whole State with more sorrow, for no one was better 
known and loved. . . . 

"In the mighty revolution in which we are now engaged his efforts 
were early, efficiently, and patriotically devoted. In this, as in all other 
political movements in our State for the last twenty years, the mighty 
magic of his mind was realized. . . . 

"From the purity of his motives, the patriotism of his course, the acute- 
ness of his intellect, it may be said with truth that he was the master 
spirit of eastern North Carolina." 

And in another issue the Journal closes an editorial : 

"Taking him all in all, we shall seldom look upon his like again; nor 
can this community and the State at large soon cease to mourn the 
loss of the noble, generous, big-hearted gentleman, the ardent patriot 
and the useful citizen." 

And certainly no man was ever more sincerely mourned by the 



people of the southeastern counties than he was, for no other 
was so beloved alike in the homes of the humble and in the man- 
sions of the rich. He left two sons, one Major John Grange 
Ashe, who served with distinction in the Confederate army, and 
after the war moved to Texas, where he died in 1867, leaving 
descendants. The other is the author of this sketch. 

5. A. Ashe. 

;-7, A^ja^an. J='i^i&Air 


'_- > 


I ROM the year 1700 the name of Ashe has been 
a notable one in the annals of both the Caro- 
linas. The family had long been one of conse- 
quence in Wiltshire, where they were distin- 
guished for many fine qualities, among them 
a resolute dislike of oppression in any form. 
And it so happened that two members of it, brothers, John and 
Samuel, were members of the Long Parliament. 

From Thomas Ashe, the youngest son of Governor Samuel 
Ashe, was descended Thomas Samuel Ashe, the peer of any one 
of the name. Thomas S. Ashe was the son of Pasquale Paoli Ashe 
and Elizabeth Strudwick, and was born July 19, 1812, at "The 
Hawfields," the home of his maternal grandfather in Orange 
County, where they were summering. The home of his parents 
was at the Neck, the old family seat of his grandfather, Samuel 
Ashe, on the northeast branch of the Cape Fear River, in what 
is now Pender County. 

When about twelve years of age his father removed to Ala- 
bama, but the lad returned to North Carolina and attended the 
preparatory school of William J. Bingham — a classical school fa- 
mous now and for more than a century. He took a full course at 
the State University and contended successfully with such spirits 
as General Thomas L. Clingman, afterward a United States 
senator, James C. Dobbin, secretary of the navy, whose room- 


mate he was, and others of Hke heavy metal, for the honors in 
his studies as an undergraduate. He made a reputation in pubHc 
speaking, and to the honor of his teachers had his mind given a 
proper bent. At the age of twenty he graduated with the third 
distinction. In an address before the university students Gen- 
eral Clingman, in after years, told in a most interesting way how 
he and his friend Ashe had escorted Judge Gaston to the rostrum 
when he delivered his celebrated commencement oration in 1832. 

Judge Ashe's Hfe was so much influenced by his university 
education and was of such permanent value to the University 
itself, that it is worth remembering that a few years after his 
graduation he was elected to a tutorship on the teaching staff. 
This he declined because it interfered with the plan of life which 
he had laid out before him. Exactly twenty years from the date 
of his graduation he stood where Judge Gaston stood as the chief 
orator at the annual commencement, and delivered an address 
which, while it followed the plan of essay much in vogue at that 
period, abounded in wise suggestions emphasized by his high 
character. He was a trustee of the University for forty years 
and attended the last conference before its doors were closed 
by the State's common enemy and he was one of the first of its 
trustees after its restoration. In 1879 ^^ received the Univer- 
sity's highest degree. It was not a quantum meruit, but it was 
all it could give in return for love, affection, and intelligent serv- 
ice of an exceptional value. He had participated in its labors 
of every kind, and it was a mere right to partake of its honors. 
The University recognized the right. 

He chose the law as his profession, and he got his instruction 
in that science under the great Chief Justice Ruffin, and made a 
home for its practice in Wadesboro, in 1836. 

In June, 1837, he was happily married to Caroline Burgwin 
of the Hermitage, near Wilmington, who for nearly fifty years 
was a most devoted wife. 

It may be said that he began his public career in 1842, when 
he was elected a member of the house of commons from Anson 
County. From this time, with short intermissions, he was con- 


tinually chosen by the people to represent them. They recognized 
his capacity and his virtue and they took pleasure in conferring 
honors upon him without any solicitation on his part; except in 
one instance, when he was a candidate before and was elected 
solicitor of his district by the Legislature and served from 1848 
to 1852. 

Among the celebrated cases which Solicitor Ashe prosecuted 
was the Simpson case, tried at Fayetteville. Mrs. Simpson was 
a woman of position and some fortune and was tried for the 
crime of poisoning her husband. The case took on a romantic 
coloring from the fact that one of the contentions of the defense 
was that her mind had become abnormal through listening to the 
tales of a fortune-teller who had persuaded her that she was to 
marry again and play a high role in social life. 

In 1854 Mr. Ashe was elected to the State senate and in 1859 
was nominated for a seat in Congress, but he declined, although 
the honor was easily within his grasp, as his district was of Whig 
complexion in politics and his political affiliations had always 
been with that party. He was what was commonly called a 
Henry Clay Whig. 

When the days of difficulty and danger came in 1861, Mr. 
Ashe stood for conservative action on the part of North Carolina. 
The Legislature issued a call for a convention if a majority of 
the people should express a will for one, but a majority of the 
people did not vote for it, and consquently the convention did 
not meet. Later North Carolina entered the Confederacy, and 
at the first election by the people he was chosen a representative 
to the Confederate Congress and gave his best endeavors to the 
cause of the new republic. He was a consistent supporter of 
the war policy and had no sympathy with those who sought to 
obstruct the operations of the Government. 

On December 9, 1864, he was elected to the Senate of the 
Confederate States over the Hon. Edwin G. Reade, but before 
his term began the Confederacy was no longer a nation. 

For two years the State, — under the authority of Governor 
Holden, who had been made provisional governor by military 


power of President Johnson, and later under Governor Worth, 
who had been elected by the people — was trying to readjust its 
relations with the Union. The Congress was continuing the 
policy of imposing new requirements for representation and for 
the resumption of its place in national affairs. Judge Ashe 
worked quietly in a private station to mend his broken fortunes 
and to assist his neighbors in preserving what little remained to 
them. In 1867 Congress declared that North Carolina had no 
statehood or constitution and passed the reconstruction act, re- 
quiring that a new constitution should be framed, based on negro 
suffrage. Upon the passage of this act North Carolina was 
placed in a military district under the orders of a major-general. 
While a Republican party was being organized in the State to 
carry out the purposes of the dominant faction in Congress, a 
constitutional convention was called together by an electorate 
practically named by the military officer in command, who took 
charge of and counted the votes and issued certificates of elec- 
tion to meet the end desired with all suggested seriousness. 
When the new constitution thus brought forth was submitted 
to the voters for ratification it was accompanied by an order for 
an election of officers provided for in the abnormally formed 
instrument, among them being that of the chief executive of the 
State, the governor. 

In opposition to these policies the Conservative party organ- 
ized itself in 1868, and its committee of safety was authorized to 
select a leader. Zebulon B. Vance, who had been governor of 
the State when it was in the Confederacy, was nominated for 
governor. He declined the nomination, as did Mr. Merrimon, 
then a judge, who had courageously defied the military authority 
and who was in 1872 a candidate for governor, and later a 
senator in Congress, and chief justice. The outlook was so 
chaotic that brave men distrusted themselves. At last Colonel 
Cowan of Wilmington arose in the committee and said, "I will 
present as the leader of the Conservative party in a struggle which 
has nothing but danger and defeat as its reward, Thomas S. 
Ashe, of the Pee Dee country. He will not decline the combat." 


At great personal expense Mr. Ashe made the campaign 
through the State, presenting the views of the conservative peo- 
ple whose interest in peace, prosperity, and happiness was of so 
much greater value to civilization than that of the emancipated 
negroes. In North Carolina the names of eleven thousand whites 
who had registered were stricken from the rolls, while many 
thousands had been deterred by threats of personal molestation 
from offering to register. On the other hand, the negroes were 
enrolled without regard to age or qualifications. There were 
some whites who hastened to cast in their fortunes with the 
dominant party. There were others who, it may be, really be- 
lieved it unwise to oppose the controlling faction at Washington, 
which had begun boldly to declare its purpose to hold the State 
in subjection. These people thought that if they were defeated 
at this time Congress would impose still heavier and more odious 
conditions for restoration to the Union. The great mass of the 
whites, however, declined to accept the degradation. It was 
indeed a period of intense excitement and anxiety. The people 
were deeply and desperately stirred. Mr. Ashe believed with 
General Lee that human courage should rise to the height of 
hiiman calamity, and he led with a lofty resolution one of the most 
fearless followings to be found in all politics. And it is to be 
remarked that he himself was not allowed to vote at the election, 
— although he was being voted for as governor of the State. 

According to the report of the chief of civil affairs, the original 
registration showed the white electors to be 106,720 in number 
and the blacks to be 72,932. A subsequent registration, in 1868, 
was: white, 117,431; colored, 79,445; ^or ratification, 93,118; 
against it, 74,009. The vote for governor was almost exactly 
the same. From these figures and in view of the fact that every 
colored man voted one way it would follow that of the 93,118 
votes cast for the ratification of the constitution and for Gov- 
ernor Holden less than 20,000 were by white voters. In other 
words, in the midst of arms Judge Ashe led a band of 75,000 
white people, three-fourths of the entire white voting population, 
to a fearless expression in favor of the true interests of the peo- 


pie. No greater honor could have come to any man than to 
have had such a following, and no greater honor could be wished 
by any following than to have had such a leader. Judge Ashe^s 
opponent was William W. Holden, who had signed the ordinance 
of secession in 1861, had fanned the flames of discontent in 
1862, and had been in 1864 a candidate for governor upon a 
platform of peace at any price. 

Governor Holden and his newspaper, the Standard, were in- 
tensely bitter toward his opponents who, it must be said, were 
equally unsparing in their denunciation of him ; but it is to his 
credit that such was the respect and esteem in which he held 
Judge Ashe that there was never a line written against him 

Governor Holden told the writer of these lines that when he 
was a little barefoot boy delivering papers in Hillsboro he went 
one frosty morning to the home of Mr. Strudwick. A tall, 
handsome young man opened the door, spoke to him cordially, 
and told him that he looked cold and asked him if he would not 
come in and sit by the fire and have some hot breakfast with 
him. He accepted the invitation and ate his breakfast as best 
he could while admiring the young man who seemed so at home 
among all these elegancies of life. This was his introduction 
to this genial and sympathetic man, Thomas S. Ashe, and he 
resolved instantly to be like him. In the days of their rivalry 
he did not forget this meeting. In his "Memoirs," those who 
are curious may read another version of this story, where Mr. 
Holden, in forcing a certain consistency in his opinions, thought 
it best to put his feelings in antagonism to sincere and gracious 
attentions, but the writer's recollection is absolutely clear that he 
expressed to him his appreciation of and his admiration for the 
kindly inborn trait on the part of Mr. Ashe. It was understood 
and appreciated by the little embryo governor in the spirit in 
which it was offered. 

The constitution which had been framed provided for negro 
suffrage and for the election of State officers. Its provisions 
were such that Mr. Ashe urged the people to vote against it, and 



thus render his own election impossible even if he should receive 
a majority of the popular vote. It is certain that he had no ex- 
pectation of becoming the governor of the State. Indeed, the 
entire efforts of himself and his supporters were directed to the 
defeat of the proposed constitution. He did not work for honors 
ahead of him ; he viewed defeat as a duty. 

Mr. Ashe went back to the always cordial community in his 
own home and took up the ways of fair, delightful peace and 
the practice of his profession, where he was happiest, but in 
1872 he was asked to accept the nomination for Congress, and 
was elected to the Forty-third Congress by a substantial majority. 
At this election, however, the State voted for Grant for presi- 
dent, and Mr. Merrimon, the Democratic nominee, was defeated 
for governor. In this Congress, over which Mr. Blaine presided 
as speaker, Mr. Ashe was appointed to the committee on coinage, 
weights, and measures. The only speech of importance which 
he made was one in favor of the continuance of the mint at 
Charlotte, N. C, but though he spoke but seldom he was punc- 
tual in his attendance and solicitous to perform all of the many 
duties to his constituents which the position carried along with 
it. He was elected to the Forty-fourth Congress by an increased 
majority. This Congress was Democratic for the first time in 
more than a decade. Michael C. Kerr of Indiana was speaker. 
Mr. Ashe had made such a good impression in his two years' 
service that he was placed third on the Committee on the Judici- 
ary, over which Proctor Knott presided. This assignment ea- 
abled him to do work of great importance to his party and to the 
country. His most notable speech in this Congress was on curing 
defects in the naturalization law, a bill which he successfully 
carried through. 

The work of few congresses was of more vital importance to 
the nation than that of the Forty-fourth. Mr. Ashe was a mem- 
ber of the subcommittee of the Judiciary and had a full part in 
drawing the Belknap articles of impeachment, as well as in fram- 
ing the celebrated resolution, the substitute of Proctor Knott for 
the resolution of Mr. McCrary, providing for the electoral com- 


mission. He could not have lent his hand to higher work, and 
it gave him such commanding position on the committee and in 
the Congress that further honors, which he did not covet, but 
which would have reflected great credit upon the State, only 
waited upon his continuance in service. The pernicious doctrine 
of rotation in office which had been accepted as a rule in his 
district, allowing only two terms in Congress, without opposition 
was enforced against him, and in March, 1877, ^^ the incoming 
of the Hayes administration, he retired from Congress. 

The people of the State, particularly of his district, had not 
forgot what he did for them back in the days of their sorest 
need, and they waited with patience to give him a crowning 
assurance of their confidence. This they were enabled to do in 
1878, when the terms of the judges of the Supreme Court of the 
State, extended under their own ruling, ended, and the people 
were to choose a court after his own heart. It was a year of 
most interesting excitement in the State. The candidacy of Judge 
Schenck had evoked a series of letters in the press of much 
cleverness and exciting bitterness. The Ku Klux Klan prose- 
cutions were again made an issue. William N. H. Smith had 
been appointed by Governor Vance chief justice (Chief Justice 
Pearson having died), and in spite of his entire fitness for the 
office there was a dangerous factional opposition to his nomina- 
tion. Governor Vance was a candidate for the senatorship 
against Mr. Merrimon, who then held the office, and the whole 
State had divided itself into hostile camps under these two great 
leaders. The question of political principle involved was largely 
the right of instruction on the part of counties to members of 
the Legislature which was to choose a senator. The Bar of the 
State, representing so much of its militant intelligence, was deeply 
interested in the selection of the court. Brought together by 
these conditions, the convention which assembled at the State 
capitol was composed of unusual numbers and talents. There 
may be many who can recall the dramatic session of that assem- 
blage when the nomination for associate justices was called. The 
time, place, and circumstances were auspicious for what followed. 


Colonel Risden Tyler Bennett, an orator in his own right after 
his own fashion and in the true sense of that word, put Mr. 
Ashe's name before the convention. He began speaking in the 
rear of the hall, walking down to the stage. He made a rapid 
statement of the claims of Mr. Ashe upon the suffrages of his 
people. The statement was a masterpiece of argument. Then 
he discarded the well-known periods of convention oratory. He 
rushed to the platform, and with the magnetism of a leader he 
demanded of the State a crown of approval for its unselfish 
hero. He held his hearers mute with the martial music of his 
eloquence and he aroused their sensibiHties to the justice of the 
cause for which he was sponsor. The response was an outburst 
of enthusiastic and eager acclaim, and Mr. Ashe was then and 
there a justice of the State's highest court for the rest of his 
natural hfe. 

The enuraeration of the principal events of Mr. Ashe's life is 
a pleasant record, and is valuable because it shows industry and 
the merited promotion which came from it, but they are mere 
lineaments. The real man can be presented only in an incom- 
plete way by fiUing in the accomplishments with the very human 
characteristics of the man in his daily walk. It would be render- 
ing a service to the present generation if there could be given it 
a satisfactory idea of his personal appearance, because he was 
an examplar of manly beauty. To a tall, perfectly proportioned 
robust figure he added a pose full of graceful dignity and a 
swinging, purposeful carriage. He walked much alone and he 
had the habit of talking to himself when he walked. One feels 
that much that is valuable has been lost by not being able to 
share in these communings. At any rate, they gave him much 
satisfaction. His forehead was noble and his well-shaped head 
Avore a full covering of trimmed iron-grey hair. His mouth was 
firm and filled with regular white teeth, and when he smiled a 
most quizzical gleam came into the grey eyes ; otherwise his 
look was direct and challenging and could not have quailed 
before any man. His ruddy, healthful face was clean shaven and 
his dress was sober and enough in the mode to be becoming. 


This much of personal description it is hoped will convey to the 
mind of the reader the image which will always remain in the 
mind of the writer. He suggested by his presence the lofty 
classical figures which the great sculptors have hewn out of 
what was solid and clothed with what was noblest and best. 

He could not have had the respect, reverence, and love of his 
people if he had not deserved it. It must be remembered that 
he lived in an epic of the great struggle of the rights of com- 
munities against the solidarity of a Nation. He was the associate 
of heroes and martyrs ; and it takes a hero to understand a hero. 
Of course, therefore, he not only had but practised the qualities 
of justice and patience and liberality of opinion. He was much 
too fine a man to consider charity a virtue. To him it was sim- 
ply sharing what he had with one who had in some way neglected 
to have. If in the ordinary transactions among neighbors he 
were treated unfairly he left no doubt on the one who attempted 
it that he understood it, but much oftener he suggested that a 
service rendered him was worth something more than what was 
charged for it. His friendships were few but they were unre- 

Many men still living can remember the close comradeship 
between him and Judge Dillard and the younger Ruffin, not 
the lesser judges of a great court. They occupied adjoining 
apartments at the hotel where they resided during the sessions of 
the court, and their association was more like that of affection- 
ate boys at college than experienced men in one of the greatest 
businesses of life. 

He attracted the love of children, and it was a most engaging 
sight to see him walking hand in hand through the capitol 
grounds with a very beautiful boy, a mere child of six years, 
and a boon companion and to watch the earnestness and serious- 
ness of their conversations. 

He was blessed with a saving sense of humor. In social life 
it was one of his most charming elements of character. He 
admired wit, as he was afraid of its keen edge, for it too often 
carries pain, but he was a friend and companion of humor. It 


is a most agreeable reflection to recall after some thirty years 
the gusto with which he told of his own discomfiture in the case 
of an old Mexican veteran who was a citizen of his town, and 
who, when he had dropped into civilian life, had neglected to 
shed the vices of the camp, but had allowed himself to go down 
hill until he became a general nuisance and vagabond, for which 
offense he was indicted. The case was called for trial and pro- 
ceeded to the stage where Solicitor Ashe read the indictment. 
When he had concluded the reading the veteran defendant ap- 
proached him and with a surprised and rather indignant voice 
said, "Tom Ashe, let me see that thar paper." After reading it 
with leisurely particularity, he gravely handed it back, remarking 
as he did, "I never seed it afore; I never resigned it; and I 
don't know nothink about it." Whereupon he walked out of the 
dock and out of the door of the court room. Judge Caldwell, 
long remembered for the austerity of his manner of presiding, 
as well as his great learning, relaxed his habitual sternness of 
manner and said to the solicitor with evident enjoyment, *'Mr. 
Solicitor, if the State will suggest a nol pros in this most extraor- 
dinary case the Court will incline an indulgent ear." 

Mr. Ashe was a member of Calvary Episcopal Church at 
Wadesboro and a vestryman for thirty-one years. His religious 
life was his everyday life — elevated by reverence, but humble as 
a little child's. 

He sat upon the Supreme Court bench nearly ten years. It is 
a court which even in the unhappy days of the State's history 
has always by its learning and character been worthy of admira- 
tion and at other times, as now, has commanded the admiration, 
respect, and reverence of its people. He delivered opinions which 
were marked by clear reasoning and expressed in terse, lucid 
style. They were and now are regarded as models of judicial 

On February 4, 1887, in the full enjoyment and exercise of 
all his energies, he went to the haven of us all. His death was 
profoundly regretted by the Bar and the people throughout the 
State. They felt they had lost not only an able and faithful 



public official but one of the rapidly diminishing number of the 
really great sons of the State's heroic generation. The State 
has set its seal upon him. 

Judge Ashe was survived by his wife and several married 
daughters, Mrs. James C. Marshall, Mrs. A. J. Hines, Mrs. J. A. 
Lockhart, and by Josephine, who remained unmarried; also by 
his son, Samuel T. Ashe, well known as a lawyer and editor. A 
daughter, Anna, was the beautiful wife of the Hon. Richard 
H. Battle ; another, Margaret, married James McNair, but died 
soon thereafter. 

P. M. Wilso7t. 


/'"v^ -% £ C P'^/Zrams 3 Br 




'."^(tS.Jj r4,n Afcrppe.T, /^u.6fishir 


^>i;jP^^^^jK^HE county of Edgecombe, from the end of the 
A^^^=^^-*=^^ Revolutionary War to the beginning of the 
5^ T* ^c ^^^^^ War, had a character largely its own. Its 
^K ^f\ people during all this period constituted one of 

^^ ^/L^Vi^vV^ ^ ^ ^y ^^^ most aggressive of democracies. The po- 
J/ll^^^^^^ litical tenets of Jefferson found there a soil so 
congenial that their flourishing growth left no space for the seeds 
of Federalism, or its more popular successor, Whiggism, to germ- 
inate. If ten per cent, of the suffrages of the county were cast 
for the candidates of the Whig party when it was dominant in 
the State, it was considered a large Whig gain. This condition 
had its disadvantages, it is true, for the leading men of the 
county made no figure in general state politics until the ascend- 
ency of the Democratic party was assured, but on the whole it 
made the people more homogeneous socially as well as politically. 
Speaking generally, there was not much culture- among them, 
but the average of ancient, rustic, manly, home-bred sense (to 
adapt a phrase of Burke) was exceedingly high. They were 
practically entirely agriculturists. Even town residents and pro- 
fessional men owned farms and slaves and vied with their neigh- 
bors in raising corn and bacon and cotton. 

The Bakers were among the more prominent families of the 
county. Moses Baker,* farmer, represented the county in the 

♦Jonathan Baker migrated from Isle of Wight County, Va., to Georgia 
about 1760. His son Moses came from Georgia to Edgecombe County, 
N. C, about 1800. 


house of commons in 1819, 1820, 1822, 1823 and 1829. William 
S. Baker, physician and farmer, son of Moses, represented the 
county in 1838 and in 1840. Joseph H. Baker, physician, farmer 
and man of affairs, son of William S., represented the county 
in 1866-67 ^^^ ^^ the convention of 1868. 

Joseph H. Baker, son of Dr. William S. Baker, and Julia 
Shirley, his wife, was born in Edgecombe County, December 25, 
1 83 1. He was prepared for college at schools in Tarboro, and 
entered the University in 1850. He did not graduate at that 
institution, but after two years spent there he began the study 
of medicine in the medical department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He took his degree of M.D. in the spring of 1854, and 
returning to Tarboro, formed a copartnership with Dr. Josiah 
Lawrence of that place. Until his last illness, a period of more 
than forty-eight years, he was engaged in the active practice of 
his profession. 

Dr. Peter E. Hines, of Raleigh, who knew him well, has 
recorded this estimate of him as a physician and surgeon : 

"He had a large and extensive practice, including many cases of surgery 
and obstetrics. He was the first surgeon in this country to diagnose and 
advocate an operation upon, if not the removal of, the kidney. He took 
his patient to some distinguished surgeons in New York and Philadelphia, 
and each refused to operate. The patient afterward died in very great 
suffering. . . . He was a very able and successful physician and business 
man, doing good and being useful to his fellow-men, all the days of his 

Again, speaking of him as a man, Dr. Hines said : 

"He had a kind, affectionate, loving and charitable heart; a genial, at- 
tractive and kindly disposition, which drew people to him and made them 
like and respect him." 

He was, indeed, of that band of silent heroes, God's heroes, 
of whom the world takes httle account, who go upon many mid- 
night missions of mercy to the sick, the suffering and the dying, 
without reward or the hope of reward. But it was not only as a 
physician that Dr. Baker endeared himself to the community in 
which he lived. He was singularly kind and sympathetic to the 


poor, the impecunious and the unsuccessful, thus carrying into 
practical effect the noble tenets of the order to which he belonged 
so many years. Soon after attaining his majority he connected 
himself with the Odd Fellows. After holding many important 
positions in that order he was, in 1870, elected Grand Master of 
the State Grand Lodge, and still later representative to the Grand 
Lodge of the United States. 

Though Dr. Baker was a busy, energetic, faithful surgeon and 
physician, his activity in other spheres of life was notable, and 
his superior ability won him success in all of them. He was a 
man of real culture, read much, digested what he read and con- 
versed well and interestingly. He wrote remarkably well, his 
style being clear, easy and graceful. As a public speaker he had 
few of the graces of oratory, but his addresses were always well 
constructed, interesting and instructive. Common sense was the 
dominant note in all that he did and said. 

He was very pubhc-spirited, and as a democrat of democrats 
had an active and very intelligent interest in all political move- 
ments. At one time or another he held the offices of vice-presi- 
dent or director of banking and insurance, building and loan, and 
agricultural and mechanical associations. He was a surgeon in 
the Confederate army, member of the Medical Society of North 
Carolina and twice its vice-president, and was for some years 
president of the county board of health. He was many times 
commissioner or alderman of the town, and was twice its mayor. 

The fact that he, a Democrat, represented a county so over- 
whelmingly negro as Edgecombe in the convention of 1868 re- 
quires some explanation. Perhaps in no other section of the 
South after the war was the negro question met so consider- 
ately, so forbearingly, so conservatively, as in Edgecombe. There 
was no Ku Klux there, no bulldozing, no bloody riots, no cheat- 
ing and defrauding at the ballot box. The dominant note in the 
white man's treatment of the negro at that time was inspired by 
such strong and wise men as Judge George Howard, Dr. Baker, 
the Norfleets and others. They realized that unrestricted negro 
suffrage was imminent unless some compromise could be made. 


They were in favor of granting them a qualified suffrage based 
upon property or intelligence. When unrestricted suffrage came, 
then, they had not wholly lost their influence over the negroes. 
Nor had the carpetbagger fully come into his kingdom at that 
time. So an arrangement was made, with practically general con- 
sent, by which the county should be represented in the convention 
of 1868 by Dr. Baker and a negro named Henry C. Cherry. 

Dr. Baker, though a believer in and an advocate of mild and 
conciliatory measures in the dealings of the whites with the 
negroes, never failed to display the proper courage and firmness 
when occasion demanded them. The writer recalls one incident 
which shows this in a very clear light. 

The campaign of 1876 was marked by the intense earnestness 
of the rank and file of the Democratic party, north and south. 
In Edgecombe the democracy, while still holding fast to the doc- 
trine of a free ballot and a fair count, was determined that every 
white vote should be cast, and that no fraudulent negro vote 
should be cast or counted. Twice during that campaign a bloody 
race war was narrowly averted by the coolness of the whites and 
by the determination of some of the better class of negroes to 
maintain law and order. At that time there was only one polling 
place in Tarboro township, and that at the court house in the 
town. The proportion of negroes to whites was about three to 
one, and the voters were so numerous in the district and, it being 
a general election, the ballots so complicated, that it was utterly 
irnpossible to cast them all in the time limited by law for voting, 
however excellent the management should be. Even the calmest 
and least imaginative citizens of the place could not, under such 
circumstances, but apprehend trouble on election day. Dr. Baker, 
on account of his known firmness and self-control, was requested 
to act as one of the judges of election. He, though it was very 
far from being a safe or pleasant employment, consented. His 
colleagues were a negro leader and a white carpetbagger, at that 
time one of the best hated of the genus in that section. The 
whites about the polls at the election were under an enormous 
strain the whole day, none more so than Dr. Baker, yet they 


managed to preserve order and secure an absolutely fair election. 
The polling place was immediately in front of the bar in the 
court room. Unfortunately, the day was overcast and there was 
no way to ascertain when the sun set except by calendars and 
watches. There were fifty or sixty negroes who had not voted 
when Dr. Baker announced that the sun had set and the polls 
had closed. The scene that this announcement created could not 
be duplicated anywhere outside of the South. The carpetbagger 
and his negro ally sprang to their feet, declaring that the sun was 
not down and the remaining votes should be cast. In front and 
occupying the whole auditorium of the court house was a howling 
mob of enraged blacks, the savagery of unnumbered generations 
depicted in each countenance, while behind and in the bar was a 
little band of twenty or thirty whites, each man armed and each 
man ready to shoot, but awaiting with outward calmness the 
moment when shooting might become necessary. Meantime Dr. 
Baker was standing facing the mob, with a hand upon either of 
the two most important ballot boxes, as he again announced that 
the polls were closed and not another ballot should be cast. Then 
turning to the carpetbagger by his side, he told him that if he 
(Dr. Baker) should be attacked by the negroes in front, he would 
scatter the ballots in those two boxes. This brought the Repub- 
lican leader to his senses, and in a few moments the uproar was 

Dr. Baker was twice married, first to Miss Susan A. Foxhall, 
of Edgecombe County, by whom he had four sons ; second to 
Miss Ida Manly, of Raleigh, by whom he had two children, a 
son and a daughter. He was a devoted husband and father, and 
lived long enough to see his fond anticipations for the success 
and welfare of his children fully gratified. 

He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and 
dying February 12, 1902, his remains were deposited in the 
beautiful cemetery of that church at Tarboro. 

Frank Nash. 


'HE subject of this sketch was born in Tarboro, 
N. C, October 26, 1857. Something must be 
allowed to heredity in his subsequent predilec- 
tion for the medical profession, for both his 
father and grandfather were physicians and 
surgeons. A sketch of his father, Dr. Joseph H. 
Baker, distinguished physician, able man of affairs and cultured 
gentleman, appears elsewhere in this history. 

Dr. Julian Baker's mother was Miss Susan A. Foxhall, daugh- 
ter of a prominent Edgecombe planter, William Foxhall, and 
through her he is connected with some of the most distinguished 
families of that county. He was educated at the Tarboro Male 
Academy (whose principal was the remarkably efficient teacher, 
Mr. F. S. Wilkinson), at Horner & Graves' School at Hillsboro, 
the University of Illinois and the University of North Carolina. 
He graduated at the latter institution, taking the degree of B.S. 
in 1877. 

Though short in stature, the boy at school and college was 
noted for his vigorous, active frame, and he excelled in athletics, 
gymnasium work particularly. From his earliest days his natural 
bent had been toward the study of the physical sciences, and his 
university life was devoted principally to making himself as pro- 
ficient as possible in these. He could not be the patient investi- 

-it/S.i::;. r-l/Paiams i Bn, _/V>^ 

'a^V^. C^. 




gator simply, who, absorbed in the discovery of nature's secrets, 
is content with presenting them to the world that other men may 
put them to practical use. His great activity and energy pre- 
vented this. He must be an actor as well as a discoverer. He 
did thus acquire, however, the scientist's logical method and his 
love of investigation, and he devoted these to fitting himself for 
the practice of medicine (which, after all, is but the application 
of the secrets of nature to the science of healing) and to the 
attainment of usefulness and success in his chosen profession. 

He attended the Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New 
York in 1878, the University of Maryland Medical College of 
Baltimore in 1879, ^^^ took the degree of M.D. from the latter 
institution in the same year. Upon his graduation he returned 
to Tarboro and began the practice of his profession there. Such 
was his thorough preparation for, and his intelligent enthusiasm 
in, his work ; such his natural aptitude for it and his unquestion- 
able ability, that in a short time he was recognized as one of the 
ablest of the young physicians of his section, and was doing 
a very large practice for so young a man. Not content with his 
acquirements, he took post-graduate courses in surgery and 
gynecology at the New York Polyclinic in 1883, 1890 and 1897, 
and a further course in Chicago in 1910. And this is not all. 
To the present day Dr. Baker's professional life has been a con- 
stant and steady growth in knowledge, in capacity as a physician 
and surgeon, and in usefulness to the community in which he 
lives and to the profession which he adorns. 

He has richly earned the reputation he now has as one of the 
ablest of the physicians and surgeons living in the State. Says 
one who knows him well : 

"I think he is at his best when his cases become more desperate. He 
becomes absorbed in his determination to wrest recovery from apparent, 
or threatened, fatal conditions. He is very ambitious, and is willing to 
spend what he makes in study, in investigation and in improved appliances. 
He is always abreast of the best thought of his profession, and has more 
than sustained the promise of his early life." 

As a matter of fact he has performed more surgical work in 


the past ten years than was ever done before in the whole history 
of the county. 

It is said of him in the second volume of the "History of the 
University of Maryland," in a sketch prepared by a physician: 

"Since 1879 Dr. Baker has taken a prominent part in the professional 
life of North Carolina, and his name and reputation are known throughout 
the entire South. For more than twenty-five years he has engaged in gen- 
eral practice, though latterly he has given particular attention to the special 
branches of surgery and gynecology. His career has been one of constant 
activity, and by achieved results he has honored the profession of medi- 
cine and the institution which conferred on him its degree. And in turn 
he has been respected and honored by his associates in medicine, who have 
chosen him to fill many places of responsibility and dignity." 

Notwithstanding the engrossing activities of a village physi- 
cian's life, Dr. Baker has written numerous articles on technical 
subjects for the medical journals of the country, and the writer 
is informed that an article by him always commands the atten- 
tion of his brother practitioners. As early as 1885 he was 
awarded the Pittman prize for the best essay on a subject selected 
by the Medical Society of North Carolina. Besides these hon- 
ors, the prominent positions he has held in the various medical 
societies to which he belongs indicate the high estimate other 
physicians place upon his ability. He has been president of the 
Medical Society of North Carolina, vice-president of the Sea- 
board Medical Association, president of the Edgecombe Medical 
Society, member of the North Carolina Board of Health and 
president of the Board of Medical Examiners of North Carolina. 
He is also a member of the Tri-State Society and of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association. He was assistant surgeon-general with 
the rank of major on the staffs of Governors Scales and Fowle. 
He was largely interested in the establishment of the Pittman 
Hospital at Tarboro, is one of its surgeons, has been superin- 
tendent of health of the county and is surgeon of all the rail- 
roads passing through Tarboro and of the leading life insurance 
companies doing business there. His later effort has been in 
reorganizing and building the Edgecombe General Hospital, a 


modern well-equipped institution, built and operated on the com- 
munity plan. He is president of the board of directors and its 
chief surgeon. 

He, though a thoroughly consistent and conscientious Demo- 
crat, has contented himself with serving two terms as town com- 
missioner, and has no desire for greater political honors. 

He is a Mason, and has been Master of Concord Lodge, No. 
58, at Tarboro, and is a member of the Presbyterian Church 
at that place. His married life has been singularly blessed. On 
June 17, 1884, he married Miss Elizabeth Howard, eldest daugh- 
ter of Judge George Howard of Tarboro, a brilliant and charm- 
ing woman with great intellectual attainments. Three children 
have been born to them, all of whom are living. Anna Howard, 
the eldest, married to W. E. Fenner, of Rocky Mount, N. C, who 
has one son Julian Baker. Sue Foxhall, the second daughter, 
married to Dr. W. W. Green of Tarboro, who has one daughter, 
Elizabeth Howard. The youngest daughter Elizabeth is un- 

Every Edgecombe man, if he does not own one already, buys a 
farm as soon as he can, whatever may be his calling or profes- 
sion. His surplus funds, as they do elsewhere, do not run to 
villas or automobiles or to bonds and mortgages, but to well- 
stocked farms. Dr. Baker, far from being an exception to this 
general rule, is one of the largest owners of land in the county, 
and finds profit in raising cotton, peanuts and corn, and recrea- 
tion in raising fine stock and chickens. 

Dr. Baker started life with high ideals and a definite purpose, 
that purpose to heal the sick and bring relief to the suffering, and 
he has dedicated all his abihty, all his energy, all his powers to 
the accomplishment of that purpose. And in this is the secret 
of his success and the lesson of his life. 

Frank Nash. 


^HE family of Burgwin — written by some of its 
branches Burgwyn — has been seated in North 
CaroHna since the colonial period and has al- 
ways been noted for the intelligence, culture 
and talents of its members. The first of the 
name to settle in North Carolina was John 
Burgwin, an Englishman by birth and an Englishman at heart 
throughout his life, notwithstanding his devotion to the land of 
his adoption and its people. He was born at Hereford, in the 
county of Hereford, England, on February 25, 1731, and came 
to North Carolina probably about 1750. 

He settled first in Charleston, probably some time prior to 
1750, and engaged in business there, as it appears from the 
records of the register's office in Wilmington that on February 
23, 1750, he gave to Benjamin Wheatley and Captain Richard 
Quince power of attorney to collect some debts due him by par- 
ties residing in Wilmington. He settled at Wilmington about 
1752, and there was married, on February 22, 1753, to Margaret 
Haynes, of Castle Haynes, in New Hanover County. This lady 
was one of the two daughters of Captain Roger Haynes, whose 
other daughter (Mary) married General Hugh W^addell. The 
wife of Captain Haynes and mother of Mrs. Burgwin was the 
only child of the Rev. Richard Marsden, a clergyman of the 
Church of England and rector of the parish of St. James in 


Wilmington. Parson Marsden obtained grants of land on the 
northeast branch of the Cape Fear, and on a portion of this 
was later erected the Hermitage, Mr. Burgwin's seat, to which 
we shall refer in another part of this sketch. The first wife of 
Mr. Burgwin died without issue, and of his second marriage we 
shall speak later on. 

The first appearance of John Burgwin's name in the records 
of North Carolina is in the year 1755, when he was quarter- 
master in Captain William MacKenzie's company of North Caro- 
lina provincial militia for the county of New Hanover. Shortly 
after this, during the same year, he was promoted to the rank 
of cornet. As the latter rank no longer exists in the military 
establishments of America, we may here mention that a cornet 
was a commissioned cavalry ofiicer who commanded the color- 
guard of a regiment. 

Beginning with the session of 1760 and ending with his resig- 
nation in 1772 — a period of twelve years — Mr. Burgwin was 
clerk of the governor's council or upper house of the General 
Assembly. On April 30, 1762, he became a magistrate for the 
county of Bladen, and later served in a similar capacity for New 
Hanover. In 1766 the council or upper house desired to elect 
him treasurer of the southern counties of the province, but the 
lower house did not concur in the appointment. He was treas- 
urer of the southern districts of the province of North Carolina 
in 1770 and 1771. He was appointed clerk of the superior court 
for the district of Wilmington in 1768 and register of the high 
court of chancery in 1769. He also served as a representative of 
Bladen County in the colonial Assembly at the session beginning 
in December, 1773. 

The above is a brief synopsis of the public services of Mr. 
Burgwin. When he retired from the of¥ice he held as clerk of 
the council it involved him in a quarrel with Governor Josiah 
Martin. While Mr. Burgwin claimed that the resignation he had 
tendered was upon condition that his friend, William Hooper 
(afterward signer of the Declaration of Independence), should 
succeed him, Martin insisted that there was no such understand- 


ing, and appointed John Hawks to the vacancy. Whatever may 
have been the merits of this matter, there is Httle doubt that the 
services of Mr. Burgwin met with the entire approbation of the 
council, for, on the journal of that body for February 2'j, ijy^y 
we find this entry: 

"His Excellency the governor having appointed John Hawks, Esquire^ 
clerk to this house in the room of John Burgwin, Esquire, in full con- 
fidence that the said John Burgwin had desired to resign said office, and 
not from any disapprobation of his conduct. 

'This house, taking the same into consideration, do resolve that, during 
the ten years of his service as clerk of this house, the said John Burgwin 
hath ever acted with the strictest integrity and honor, and hath discharged 
all the duties of that office with skill and ability. 

"And it is ordered that this resolve be entered on the journals of this 
house as a testimony of their unreserved approbation of his conduct." 

In a record of the inferior court of New Hanover County for 
February 8, 1768, when Cornelius Harnett was presiding justice 
and Mr. Burgwin one of the four associate justices of that 
tribunal, we find a striking example of the prompt admin- 
istration of justice — if such severity and haste may be called 
justice in view of the crime charged — at the trial of one Ouanimo,. 
a negro slave convicted of robbery. The docket says : 

"The court, upon examination of the evidences relating to several rob- 
beries committed by Quanimo, have found him guilty of the several 
crimes charged against him and sentenced him to be hanged by the neck 
until he is dead to-morrow morning between the hours of ten and twelve 
o'clock, and his head affixed up upon the point near Wilmington. 

"The court valued the said negro Quanimo at eighty pounds proclama- 
tion money, proof having been made that he had his full allowance of 
corn paid, agreeable to act of Assembly." 

Hanged, beheaded and paid for all in one day ! — and this, too, 
for a crime now generally punished by a term in the chain gang. 
Exactly what bearing the corn had upon the case we are unable 
to say, unless Quanimo was fed at public expense upon this com- 
modity while awaiting trial instead of being fed at the expense 
of his owner, in which latter event the cost of the food would 
probably be added to the value of the negro. 

When Mr. Burgwin resigned his office as secretary of the gov- 


ernor's council early in 1772, he went to Boston for his health, 
and remained away from North Carolina until about the end of 
the year. 

At the breaking out of the War of the Revolution Mr. Burgwin 
was residing at the Hermitage, his country seat near Wilmington; 
He was then engaged in a mercantile business, and on January 5, 
1775 (several months before active hostilities commenced), he 
had a brief misunderstanding with a local Committee of Safety 
about the sale of some gunpowder which the committee wished 
to procure from him for public defense. At first a resolution of 
censure against him was passed by the committee; but when it 
was learned that the only powder he had refused to sell was some 
which did not belong to him, the committee expressed itself as 
satisfied with his action. 

On January 8, 1775, three days after the above-mentioned 
transaction with the Committee of Safety, an entertainment was 
given at the house of Mr. Burgwin and many young people were 
present, some of whom engaged in the game of blind man's buff. 
In a rollicking humor Mr. Burgwin offered to join in the play; 
and while blindfolded suffered a severe fall, which badly frac- 
tured one of his legs. The surgeon who set the broken limb did 
not do the work in a skillful manner, and Mr. Burgwin was con- 
fined for many months as a consequence. As his health grew 
no better and fears began to be entertained that he would finally 
succumb to the effects of his injury, his surgeon advised that a 
change of climate for that of England and use of the bath waters 
there would be beneficial. It was on this advice that Mr. Burgwin 
temporarily took up his abode in Great Britain. In 1777, during 
his absence from the State, the Assembly passed an act confiscat- 
ing the property of citizens of North Carolina who were then 
absent and should not return within a certain time. The lands 
of Mr. Burgwin fell within the application of this law, and upon 
hearing of this he at once started back to America to see if "his 
belongings could be recovered. He landed in New York in the 
summer of 1778, and afterward received a passport to Wilming- 
ton, coming to the latter place in October of the same year. 


As soon as Governor Caswell heard of Mr. Burgwin's arrival 
he directed that he should go under parole to the Hermitage. 
Shortly after Mr. Burgwin's arrival a newspaper at Newbern 
printed a paragraph reflecting on his conduct, and this caused 
him to write Governor Caswell on November 29, 1778, saying: 

"I trust, sir, from your love of justice and real goodness of heart, 
manifested by all your actions both public and private, that your 
Excellency will not credit such reports, but do me the justice to believe 
that there is no man in America who has a more sincere attachment to 
North Carolina than myself. Soon after the arrival of your Excellency's 
parole, I applied to the magistrates of Wilmington to take the oath and 
be admitted a citizen, but it seems that the law has reserved that power 
in the General Assembly. The magistrates, however, granted me a cer- 
tificate of my application." 

Upon Mr. Burgwin's case being referred to the General As- 
sembly that body appointed a committee to investigate the merits 
of the matter. On January 2^), 1779, the committee made its 
report, setting forth how Mr. Burgwin's ill-health had made it 
necessary for him to go to England for treatment, and said in 
conclusion : 

"The many public services that gentleman formerly rendered this coun- 
try, and his ready compliance at present with its laws, gives us no room 
to doubt his attachment to its interests. We, therefore, unanimously 
recommend him to be received as a citizen of this State, and that his 
property be restored to him." 

When the British army under Lord Cornwallis invaded North 
CaroHna in 1781 Mr. Burgwin left the State in the early spring 
of that year and afterward traveled in various parts of Europe, 
from Denmark to Belgium, probably on commercial ventures. 
Concerning this action Archibald Machine wrote on March 30, 
1782, saying: 

"I am perfectly satisfied that he is not an enemy to the State from 
numerous circumstances ; and his leaving it so early as the latter end 
of February or beginning of March last year convinced me that fear 
arising from the consequences of war was his only inducement to leave 
the country. He was so apprehensive of the depredations of armies and 
the violence of parties that he was actually in treaty, before the arrival of 
the British in this town, for the sale of his property." 

During Mr. Burgwin's second absence his property was again 


threatened with confiscation, but it is probable that no action was 
taken, as the Hermitage remained in his family for more than a 
hundred years after the Revolution and this estate, though the 
house has been burned, is now owned by a great-grandson, 
George C. Burgwin, of Pittsburgh, Pa. It was during his 
absence in England, on April ^y, 1782, that Mr. Burgwin 
married his second wife. This lady was EHza Bush, young- 
est daughter of George Bush, of Bristol, England. She came 
to America with her husband, landing at Charleston about the 
beginning of the year 1784, and later making her home with him 
at the Hermitage. Soon after her arrival in North Carolina, how- 
ever, her husband found it necessary to carry her to a resort in 
Rhode Island, owing to ill-health. They sailed for Rhode Island 
from Wilmington on June 29, 1784. Mrs. Burgwin died on 
October 29, 1787. All of Mr. Burgwin's descendants are through 
his marriage with her, for his first wife died childless, as already 
mentioned. The children left by Mr. Burgwin were three in num- 
ber, as follows : John Fanning Burgwin, born at Thornbury, 
Gloucestershire, England, March 14, 1783, and died at Raleigh, 
N. C, June 18, 1864; Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin, born April 9, 
1784, and died October 9, 1863; George William Bush Burgwin, 
born September 2, 1787, and died at the Hermitage February O- 
1854, in the room in which he was born. All three of these chil- 
dren married and left descendants, as will be noted later on. 

The eldest, John Fanning Burgwin, changed the orthography 
of his name to Burgwyn, and this has been followed by his 
descendants. He married (August 3, 1806) Sarah Pierrepont 
Hunt, only daughter of Robert Hunt of New Jersey and Eunice 
Edwards his wife, daughter of the great New England theo- 
logian, Jonathan Edwards, the younger. Among the descendants 
of^ John Fanning Burgwyn by his wife Sarah Pierrepont Hunt 
is that branch of the family which later lived for the most part 
in Northampton County, N. C, among these being Colonel Henry 
King Burgwyn, Jr., of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regi- 
ment, killed at Gettysburg, and Captain William H. S. Burgwyn, 
also of the Confederate army (Company H, Thirty-fifth North 


Carolina regiment), who later was colonel of the Second North 
Carolina regiment of United States Volunteers in the war with 

George William Bush Burgwin, younger son of John Burgwin, 
married Maria, daughter of Governor Abner Nash and a sister 
of Chief Justice Frederick Nash of the North Carolina Supreme 
Court. Among his children were Captain John Henry King 
Burgwin, killed (unmarried) in the war with Mexico; Hasell 
Witherspoon Burgwin, who married Nannie Robinson of Vir- 
ginia and left an only son, John H. K. Burgwin, now of Virginia, 
and one daughter, Mary ; Hill Burgwin, who was twice married, 
first to Mary Phillips of Pittsburg and afterward to Susan Nash 
Worcester, nee Nash, of North Carolina ; Frances E. B. Burgwin, 
wife of Colonel William E. Anderson, Sr., and mother (among 
other children) of General George Burgwin Anderson and Cap- 
tain Robert Walker Anderson, both killed in the Confederate 
army; Margaret A. Burgwin, wife of the Rev. Samuel Iredell 
Johnston; Caroline A. Burgwin, who married Judge Thomas S. 
Ashe, of the North Carolina Supreme Court; Maria Burgwin, 
who married Parker Quince of Wilmington, N. C. ; and Sally 
Priscilla, who died unmarried at Wilmington in January, 1903. 

As already mentioned, the only daughter of John Burgwin was 
Caroline Elizabeth. She married Dr. George C. Clitherall, a 
surgeon in the United States army. Judge Alexander B. Clitherall 
and Major George B. Clitherall of Alabama were her sons. 

It is to be regretted that the nature of the present work will 
not admit of a more detailed account of the descendants of John 
Burgwin, who have lived in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and else- 
where, as well as in North Carolina. Hill Burgwin, above men- 
tioned, was an eminent member of the Bar in Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and for many years a lay deputy to the general conventions of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. Besides two daughters he left 
five sons: George Collinson (lawyer and bank president), Henry 
Phillips, John Henry King, and Augustus Phillips, an attorney 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company; and Kenneth Ogden, a 
son by his second wife. 


John Burgwin's seat, the Hermitage, stood until 1881, and was 
then accidentally destroyed by fire. This historic mansion was 
the seat of elegant hospitality throughout a long period of years ; 
and for an account of it (with illustration) we refer our readers 
to the Magazine of American History, November, 1886. From 
that account (written by Colonel James G. Burr) we make a brief 
quotation, as follows : 

"The mansion house was beautifully located, and presented a very im- 
posing appearance. It was about one hundred and twenty feet long; the 
north front faced a sloping lawn, extending about one hundred and fifty 
yards to Prince George's creek, and the south front faced a large flower- 
garden, from which extended a broad avenue about half a mile long, with 
a double row of walnut trees on each side, continued by a carriage-way of 
more than a mile in length through the pines until it entered the country 
road leading to Wilmington. The avenue was almost entirely destroyed 
by a tornado about sixty years ago. The house contained seventeen rooms, 
with a light, well-ventilated stone cellarage extending under the whole. 
The building was of the most substantial character. . . . The furniture 
was of massive mahogany, the greater part of it imported from England, 
with none of the deceptive veneering now in general use, but solid and 
substantial, intended not simply for ornament, but serving for the use of 
future generations. During the late war, the mansion was occupied by a 
regiment of Federal troops and greatly desecrated. All of the books, 
papers and family records were destroyed, and the venerable furniture 
broken up or given to negroes. The large and very valuable oil painting, 
set in a panel over the mantelpiece in the drawing-room, and which was 
so much admired by visitors, was picked to pieces with their bayonets 
by the soldiers, in search of concealed treasure, some of the fragments 
being afterward found in the garden. The history of that picture presents 
the character of Mr. Burgwin in such an admirable light that it well 
deserves to be reco'rded. On his return to America, after the close of 
the Revolutionary War, he found himself greatly embarrassed by the debts 
which he owed in England, incurred before the war, while a great part 
of those which were due him in America could not be collected, owing 
to insolvencies and the statute of limitations, and other obstacles inter- 
posed by his debtors. His English debts were barred by law. and wholly 
uncollectible, as his creditors well knew. Yet, notwithstanding his great 
losses on this side, which nearly sacrificed his whole estate, such was hia 
high sense of honor and indomitable energy that he did not rest until he 
had paid off every dollar he owed, although the struggle continued through 
one-half of his remaining years. It was to mark their appreciation of his 


honorable conduct that the merchants of the celebrated 'Lloyds Coffee 
House' had the picture painted and sent to him. 

"It represented a forest scene, a dark thunder storm arising in the 
distance, and in the foreground two horses drawing a heavy load — strain- 
ing every muscle in their efforts to get it in before the storm should be 
upon them. It was greatly admired by connoisseurs, and its loss has 
naturally been greatly deplored by the surviving members of the family, 
for they felt a just pride in possessing such a souvenir of their ancestor, 
reflecting so much honor upon him. 

"The subject of the picture was happily chosen, symbolizing, as it did, 
the herculean efforts of Mr. Burgwin to relieve himself of financial 
embarrassments when surrounded by the dark clouds of adversity." 

In 1786 a three-quarter oil portrait of Mr. Burgwin was 
painted by his friend, the eminent English portrait painter, John 
S. Copley. It represents Mr. Burgwin in the costume of his day 
with powdered hair, sitting at his desk with pen in hand, his left 
elbow resting on a volume with the inscription, "State of North 
Carolina — Public Accounts." This painting was in the possession 
of his great-grandson, Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn of Wel- 
don, by whose widow it has been deposited in the North Caro- 
lina Hall of History at Raleigh. 

The death of John Burgwin occurred on May 21, 1803, at the 
Hermitage. He was a man of the strictest integrity and possessed 
the good-will of his neighbors throughout a long and eventful life. 
Being a sincere lover both of his native country and of his 
adopted country, he endeavored to hold aloof when those two 
nations engaged in a deadly war. This caused ill-feeling for a 
time to exist while hostilities were in progress; but when peace 
came and it was remembered that he had never been guilty of a 
single act injurious to the American cause, the friendships of his 
earlier years were renewed. He died respected by all, and left a 
posterity which has been an honor to North Carolina. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 

■■/:/f,^rr,s dBn'll^ 



5ENRY KING BURGWYN, Jr., commonly 
called Harry Burgwyn, was born at Jamaica 
Plains, Mass., October 3, 1841, in the same 
room in which his mother and her father were 
born. The house is still standing (1917), a 
large, double, two-story, frame building in spa- 
cious grounds, occupied by descendants of the Greenough family. 
He was a descendant of John Burgwin and a brother of Colonel 
W. H. S. Burgwyn, sketches of whom are to be found in the 
present volume. 

Till he was twelve years old he was instructed by private 
tutors, who resided in the family. They were men of scholarly 
tastes and attainments and incited in their pupil a love for study. 
He was instructed not only in the English branches, but was 
taught Latin, Greek and French. By committing to memory four 
books of the "^neid" of Virgil at so much per line he made 
money enough to buy a gold watch that cost more than $100. 
He was wearing this watch when he fell at Gettysburg. When 
old enough to be sent off to school he was placed, first at the 
school of the Rev. Frederick Gibson at Chestnut Hill, near Balti- 
more, Md., and afterward at the Episcopal College at Burlington, 
N. J. At both places he was a diligent and conscientious student. 
Soon after he was fifteen years of age he received the appoint- 


ment as cadet at West Point, where his father had been a student 
for three years, but on his way there his father stopped over in 
Washington to see the secretary of war, Mr. Jefferson Davis, his 
personal friend. Mr. Davis inquired the age of the young man, 
and being told he was not sixteen, the prescribed age for admis- 
sion, declared the objection insurmountable and that he must 
wait a year longer. 

He was then placed under the tuition of Captain J. G. Foster, 
U. S. A., then a professor at the Academy, later Major-General 
J. G. Foster in command of the Federal forces in eastern North 
Carolina in the Civil War. He remained under Captain Foster's 
charge, pursuing the same studies as those taught at the Academy, 
until Captain Foster was ordered away ; he then entered as a par- 
tial course student the University of the State located at Chapel 
Hill. There he remained for two years, graduating in 1859 upon 
those studies which he had selected, sharing with the best scholars 
the highest honors of his classes and having obtained the regard 
and esteem of professors and fellow-students. He was a member 
of the Philanthropic Society and of the Zeta Psi Fraternity. At 
this period, aged eighteen years, he might, as the phrase goes, 
have been considered "educated." Not so, however, thought his 
father. Foreseeing that the dissensions which then agitated the 
North and South would find their arbitrament in war, his father 
was desirous that his son should have the advantages of a military 
education, so as to be prepared for usefulness in any emergency, 
and young Burgwyn was placed in the Virginia Military Institute 
at Lexington, where he matriculated August 10, 1859. There he 
soon placed himself with the foremost of his class and was among 
those selected by the superintendent of the Academy to act as 
guard at the execution of John Brown at Harper's Ferry, Va., 
December 2, 1859. Early in the spring of 1861, the corps of 
cadets were ordered to Richmond, Va., and Cadet Burgwyn ful- 
filled important duties there until he deemed it his duty to offer 
his services to the executive of North Carolina. 

At first commissioned as captain to recruit a company, he was 
soon promoted major and placed in command of the camp of 


instruction for newly arrived volunteers located at Crabtree, out- 
side of Raleigh, where he conducted a system of severe drill and 
strict military duties, which obtained the commendation of all 
who witnessed its good effects. His military capacity, amenity 
of manner and close attention to the comforts of his men soon 
won their confidence and affection, and on the formation of the 
Twenty-sixth regiment, composed of companies then stationed ^t 
the camp of instruction, on August 2y, 1861, he was elected its 
lieutenant-colonel under Zebulon B. Vance as colonel. 
In his diary marked "strictly private" is this entry : 

"Camp Carolina, near Raleigh, N. C, August 27, 1861. I was to-day- 
elected lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-sixth regiment North Carolina 
troops. I am nineteen years, nine months and twenty-seven days old, and 
probably the youngest lieutenant-colonel in the Confederate or United 
States armies. The command of the camp of instruction was given me 
on July 5th and after being disappointed in the organization of the 
Twelfth regiment, I have been elected to a position in which may Almighty 
God lend me His aid in discharging my duty to Him and to my country." 

Promptly after its organization the regiment was ordered to the 
seacoast of the State to protect Fort Macon, commanding Beau- 
fort harbor, and was stationed on Bogue Banks, six miles from 
Fort Macon. 

In the Raleigh Register of Wednesday, July 22, 1863, appeared 
the following (in part) obituary notice, in which Colonel Burg- 
wyn's subsequent military career is briefly summarized: 

"From this State we follow the subject of our narrative to the 
bloody fields around Richmond, winding up with the terrific fight 
of Malvern Hill, in which his regiment, the Twenty-sixth, was unsur- 
passed for heroism by any troops on the field. On the resignation 
of Colonel Vance, when he became governor-elect of this State, young 
Burgwyn was elected colonel, and soon thereafter we find him again 
in service in his native State. In the critical campaign in Martin 
County, when the enemy were threatening disastrous consequences to 
the region of the Roanoke River, we find Colonel Burgwyn perform- 
ing signal services, especially in the engagement of Rawle's Mills, 
where he displayed a cool judgment and indomitable courage, of which 
a veteran of many years' standing might have been proud. In all the 
course of his career, so well calculated *to turn the head' of one so 


young, Colonel Burgwyn displayed a modesty so commendable that 
he silenced the tongue of envy and won the confidence of his brothers 
in arms. When, on Governor Vance's resignation, it was suggested 
that he was too young for the colonelcy, General D. H. Hill thus wrote 
of him: 'Lieutenant-colonel Burgwyn has showed the highest qual- 
ities of a soldier and officer, in the camp and on the battlefield, and 
ought, by all means, to be promoted.' As we have seen. Colonel Burgwyn 
did receive the promotion, and subsequently was strongly recommended 
for the office of brigadier-general. . . . 

"We conclude this imperfect tribute to Colonel Burgwyn with the 
following letters, received by his father from officers in his regiment: 

'F ^ ^ ^ ^ 

"Extract of a letter from Captain J. J. Young, of Wake County, 
Quartermaster Twenty-sixth regiment North Carolina troops. 

" 'Near Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. 

"I feel it my duty to communicate the painful and melancholy intelli- 
gence to you of the death of Colonel H. K. Burgwyn, who was killed nobly 
fighting for his country, July i, 1863. He was shot through both lungs 
and died an easy death. I have buried him as well as possible under a 
walnut tree leading from Gettysburg to Chambersburg, about two miles 
from the former place. His loss is great — more than any of us can 
imagine — to his country. To me it is almost stunning, and to the whole 
regiment. We gained a great victory on the first of the month, the enemy 
losing 12,000, it is said, but though ours was not a fourth so large, his made 
it great. 

" 'Poor Kincian [his servant] takes it bitterly. The colonel, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lane, Captain McCreery and eight others were shot down [in 
succession] with our colors in hand. Captain McCreery was killed 
instantly, Lieutenant-Colonel Lane seriously, if not mortally [wounded]. 
The regiment went in 800 strong and came out the first day 250. 

" 'The fighting yesterday and to-day has been terrible, and will con- 
tinue to-morrow, I suppose. General Pettigrew is in command of our 
division. Major Jones of the Twenty-sixth of our brigade. This will give 
you an idea of the frightful loss of the officers.* 

"In this connection we subjoin a letter from General Pettigrew to 
Governor Vance, testifying to the unparalleled gallantry of Colonel 
Burgwyn's regiment: 

" 'Headquarters Pettigrew's Brigade, July 9, 1863. 

" 'Dear Sir : Knowing that you would be anxious to hear from your 

old regiment, the Twenty-sixth, I embrace an opportunity to write you 

a hasty note. It covered itself with glory. This is no passing eulogium 

I pay them. My brigade and that of Colonel Brockenborough were held 


in reserve on the evening of the ist of July. It fell to the lot of the 
Twenty-sixth to charge one of the strongest positions possible. They 
drove certainly three, and we have every reason to believe five, regiments 
out of the woods with a gallantry unsurpassed. Their loss has been, 
heavy, very heavy, but the missing are on the battlefield and in the 
hospital. Both on the ist and 3d your old command did honor to your 
association with them and to the State they represented. 

" T have not mentioned the rest of the brigade, because this is not 
an official report, but you may tell all friends to be proud of them, for 
they deserve it. 

" 'Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" 7. J« Pettigrew, Brigadier-general. 

"'Governor Z. B. Vance.'" 

On October 20, 1897, a painting of the three colonels of the 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina troops was presented to the State. 
The presentation speech was made in Raleigh by Mr. John Burg- 
win MacRae, of Jackson. Of Colonel Burgwyn he says : 

"In June, 1861, he was placed by Hon. John W. Ellis, then governor 
of North Carolina, in command of the camp of instruction at Crabtree 
Creek, four miles distant from this city. Methinks I can see him now, 
as he stood there, firm, erect, his eye with command, detect- 
ing every wrong movement of man or musket in that long line of 1700 
troops. Every inch of him a soldier, he enthused into those around him 
the influence of that martial spirit with which he was so thoroughly 
imbued. Arduous, unremitting in his duties, he was never idle. Eight 
hours a day the men were drilled in the schools of the soldier, the company, 
the battalion. As soon as any efficiency was effected, they were formed 
into regiments and sent on to the seat of war. On the 27th of August, 1861, 
he was elected the lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina 
regiment, and from thenceforth it was his main care to put his command 
into that state of efficiency so essential to the success of arms. . . . 

"Born in affluence, nor obliged to toil, early in life he realized that 
without labor nothing was worth having. And what he did he did 
thoroughly. He loved to work and believed by so doing he was best 
serving his Maker. Truthful and courageous, high-toned and hon- 
orable, honest in all his dealings, courteous and gentle, he was uni- 
versally beloved by his associates at school and college. In appear- 
ance he was the very embodiment of manly beauty. Well made, sym- 
metrical in figure, without superfluous flesh, tall, erect, with his fine head 
well poised on his shoulders, he was in every respect the ideal soldier. 

"In his daily life he was gentle yet sprightly, fond of social amenities, 


kind-hearted and ever courteous in manner and bearing; he was inflexibly 
stern and impartial in the discharge of duty. In his intercourse with 
women he was eminently chivalric in an age of chivalric men. None 
could be gentler, more attentive, more courteous than he. No Paladin 
in mediaeval days bore himself with more knightly grace. He constantly 
sought the company of the gentler sex, believing that the atmosphere of 
a refined society was a strong safeguard against those evils which young 
men are so strongly tempted to embrace. He had none of those vices so 
common to young men of that or this day. 

"He was as pure in mind as a young virgin. His filial affections were 
beautiful to contemplate. His high respect and reverence for his father 
and deep love and veneration for his mother were conspicuous traits 
in his noble character. Their slightest wish was a law unto himself, which 
he obeyed with alacrity and pleasure. No one who partook of the 
hospitality of that delightful home on the lower Roanoke can ever forget 
how attractive and charming he was in the social circle. 

"In religious matters he was a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and showed forth his religion in his daily life. His was in all 
respects a beautifully rounded character, a perfect exemplification of the 
old Horatian line, *Et in se ipso totus teres atque rotundus.' " 

Mr. MacRae also eulogizes the enlisted men of the regiment as 
follows : 

"The annals of modern warfare fail to show, in any one command of 
equal size, so large a loss as that sustained by the Twenty-sixth regiment 
in that fearful battle. The official figures tell us that out of 800 men, 
rank and file, taken into action, 80 were left to report for duty after the 
three days' fight. Company E carried in 82 officers and men and brought 
out only 3 untouched. Company F, consisting of 88 muskets and 3 com- 
missioned officers, lost every man killed or wounded. Every man was 
hit, and the orderly-sergeant who made out the list did it with a bullet 
in each leg. Take the most dreadful encounters of modern times — 
the British infantry at Salamanca; the French at the battle of the Moskra; 
the Old Guard at Waterloo; the Light Brigade at Balaklava — I use no 
exaggeration when I say they pale into insignificance compared with the 
loss sustained by the Twenty-sixth North Carolina at Gettysburg." 

The remains of Colonel Burgwyn were removed from the bat- 
tlefield in 1867 and reinterred in Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh. 
A beautiful monument marks his final resting place. 

William H. S. Burgwyn. 


I7n^.iyS/^ M^r&i^s ^'3^^ /-/y:" 



CONSPICUOUS for his distinguished career and 
high character was the late Colonel William 
Hyslop Sumner Burgwyn, of Weldon, Halifax 
County, N. C, a brave soldier, an able lawyer, 
a liberally educated and refined gentleman, and 
a man closely identified with the commercial 
and industrial progress of his community and State since the 
period of the Civil War. Descended from staunch and erudite 
English and Welsh stock, Colonel Burgwyn inherited the gen- 
tility, courage and strong characteristics of a martial and schol- 
arly ancestry, and was himself a gentleman of soldierly bearing 
and literary attainments. His maternal ancestors were among 
the first settlers of Massachusetts ; on the paternal side he sprung 
from an old North Carolina family. His paternal great-grand- 
father, John Burgwin, of the Hermitage, near Wilmington, N. C, 
came to America from Bristol, England, about 1750. He estab- 
lished himself as a merchant in Wilmington, and a sketch of his 
career is printed in this volume. On April 27, 1782, John Burg- 
win married as his second wife, in Bristol, England, Miss Eliza 
Bush, daughter of Mr. George Bush, a merchant of that city. 
Of this marriage the oldest child was John Fanning Burgwin, 
who, after completing his education in England, removed to this 
country and married, on August 3, 1806, Miss Sarah Pierrepont 


Hunt, daughter of Eunice, the youngest daughter of Jonathan 
Edwards, Jr., of New England, and by her he had two daugh- 
ters and six sons. The second son, Henry King Burgwyn, was 
born January 7, 181 3, and died February 2, 1877. He married 
Anna Greenough, of Boston, Mass., and that union was blessed 
with eight children. The oldest son, named after his father, 
Henry King Burgwyn, was a gallant Confederate officer, the 
distinguished colonel of the famous Twenty-sixth North Carolina 
regiment, who was killed at the head of his troops with the regi- 
mental colors in his hands, in the memorable charge through 
McPherson's woods, at Gettysburg, on July i, 1863, his regiment 
suffering in that battle the heaviest loss suffered by any regiment 
during the entire war. 

William H. S. Burgwyn was the fourth child and second son 
of Henry King Burgwyn, of Thornbury Plantation, Northampton 
County, N. C, and Anna Greenough, of Boston, Mass. He was 
born on July 23, 1845, at the residence of his maternal grand- 
mother, Mrs. David Stoddard Greenough, at Jamaica Plains, 
which now forms a part of the city of Boston, and in the room 
in which his mother and her father and grandfather were born, 
and the house is now occupied by his aunt, the widow of David 
Stoddard Greenough, the seventh of that name. He was named 
after his step-grandfather, General William Hyslop Sumner, of 
Boston, the son of Governor Increase Sumner, of Massachusetts, 
and it is noteworthy that while Colonel Burgwyn was on his 
father's side a descendant of Jonathan Edwards, he was also re- 
lated to that distinguished gentleman on the side of his mother, 
who, like Mr. Edwards, was a descendant of the Stoddards. 

William H. S. Burgwyn's childhood was passed in the country, 
at Thornbury Plantation, on the Roanoke River, in Northampton 
County, North Carolina. His father, a wealthy planter, was de- 
votedly attached to his family and friends, and, absorbed in his 
agricultural operations, preferred the enjoyments of his home life 
to the excitement of political contests. Enjoying excellent health 
and fond of out-of-door sports, young Burgwyn passed a large 
portion of his hours of recreation in hunting and fishing, and fre- 


quent practice made him an adept with carpenters' tools. He 
was fond of books, and spent much of his time in reading the 
best works of selected authors, and especially the classics. His 
parents' circumstances were such that every facility for acquiring 
an education was afforded him. Until nine years of age he was 
taught by private tutors residing in his father's family ; for the 
next three years he was a pupil at Burlington College, New Jer- 
sey, and at Rev. Frederick Gibson's school, at Chestnut Hill, near 
Baltimore, Md. During 1857 and 1858 he was a student at Horn- 
er's School at Oxford, N. C. The next year he entered George- 
town College, D. C, and after due preparation at that venerable 
institution, in the summer of i860 joined the freshman class at 
the University of North Carolina. 

In the spring of 1861, when the freedom of the South was 
threatened and North Carolina called on her sons to embrace the 
cause of southern rights and independence, and a great stirring 
wave of patriotism passed over Chapel Hill, Burgwyn, a gifted 
scholar, was one of the first of the loyal students to lay aside his 
books and take up arms in the South's defense. Immediately 
upon his enlisting in the Confederate army he was appointed 
drill master at the camp of instruction at Crabtree, near Raleigh, 
and in the following summer he accompanied the Twenty-second 
regiment. Colonel J. Johnston Pettigrew commanding, to Brooks* 
Station, and later to Evansport, on the Potomac River. But in 
the fall of 1861 he was appointed adjutant of the cam.p of instruc- 
tion at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, where he rendered impor- 
tant service in drilling and instructing the new companies arriving 
to be organized into regiments until August, 1862, when he re- 
turned to Virginia, having been elected first lieutenant of Com- 
pany H, Thirty-fifth North CaroHna regiment, of which his 
friend, the distinguished Matthew W. Ransom, was the colonel, 
and who presided at the election. Lieutenant Burgwyn was with 
his regiment in the Maryland campaign of 1862, at the capture 
of Harper's Ferry and at Sharpsburg, and in reserve at Marye's 
Heights at Fredericksburg. On the resignation, on account of 
ill-health, of his captain, D. G. Maxwell, of Charlotte, N. C, in 


the spring of 1863, he received merited promotion to the captaincy 
of his company, and in January, 1864, was assigned to duty as 
assistant adjutant-general of Clingman's bridage. Always con- 
spicuous for his gallantry, at the battle of Drury's Bluff, on 
May 16, 1864, when Butler was bottled up at Bermuda Hun- 
dreds, Colonel Burgwyn led the charge. 

As an illustration of Captain Burgwyn's gallantry on the field 
we condense an account given by Judge Clark in a note to the 
history of Clingman's brigade, published in the "Regimental His- 
tories" : 

"As soon as the order to charge was given Captain Burgwyn sprang 
upon the parapet, waved his hat, and raising the rebel yell, crossed the 
ditch in front of the brigade, calling on the men to follow, and nobly 
did they come on, though the enemy's sharpshooters fired as fast as they 
could pull the triggers of their repeating Spencer rifles. Though the line 
was disorganized by obstacles, not a man faltered. After pressing for- 
ward about three hundred yards, because of the heavy fire, fearing 
pome hesitation, he seized the colors of the Fifty-first regiment, and waving 
his hat and calling on the men to follow, ran in advance about two hun- 
dred yards, where they encountered the enemy's first line, posted in their 
rifle pits; but as they reached that point Captain Burgwyn fell from 
sheer exhaustion. Rising, however, he rushed on with the men, the enemy 
surrendering in crowds. He had just had time to hand the colors to the 
color guard when he fell fainting; but having revived, and seeing a battery 
of artillery some two hundred and fifty yards distant which v/as firing 
on his men, he again seized the colors and led the men to the charge. 
Onward they pressed over the battery, and struck the enemy's line some 
four hundred and fifty yards further on, he leading and being the first 
to gain the works; but once more he fell exhausted, and then recovering 
himself, and finding the enemy in full flight, he again rushed forward, 
leading his men in hot pursuit." 

It was at the battle of Cold Harbor, June i, 1864, that he was 
severely wounded while leading his brigade in a counter charge. 
As soon as his wounds had healed he returned to duty, reaching 
his brigade in front of Richmond about the middle of September, 
and in the fierce assault on Fort Harrison, on September 30th, he 
was again wounded and unfortunately fell into the hands of the 
enemy. He was confined at first in Washington City and then 


at Fort Delaware, where he was kept a prisoner until March, 
1865, when, through the intercession of Colonel William Norris, 
of Baltimore, then Confederate States assistant commissioner of 
exchange, he was paroled, but not exchanged. He was surren- 
dered when the army of General Joseph E. Johnston, to which 
his brigade was attached, laid down their arms. 

In May, 1865, he returned to the University of North Carolina 
to complete his education, and during vacation made up his 
studies to such an extent as to enable him to enter the sophomore 
class at the fall session. With a student's career which attracted 
admiration, he was graduated in June, 1868, from the University 
with first honors, receiving the degrees of A.B. and later A.M., 
and delivering the Latin salutatory address. He attended the 
law department of Harvard University to complete his law stud- 
ies, and graduated at that institution in 1869 with the degree of 
LL.B. In the same year he located in Baltimore, where, after 
being admitted to the Maryland Bar, he practised his profession 
successfully and won the reputation of being a discreet, able and 
conscientious lawyer. To broaden his intellectual and profes- 
sional scope. Colonel Burgwyn in 1874 began the study of medi- 
cine, and in the spring of 1876 received his diploma as doctor of 
medicine from the Washington Medical University of Baltimore. 

On the breaking out of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad riot 
of July, 1877, Colonel Burgwyn offered his services to Governor 
Carroll, of Maryland, and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 
Eighth regiment. The service he then rendered caused him to be 
elected colonel of the Fifth Maryland regiment, a celebrated mili- 
tary organization, and during the time he held this command he 
again demonstrated his capacity as a leader and enjoyed the 
esteem and respect of that body of citizen soldiery. While in 
Baltimore he published a ''Digest" of the Maryland Reports ; by 
a resolution the Legislature of that State subscribed for 250 
copies at $10 a copy, and he sold the copyright for $2,600 in ad- 
dition, realizing $5,100 from his work. 

In 1882, leaving honors and a lucrative law clientage behind. 
Colonel Burgwyn returned to North Carolina and established the 


Bank of Henderson in the town of that name, which became one 
of the soundest and safest banking institutions in the State, and 
which has been instrumental in making that town a young city 
and its people prosperous. Colonel Burgwyn not only established 
the Bank of Henderson and a large tobacco factory there, but an 
electric-light system and water-works were fathered by him, and 
he was generally connected with every considerable enterprise in 
that county. While living in Henderson he was one of the origi- 
nal callers of a convention of the farmers of North CaroHna to 
memorialize the State Legislature to create an agricultural and 
mechanical college. He was appointed by Governor Scales to rep- 
resent North Carolina in the southern interstate convention in 
Atlanta in 1887; and again the following year at Montgomery, 
Ala. In 1889, when the same convention convened in Asheville, 
N. C, he was chairman of the North Carolina delegation. 

In 1893 Colonel Burgwyn disposed of his interest in the bank- 
ing business and was appointed by Secretary of the Treasury 
Carlisle national bank examiner for the southern States, and 
met the requirements of that position with great skill and effi- 
ciency. He resigned this position in April, 1901, to accept the 
presidency of the First National Bank of Weldon. 

When the war with Spain was declared and President McKin- 
ley called for volunteers Colonel Burgwyn offered his services to 
Governor Russell of North Carolina and was, in May, 1898, 
appointed colonel of the Second regiment, North Carolina volun- 
teer troops; this appointment gave satisfaction to the entire State 
as well as to the soldiers under his command. He was peculiarly 
qualified for the honor, possessing every soldierly attribute and 
element of fitness for the position. Santiago and Havana having 
fallen, and the war being over soon after the organization of this 
regiment, he did not have an opportunity of distinguishing him- 
self on the field of battle in the uniform of blue as he had done 
in the Civil War, when he wore the gray, and was mustered out 
of service November 25, 1898. 

In 1901 Colonel Burgwyn established the First National Bank 
of Weldon, N. C, became its president, and in 1903 the Bank 


of Rich Square and the Bank of Ayden, and in 1904 he estab- 
lished the First National Bank of Rocky Mount and the Bank of 
Northampton, at Jackson, N. C, becoming the president of each. 

Aside from his business achievements and rnilitary distinctions, 
Colonel Burgwyn was a master of voice and pen, and delivered 
worthy orations on important subjects on many notable occasions. 
His address before the two literary societies of the University of 
North Carolina in aid of the establishment of a chair of history 
at that institution, made in 1890, was received with the highest 
applause by its alumni and friends, and his address on the life 
and times of General Thomas L. Clingman (with whom he was 
so closely associated during the war), delivered in Raleigh in 
May, 1898, was not only noted for its eloquence, but is a valuable 
contribution to the war literature of the State. His memorial 
address on the military and civil services of General Matthew W. 
Ransom, delivered in the chamber of the house of representa- 
tives at Raleigh, N. C, May 10, 1906, is regarded by many as his 
best literary production. He is also the author of a sketch of Gov- 
ernor Z. B. Vance, printed in the ''Library of Southern Litera- 
ture," and written at the request of its editors. In 1899 he made 
an exhaustive address before the State Bankers' Association on 
the resources of North Carolina. He was also the author of sev- 
eral valuable articles which have been published by the industrial 
and political press. He was a sterling Jackson Democrat and 
never voted any other party ticket. His religious affiliations 
were with the Protestant Episcopal Church, and he attended as 
lay deputy its general conventions of 1886 and 1889. He was 
a member of the Philanthropic Society of the University of North 
Carolina and of the Zeta Psi Fraternity. 

Among the influences which developed and shaped his career 
were those of his home life in the country and on the plantation, 
which gave him a healthy physique; of the University, altogether 
good and inspiring; but more than all others, the influence of his 
mother and his wife on his whole life, intellectual and moral, and 
he attributed all the good he did and achievements accomplished 
to their counsel and guidance. 



November 21, 1876, Colonel Burgwyn was fortunately married 
to Miss Margaret Carlisle Dunlop, of Richmond, Va., one of the 
most cultured and esteemed ladies who have ever adorned social 
and religious circles in North Carolina. She still survives her 
husband and resides in the city of Raleigh. 

The death of Colonel Burgwyn occurred on January 3, 191 3, 
and he was interred in the Confederate Cemetery in Raleigh by 
the side of his brother, who was killed at Gettysburg. Colonel 
Burgwyn left no children. 

6'. A. Ashe. 




ION. MARION BUTLER, formerly United 
States senator, is a native of Sampson County, 
N. C. His great-grandfather, James Butler, 
settled in 1760, in the section which is now 
Sampson County, and there his family has 
ever since resided. When the troubles with the 
mother country came on James Butler espoused the cause 
of the people and served as patriot soldier during the Revo- 
lutionary War. A century later his descendant, Wiley Butler, 
living in the same community and animated by the same 
patriotic spirit, likewise responded to his country's call and be- 
came a soldier of the Confederacy. He married Romelia Ferrell, 
and on May 20, 1863, their first son was born to them, Marion 
Butler, the subject of this sketch. Their home was some ten 
miles distant from Clinton, the county seat, and there in the 
country Marion Butler passed his boyhood, being well trained by 
his mother and superintending for his father the work on the 
farm. He directed and helped to clear land, to make the crops, 
to cut timber, work turpentine boxes and burn tar kilns, and 
become familiar with all the operations of country life in the 
piney woods of North Carolina. But interspersed among the 
days of hard work were periods when hunting and fishing gave 
recreation and books and studies occupied his time. 

Scattered through that part of North Carolina prior to the 


Civil War were some fine academies for females, which gave to it 
a distinctive character, there being a more general diffusion of 
higher education among young women than among the men of 
that section, and the mother of Marion Butler was not only a 
woman of superior mind and character, but of scholastic training; 
in her he found an excellent teacher, and although he attended 
the Salem High School in the neighborhood, virtually he was 
prepared for college by his mother, and particularly was he well 
instructed by her in mathematics, including geometry. 

His father was reasonably prosperous in his business, and as it 
was his desire that his children should have a superior education, 
Marion, in 1881, being then eighteen years of age, became a 
student at the University, where he graduated four years later. 
It was his intention to seek a professional career, and while pur- 
suing the regular course at the University, he also attended the 
law lectures, and would have stood his examinations for his 
license that year; but all his plans were altered by the sudden 
death of his father in the spring before his graduation. This 
misfortune threw upon him the care of his mother's family, em- 
bracing a number of young children, and, abandoning for a time 
his purpose to enter the legal profession, he took his father's place 
on the farm and in the naval stores business ; and in order to aid 
in the education of his brothers and sisters he became principal of 
the Salem Academy, and by his devotion to his mother repaid her 
in some measure for the constant care she had bestowed upoiT 
him in his childhood. 

Up to 1886 agriculture in North Carolina had been prosperous,, 
but about that time a period of depression set in, cotton began 
to fall in price, and the great grain crops of the new country 
of the West rendered farming in the East an unprofitable em- 
ployment, while in the western agricultural States the financial' 
conditions also produced widespread unrest and dissatisfaction. 
It was apparent that agriculture was on the decline, and to devise 
and secure remedial measures the Farmers' Alliance was organ- 
ized. In the spring of 1888 an organizer appeared in Mr. Butler's 
neighborhood and asked for permission to use the academy build- 


ing for the purpose of establishing a lodge. The general subject 
had long interested Mr. Butler, and being now brought so point- 
edly to his attention it enlisted his sympathy and co-operation. 
A week later a county lodge was organized and he was elected 
its president. He immediately purchased the Clinton Caucasian, 
a weekly newspaper published at the county seat, and becoming 
its editor, threw all his power into the promotion of the cause. 
The Caucasian was edited with ability, and underlying its strong 
and forcible editorials was a bed-rock of practical sympathy with 
the farming interests that attracted wide support and won for it 
the confidence and devoted attachment of the farmers of Samp- 
son and adjoining counties. Colonel L. L. Polk, the editor of the 
Progressive Farmer at Raleigh, was at the head of the state or- 
ganization, and Dr. Cyrus Thompson, Hon. S. B. Alexander, 
Major W. A. Graham, Governor Elias Carr, and many other 
strong men throughout the State became associated in the move- 
ment, which quickly spread throughout the entire farming ele- 
ment and dominated public affairs. 

Among the practical evils complained of were the power of 
railway companies to combine and charge what the traffic would 
bear and to discriminate by favoritism and rebates, thus stifling 
competition, causing the formation of trusts and the low prices of 
agricultural products, which were largely attributed to under- 
consumption induced by the low price of labor and a scarcity of 
money. As a remedy it was proposed to have state control of 
freight rates, to be followed by public ownership of the railways 
and of the telegraph lines and to establish what was termed "the 
sub-treasury," which provided for the storage of agricultural 
products in government warehouses and the lending of money 
upon that security by the United States Treasury, and to have a 
larger per capita circulation of legal tender money, to be each 
year increased in proportion to the increase of population and 
business, and to control the trusts and corporations by legislative 
enactment and generally to promote the agricultural interests of 
the country. The better to control their operation, the organiza- 
tion excluded from membership all lawyers, merchants and bank- 


ers, admitting only those who were interested in farming. Still 
it was not a separate political organization, but declared its pur- 
pose to accomplish the desired reforms through the existing 

In 1890 Mr. Butler, then only twenty-seven years of age, took 
up vigorously the fight for the establishment of a railroad com- 
mission to control railroad freights and fares, and became a candi- 
date for the state senate, making that the leading issue in his 
campaign. After a hard contest he was elected and became the 
champion of that measure in the General Assembly and was 
chairman of the joint committee to whom his bill was referred. 
He embodied in his measure a further provision looking to the 
regulation of telegraph lines and all other natural monopolies, and 
also for the taxation of their properties, making these corpora- 
tions pay a larger proportion of the public taxes than they had 
heretofore done, and he had the gratification of seeing his impor- 
tant and highly beneficial ideas enacted into law. This act is still 
in force. 

For years Dr. Alderman and Dr. Mclver had appealed to each 
General Assembly to establish a college for women, but without 
success. When they appealed to Mr. Butler he took up the fight 
and put through the law establishing the Normal and Industrial 
School for Women. 

In the Legislature of 1895, which elected him to the United 
States Senate, he championed the proposed six per cent, interest 
law, which had been defeated by many preceding legislatures, 
and succeeded in placing that beneficent measure upon the statute 

These three measures successfully championed by Mr. Butler 
have been referred to as the three greatest constructive laws en- 
acted by the State in a quarter of a century. 

For some years there had been a constant and unremitting 
warfare waged against state aid to the University, in the interest 
of the denominational colleges, and there was danger that the 
appropriations necessary for the proper maintenance and expan- 
sion of that institution would be withheld. At the moment of the 


greatest peril the course of Mr. Butler and his active influence 
checked that movement and saved his alma mater, and since that 
time the regular appropriations have been made without serious 
objection. At this time a large majority of the Legislature was 
pronounced in its hostility to the University, and those who 
championed its cause took their political lives in their hands ; but 
it has ever been a marked characteristic of Marion Butler that 
when duty calls he never stops to measure the odds or count 
the cost. 

In 1891 he was elected president of the State Farmers* Al- 
liance, which position he held for two years; at the Memphis 
meeting of the National Alliance, in 1893, he was chosen first 
vice-president of that organization. 

As long as the Farmers' Alliance refrained from the forma- 
tion of a new political organization it easily dominated the state 
Legislature, and, largely controlling the Democratic party, it vir- 
tually governed the State. The situation was extremely irksome 
to those Democrats who were tabooed by the Alliance and saw 
themselves falling into a helpless and hopeless minority within 
their own party. The factional lines were being drawn with 
great rigidity and factional feeling became very bitter. The 
divergence was on national matters rather than because of local 
affairs, and the result was that the supporters of President Cleve- 
land's administration were ostracized, for the power of the Alli- 
ance had become almost supreme in the State. As the Alliance 
was not at all in line with the National Democratic organization, 
and it being apparent that President Cleveland would be renom- 
inated at the aproaching National Convention, at the State Demo- 
cratic Convention of 1892, in June, the AUiance delegates re- 
frained from participating in the election of delegates to attend 
the National Convention. This was a sign of coming events, and 
the People's party was formed, and in the fall it presented a ticket 
for governor and state officers as well as for the presidency. The 
breach was now complete. The adherents of the Farmers' Alli- 
ance separated themselves entirely from the Democratic party. In 
February, 1893, Colonel Polk, the leader, having died, Mr. Butler 


was elected president of the National Farmers' Alliance, and he 
continued to hold that position until 1897. 

On the formation of the People's party the Alliance threw away 
its domination within the Democratic party in this State, but it 
still retained great power in the Legislature. At the election 
of 1894, when a Legislature was to be chosen which would elect 
two United States senators, Mr. Butler, who was chairman of the 
People's party state committee, planned and organized fusion 
with the Republican party and secured an Assembly that elected 
himself and Jeter C. Pritchard to the United States Senate. 

Senator Butler's political success was so phenomenal that it 
calls attention to the characteristics which enabled him to achieve 
position and distinction so early in life. 

The essentials for successful leadership are ability to organize 
men and arouse them to enthusiasm and zeal for work; ability 
to present a cause with such force, earnestness and impressiveness 
as will inspire faith and confidence in its justness as a popular 
measure, and lastly, an indomitable will power, coupled with inde- 
fatigable industry and zeal. In an eminent degree Senator Butler 
possessed all these qualifications. 

Senator Butler signalized his entrance into the Senate by intro- 
ducing and securing the passage in 1896 of a resolution known 
as the Butler Anti-Bond Resolution, prohibiting the issue of any 
more government bonds without specific authority from Con- 
gress. It will be remembered that the Cleveland bond issues were 
made without such authority. This measure was debated ex- 
haustively for some weeks, with such distinguished senators 
opposing it as David B. Hill, William Lindsay and George Gray, 
Democrats ; and John Sherman, Henry Cabot Lodge, William B. 
Allison and Nelson W. Aldrich, Republicans. In spite of the 
strong ©position this measure encountered, yet, through the inde- 
fatigable efforts of Senator Butler and his ability to organize 
strong forces in favor of the measure, he succeeded in securing 
its passage. 

As a debater he was always calm and self-contained, and 
evinced a thorough knowledge of the proposed legislation, always 


sustaining himself very creditably when opposed by any senator. 
In fact, he ranked as one of the ablest debaters. He was never 
known to show any excitement, even when the discussions became 
acrimonious, and this fact, coupled with his incisive reasoning 
powers, was one of the secrets of his brilliant success as a debater. 
In the presentation of his views on political and cognate subjects 
he was always clear, forcible, earnest and impressive. There were 
few men in pubhc life who studied more diligently than he. While 
in the Senate he rarely ever retired before midnight, but remained 
in his private office in his house, either studying, collecting data 
or preparing for debates. He seldom attended any social func- 
tions, his preference being for work and study. 

As a member of the Post-office Committee of the Senate, Sena- 
tor Butler rendered service of inestimable value to his State and 
country. It was through his sole efforts that Congress appropri- 
ated $50,000 to make a test of the rural free delivery mail system. 
When he introduced this measure in the Senate it was antago- 
nized by the postmaster-general, who gave it as his opinion that it 
would be unwise and impracticable in operation and a useless and 
wasteful expenditure of public money even to try a few routes 
as an experiment. Senator Butler, having absolute faith in the 
merit of his proposition, which was a novel and radical measure 
to present to such a conservative body as the United States 
Senate, made a persistent and determined effort, finally overcom- 
ing all opposition and securing its enactment into law. There is 
now no measure more popular throughout the United States than 
the rural free delivery system, the appropriation for its mainte- 
nance and extension now aggregating $53,000,000. The free 
rural delivery system, which is now here to stay, will soon extend 
its blessings to the home of every rural citizen in this great Re- 
public and will ever stand as a monument to the North Carolina 
senator. He also urged the establishment of a system of postal 
savings banks, parcel post, and postal telegraph and telephones. 
He succeeded in getting his bill providing for a system of postal 
savings banks favorably reported from the committee. 

Senator Chandler of New Hampshire, who served in the Senate 


at the same time, in a recent article giving the history of the 
estabHshment of the rural free delivery system, written at the 
request of the editor of the Clinton News-Despatch, refers to 
Senator Butler as *'the father of rural free delivery." Senator 
Chandler closed that published statement with the following para- 
graph : 

"On March 4, 1901, Mr. Butler's term and mine expired, as also did 
that of Senator Wolcott, the chairman of the Committee on Post Office 
and Post Roads. He had opposed various propositions supported in 
the committee by Senator Butler. But when in the closing days the 
members arranged to present to their retiring chairman a silver service, it 
was agreed that Senator Butler should make the presentation. Chairman 
Wolcott, in his acceptance, stated that no senator had ever accomplished 
more during six years than had Senator Butler, and he pointed to his 
success in establishing free rural delivery and also his triumph in winning 
a majority of the committee to him in favor of a postal savings bank 
system, and generously suggested the probability that if he was to continue 
in the Senate he would within the next six years see established postal' 
telegraph and telephones, penny postage, parcels post, and other reforms 
that he had advocated. 

"You inquired only about rural free delivery, but T mention Senator 
Wolcott's generous praises of Senator Butler, having no doubt from 
your letter that they will be interesting to you and your readers." 

As a member of the Senate Naval Committee Mr. Butler cham- 
pioned and secured, almost single handed, an appropriation to 
begin the building of submarines, and as a result of his efforts, 
the United States was the first country in the world to build a 
modern submarine. 

It is safe to say that no man has ever made a more brilliant 
irecord during one term in the State senate and one term in the 
United States Senate. 

It, was after Senator Butler had been elected to the Senate that 
he began seriously to study the tariff question. Though raised 
a free trader, he soon became convinced that, while free-trade 
doctrines were attractive theoretically, a country situated as the 
United States needs a well-balanced protective tariff to protect 
its industries and labor, and also to promote general development 


and prosperity. He was impressed in studying the life of Daniel 
Webster with the reason that caused that great statesman to 
change from free trade to protection; he often expressed the 
opinion that if Calhoun, who was originally a protectionist, but 
who afterward became a free trader, on account of the condi- 
tions of slave labor in the South, were to-day alive that he would 
stand for protection. Indeed, he became firmly convinced that 
the South, with her great natural resources to be developed, is 
to-day in a position to profit more from the beneficent influences 
of protection than even is New England. 

In 1896 Senator Butler was elected chairman of the national 
committee of the People's party, and with his party supported 
William J. Bryan for President in 1896 and in 1900; in 1904 
he supported President Roosevelt, and has since affiliated with 
the Republican party. 

While in the Senate, in 1899, he completed his interrupted law 
course at the University, and since the expiration of his term has 
built up a lucrative practice. He has also become identified with 
some large mining interests, having properties in Alaska and 
Arizona, and by his intelligence and zealous attention to business 
he has established intimate relations with men of large means, 
who are associated with him in these enterprises. 

Such has been the interesting career of a young Carolinian 
who, by boldness of conception, self-reliance and skillful manage- 
ment of men, combined with talents of a high order, has emerged 
from the quiet life of Sampson County and played so prominent 
a part in matters of national importance. 

Senator Butler's religious affiliations are with the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and he is also a member of the University 
Club of Washington. 

His first aspiration to seek a vocation that might lead to dis- 
tinction was when as a small boy he used to attend the county 
courts of Sampson with his father and when, on October 12, 
1876, he rode with his father in the political procession from his 
neighborhood to Clinton to attend the debate between Governor 
Vance and Judge Settle, who were the contending candidates for 


governor. That was the most memorable campaign ever known 
in the history of North CaroHna. His ambition, inflamed by the 
great speeches and the excitement and interest of that occasion, 
was strengthened by the influence of his mother and her pride 
in her oldest son; and since August, 1893, when he won as his 
bride the lovely and accomplished Miss Florence Faison, a mem- 
ber of the oldest and most influential family of Sampson County, 
her companionship and encouragement have augmented his zeal 
to attain a distinguished place among the influential men of the 

In his household Senator Butler has been fortunate and happy. 
Five children have blessed his wedded life, and he is fond of 
home and the pleasures of the domestic circle. He still retains 
his love for country life, and spends a part of each year on the 
plantation in Sampson County, and his chief recreation is in im- 
proving and beautifying the old country home. 

Notwithstanding his own success at an early age, he advises 
young men not to enter public life when too young, nor until 
they have mastered the means of livelihood; and in every event 
to stand by their convictions and maintain their self-respect, 
and to put both heart and brains into their work. Then, he 
says, success will come as the result of effort. He does not 
believe in "luck," but he does believe in pluck and work, or, as 
he said in a recent address, that all of the elements of true suc- 
cess were embraced in the one word, "courage." 

James B. Lloyd, 



fLIAS CARR, governor of North Carolina 
(1893-97), and one of the State's most success- 
ful agriculturists, was a resident and native of 
the county of Edgecombe, born at Bracebridge, 
the Carr estate, near the village of Old Sparta, 
February 25, 1839. His father, Jonas Johnston 
Carr, who married Elizabeth Jane Hilliard, a daughter of James 
Hilliard, of Nash County, was a grandson and namesake of 
Colonel Jonas Johnston, who was mortally wounded while fight- 
ing for American independence at the battle of Stono, June 20, 
1779, ^^^ ^^^^ o^ the 29th of the following month while endeav- 
oring to reach his home in Edgecombe County. 

Elias Carr, grandfather of the governor, was Pitt County's 
representative in the North Carolina house of commons at the 
session of 1810. His wife was Celia Johnston Hines, the widow 
of Richard Hines and a daughter of the aforesaid Revolutionary 
patriot, Colonel Jonas Johnston. 

The families of both Carr and Johnston came to North Caro- 
lina from southeastern Virginia — the Carrs from Nansemond 
County and the Johnstons from Southampton. After their arrival 
in North Carolina the Carrs were residents of that part of Greene 
County which was formerly Glasgow, and the Johnstons settled 
in Edgecombe. 


Elias Carr was a student at the Oaks, a famous school in 
Orange County, under the management of William J. Bingham, 
and later he spent two years at the University of North Caro- 
lina, 1855-57. Subsequently he took a course at the University 
of Virginia, thus having every educational advantage before 
reaching manhood. 

Having determined to devote his life to the pursuit of agri- 
culture, Mr. Carr returned to Edgecombe County and purchased 
his brother's interest in Bracebridge, the plantation which had 
been jointly inherited by them upon the death of their father. 
From this time he manifested deep interest and great ability 
in the calling which he had chosen. 

In 1859 Mr. Carr was married to Miss Eleanor Kearny, a 
daughter of William K. Kearny, of Warren County, and to them 
were born six children, as follows: Willam Kearny Carr, John 
Buxton Carr, M.D., Mary Elizabeth Carr, Elias Carr, Eleanor 
Kearny Carr and Annie Bruce Carr. 

For some years after the War between the States Mr. Carr's 
life was a quiet one, happy in the possession of an ample domain 
and enhancing his reputation as an able and successful agricul- 
turist. For about fifteen years he was one of the commissioners 
of Edgecombe County. He was a member of the board of 
trustees of the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanical Arts at Raleigh and also one of the commissioners hav- 
ing in charge the Geological Survey. In all three of these posts 
his practical experience as a planter rendered him peculiarly 
qualified for the giving of valuable service. He was frequently 
honored by commissions to represent his State in conventions, 
as the Farmers' Convention in St. Paul in 1886. In 1890 he 
became prominently identified with the Farmers' Alliance before 
that order became so largely political, and throughout his con- 
nection with the organization he endeavored to keep it, as far 
as possible, out of partisan politics. In 1891 he was elected 
president of the Alliance, and under his wise leadership the mem- 
bership grew to about ninety thousand. He represented the 
Alliance at Ocala, Fla., and was a member of the committee on 


platforms, where he took a prominent part, advocating conserva- 
tive action. In 1891 Mr. Carr was commissioner of the World's 

Early in 1892 much disaffection existed in the Democratic 
party, particularly among the agricultural classes. Thomas M. 
Holt, a man of high character and conceded ability, was then 
governor (filling the unexpired term of Governor Fowle, who 
died in office) and was a candidate for the nomination. The 
Democratic State Convention met in Raleigh on May 18, 1892. 
In that body a number of candidates were balloted for without 
a nomination being reached. Mr. Carr had been urged by his 
friends to enter the race, but had declined to do so. After a 
somewhat stormy session, however, the contending factions cen- 
tered on him, and he was nominated. He accepted the honor 
thus literally thrust upon him, and his nomination gave great 
satisfaction to the rank and file of his party. But the politicians 
of the Alliance did not show good faith in the ensuing campaign. 
They had participated in the primaries and in the state conven- 
tion, had been largely instrumental in defeating Governor Holt, 
and yet when an Alliance man of acknowledged ability and high 
character was put forth as the Democratic nominee in the person 
of Mr. Carr they bolted the ticket, formed a new party — the 
Populists — and set up Dr. Wyatt P. Exum, of Wayne County, as 
their candidate. The Republican nominee for the office of gov- 
ernor was Judge David M. Furches, afterward chief justice of 
the Supreme Court. 

Despite the disaffection in his party, Mr. Carr held the confi- 
dence of the masses to such an extent that he was chosen by a 
plurality of over 35,000 on November 8, 1892. He was duly 
inaugurated January 18, 1893, being sworn in by Chief Justice 

In his inaugural address Governor Carr discussed (among 
other things) the benefit to be derived from the Railroad Com- 
mission — which tribunal is now known as the Corporation Com- 
mission — and endorsed appeals for help from the University of 
North Carolina, besides strongly recommending better educa- 


tional facilities in general. Concerning the rural schools of the 
State he said: 

"These schools I regard as a necessity to the children of the men and 
women engaged in farm life. The, children of our people in cities and 
towns are well provided for, as a general rule, by the graded schools, and 
they enjoy privileges in educational matters which children living in the 
country do not have. An efficient common school system is the only hope 
of our people for an intelligent, thrifty laboring population upon our 
farms ; and I urge, with all the earnestness I can command, that our law- 
makers shall not neglect this imperative duty resting upon them." 

In the above inaugural address Governor Carr said he had not 
until recently fully realized the condition of the public roads 
throughout the State, adding: "The present system is a failure 
and the roads a disgrace to civilization." He also recommended 
a more just tax system, better provision for the charitable insti'- 
tutions of the State, proper encouragement for the State Guard, 
besides discussing some matters of temporary interest. In con- 
clusion he said: 

"Having never sought office, or before held office, I am unacquainted 
with the routine or detail thereof, and it is with grave misgivings, as to 
my ability to handle skilfully such matters, that I enter upon the duties 
of this most high and honorable position to which you have seen fit to call 
me. Nor is the knowledge of the fact that the administration of my pred- 
ecessor is considered one of the most substantial in the history of the 
State calculated to increase my confidence in my own abilities; but that 
it will act as a stimulant to greater effort and diligence on my part, I 
cannot doubt." 

Governor Carr took an honest pride in the past achievements 
as well as modern progress of North Carolina. Being sprung 
from patriotic Revolutionary ancestry, it was but natural that he 
should be deeply interested in the history of his Staters part in 
the war for independence. On July 4, 1893, when the monument 
presented by ex-Governor Holt to the Guilford Battle Ground 
Company, near Greensboro, was dedicated. Governor Carr was 
one of those who delivered addresses. In the course of his re- 
marks he said: 

"No one who looks over the history of the great Revolutionary struggle 
can but conclude that, where patriotism is the dominant spirit of a race. 


war, pestilence, and tyrants do but inspire that people to great and heroic 
deeds. And that the memory of these is destined in after years to bear 
wholesome fruit is here manifested in the restoration of this battlefield 
of Guilford Court House and the unveiling to-day of an appropriate work 
of art, the gift of a patriotic son, ex-Governor Thomas M. Holt. 

"The battle of Guilford Court House was second in importance to none 
fought during the bloody war for independence ; and had the result been 
less disastrous to British arms, Cornwallis might have never known his 
Yorktown. Yet, despite this truth, and in the face of the fact that the 
noble deeds of her sons have been ascribed to others, and that other States 
have claimed her heroes, North Carolina, until a few years ago, had made 
but a feeble effort to restore her good name and to immortalize the mem- 
ory of those of her children whose deeds shed as much luster as those of 
a Marathon or Sebastopol." 

When the North Carolina Society of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion was organized at Raleigh, in the fall of 1893, Governor Carr 
was one of the charter members of that order, and became its 
first president, serving until November 15, 1897. 

At the close of the first year of Governor Carr's administration 
a Raleigh religious paper, the Christian Advocate, on January 
24, 1894, commented on his past official record as follows : 

"He is quiet and modest ; makes no show or parade of himself or what 
he does, but shows clearly in all his public acts and utterances that the 
only ambition he has is to serve his State the best he can. It is refreshing 
to have a governor who cares nothing for promotion, but who seems to 
want to do only what is best for his commnwealth." 

On April 14, 1894, North Carolina's great senator, Zebulon B, 
Vance, died. In filling the vacancy thus created Governor Carr 
displayed marked wisdom by appointing as his successor ex- 
Governor Thomas J. Jarvis, one of the State's ablest and most 
patriotic citizens, who had succeeded Vance as governor many 
years before. In the Senate Mr. Jarvis well measured up to the 
responsibilties of that high office and fully justified the course 
of Governor Carr in naming him as Vance's successor. 

To the Legislature of 1895 — when the Democrats were in a 
minority for the first time in many years — Governor Carr an- 
nounced that since his induction into office he had made it a point 
to pay personal visits of inspection to the various institutions of 


the State in order to acquaint himself with their needs. He had 
been present at the commencement exercises of the State Univer- 
sity, the Agricultural and Mechanical College and the Normal 
and Industrial School — the last named being the new institution 
at Greensboro for the instruction of young women. He had also 
visited the State Guard encampments and had attended the state 
fairs. The State Prison he had visited frequently, and had annu- 
ally inspected the convict camps on the state farms along the 
Roanoke River. The needs of these and many other institutions 
of the State he set before the Assembly, and discussed questions 
of a more general nature, devoting much space to public educa- 
tion and to proposed reforms in the procedure of the courts of 
law. The Geological Survey, Shell-fish Commission and other 
industries he recommended as worthy of encouragement. The 
above Legislature was controlled by Fusionists, a coalition of 
Republicans and Populists ; and in closing his message Governor 
Carr said: 

"The past history of a clean, successful state government, free from 
reckless expenditures, honest and economical in administration, is behind 
you — a part of the record of the party who now turns over to you the 
future administration of the State, so far as pertains to legislation. Be- 
lieving that you have the best interests of your State at heart, I trust that 
you will be wise, judicious, and careful in your enactments, and economi- 
cal in expenditures. I do not counsel that economy which amounts to 
rendering useless any institution now in existence, and hope they will 
receive your careful investigation and liberal appropriations." 

When the Legislature of 1897 met, the Fusionists were in 
the ascendant in all branches of the state government, and Gov- 
ernor Carr's term expired at the beginning of that year, on 
January 12th, when Governor Russell, a Republican, was sworn 
into office. 

One of the wisest acts of Governor Carr's administration, yet 
one which received some severe adverse criticism, was his sanc- 
tion of the lease of the North Carolina Railroad to the Southern 
Railway for a period of ninety-nine years, which measure was 
effected on August 16, 1895. This action by the directors was 
later unanimously ratified by the private stockholders as well as 


by the proxy voting for the State's interest. The wisdom of 
the action was at once demonstrated by the fact that the stock 
of the leased road rose in price from 105 to 125. Since that 
time it has been sold as high as 180. Both Governor Russell, 
in his official capacity, and the Farmers' Alliance employed coun- 
sel? and brought suit in the courts to have the lease annulled, 
but their efforts were not successful. It was believed by Gov- 
ernor Carr and by the private stockholders that a ninety-nine year 
lease at seven per cent, interest was not a bad investment. 

After the expiration of his term of office Governor Carr 
returned to his home in Edgecombe County, and there spent the 
remainder of his life in the quiet enjoyment of the blessings by 
which he was surrounded. He died July 22, 1900, in the same 
house in which he was born, aged sixty-one years. An estimate 
of his career, written by his lifelong friend. Captain W. W. 
Carraway, of Lenoir County, appeared in the Morning Post, a 
Raleigh paper, on August 30, 1900. In the course of this article 
Captain Carraway said : 

"As boy, man, husband, father, county commissioner, president of the 
State Alliance, member of the State Geological Survey, trustee of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, commissioner to the World's Fair, 
and governor of the State of North Carolina, he has never failed to bring 
to bear upon every position he occupied abilities of a rare order, and to 
instill into others that to have a clear conscience and the approbation of 
our God was to always tell the truth. He never flinched to do the right 
in all matters and at all times. Influence, preferment, pecuniary advan- 
tages, would have been despicable to him if offered as the price of honor." 

In all the affairs of Hfe Governor Carr was prompt, thorough 
and conscientious. In the small details of minor matters he was 
as zealous and untiring as when discharging the most important 
duties connected with the government of the State. He never 
accepted any position except with the firm purpose of bringing 
to bear upon it his best efforts. In his home life he was gentle 
and hospitable, never frivolous, yet possessed of a keen sense of 
humor. In all things he was loyal, sincere and trustworthy, well 
measuring up to the stature of a true gentleman. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 


Clement and his wife, Nancy Bailey, was bom 
in what was then Rowan County, now Davie, 
on November i, 1825. His first teachers in 
Mocksville were Mr. Buford, Mr. Peter S. 
Ney, and Rev. Baxter Clegg, the second named 
being the reputed French marshal. Mr. Clement was small when 
he attended Mr. Ney's school, but retained the same vivid im- 
pressions of him which seemed ever to follow Ney. Even the 
scar across the forehead, which to many is convincing proof of 
his identity with Napoleon^s greatest general, he would describe 
graphically, as well as the fencing lessons given to the larger 
boys with canes cut from the forest in which the little school- 
house stood. While considering him by far the most impressive 
and unique acquaintance of his youth, Mr. Clement was not 
entirely persuaded he was Marshal Ney, from the fact of his 
profound erudition and culture, while history teaches us the real 
Ney was comparatively unlearned. 

Mr. Clement went to Bethany, in Iredell County, when he was 
about sixteen years of age, and entered the school of Hugh R. 
Hall. Afterward he attended Mr. Clegg's school, the Mocks- 
ville Academy, until 1844, when he went to the North and en- 
tered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, Pa. The journey was 
made by private conveyance and stage, and was long and tedious. 


Very interesting was his account of the city of Washington at 
that period, his visit to the White House, Capitol, and other pub- 
lic places. The Capitol was at some distance from the city, and 
was reached by a path across open country, where the grand 
Pennsylvania Avenue now is. He remained in Gettysburg during 
his entire collegiate course of two years, as the distance was con- 
sidered so great and travel so slow. A great grief was his, in 
the second year he was at college, in the death of his father, 
August 31, 1845. Between the father and son was an unusual 
depth of love and feeling, distinguished by pride on the part of 
the father and impHcit faith and obedience on part of the son. 
He was a close student, and this, combined with a naturally 
bright mind, won many honors for him in society and class, and 
he was chosen valedictorian in June, 1846. After graduation 
he returned home and assumed, at the youthful age of twenty- 
one., control of his father's estate, the guardianship of his younger 
brothers and sisters, and relief of the brave little mother. How 
well he fulfilled that trust with his own busy professional life 
is shown in a remark made after his death by his youngest 
brother. Captain W. A. Clement: "I never questioned my obedi- 
ence to him, never looked upon him as a brother, but as a father, 
and never had an unkind word or look from him." 

He read law at Richmond Hill with Chief Justice Richmond 
M. Pearson, for whom he always cherished the fondest love of 
a friend and the highest admiration as a teacher. He was licensed 
to practice law at June term, 1848. 

He was married on January 18, 1853, to Miss Mary Jane 
Haden, only daughter of William Haden and his wife, Mary 
Welch. By this marriage he had ten children. Three sons died 
in childhood, John Haden, Marshall and Eugene, and one daugh- 
ter, Mary Elizabeth, in graceful, Christian womanhood. Those 
surviving are : Louis Henry Clement, attorney, Salisbury, N. C. ; 
Mrs. H. H. Trundle, Leesburg, Va. ; Mrs. E. L. Gaither, Mrs. 
JuHa C. Heitman, Herbert and Walter R. Clement of Mocks- 
ville. N. C. 

Much of the success of his business and professional life he 


attributed to his noble Christian wife, his love for her being the 
crown of his life. Combining in an unusual degree mental en- 
dowments with a liberal education and great executive ability, 
during frequent long absences, attendant on his far-reaching 
practice, she never allowed any part of his home affairs, includ- 
ing a large number of slaves and several plantations, to feel the 
lack of the "master's hand." He considered her price "far above 
rubies," and always referred to her as his "court of highest ap- 
peal." Their home was open to the kindest hospitality, and many 
good and distinguished men and women met around their board. 
In his early life he served one term in the Legislature of 
North Carolina. The rest of his life he devoted to his profes- 
sion, in which he was wonderfully successful. His practice was 
wide and varied, embracing a large number of capital cases, but 
in the latter part of his life he refused to appear for the prosecu- 
tion where life was at stake. His devotion to his clients was 
proverbial, and it was said of him the more desperate the case 
the harder he labored. By his close application he had so mas- 
tered the law that its most intricate problems he could reason 
out as if by intuition. He was a brilliant speaker, a close reas- 
oner, an accurate pleader, and a profound lawyer. Before the 
courts where he practiced, both State and Federal, none stood 
higher than John Marshall Clement. Illustrating his legal acumen 
and profound knowledge of the principles of equity, at June 
term, 1861, of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, he argued 
for the plaintiff the case of Sains vs. Dulin (59 N. C. Rept. 195). 
His views of the doctrine of equity involved were not adopted 
by the Supreme Court at that time; but in 1900, after his death, 
the case of Luton vs. Badham (127 N. C. Rept., 96) was decided, 
which overruled Sain vs. Dulin, supra, and sustained Mr. Clem- 
ent's view of the case. Judge D. M. Furches, a native of Davie 
County, and who practiced law for many years in the same town 
with Mr. Clement, and who admired him greatly, on the day 
the court filed this opinion, he delivering the opinion, wrote a 
letter to a member of Mr. Clement's family, saying it gave him 
pleasure to let them know that the doctrine contended for by him 


nearly forty years before had been adopted. In the same letter 
he also communicated the pleasing information, which was given 
him by Charles Price, of Salisbury, N. C, that Mr. Clement dur- 
ing the war had kindly furnished books to a Federal prisoner in 
Salisbury, who afterward became a distinguished judge of the 
Federal Court of Appeals. 

In 1878 Mr. dementis name was presented by his friends to 
the Democratic judicial convention for judge, but despite the 
strenuous efforts of these friends he failed to receive the nomi- 
nation, though all conceded his splendid ability and fitness. It is 
no secret that he would later have been elevated to the Supreme 
Court Bench but for the condition of his health, which was deli- 
cate for many years before his death. He was considered by all 
eminently qualified, both in learning and character, to adorn the 
highest judicial tribunal of our State. 

In his home life he was at his best. So gentle, loving and 
kind, yet firm, wise and just, always unyielding in any point he, 
considered best for his children's highest good, he was an ideal 
parent, for while he loved his own, he was quick to see their 
faults and to correct the same, and as ever ready to commend and 
reward worth. Cheerful in his disposition, entertaining in con- 
versation, genial and gentle in manner, he was a most notable 
and attractive man. His religious life was deep and quiet, but 
was founded on the Rock Christ Jesus, as he was taught in his 
childhood at his mother's knee, and at the all-day Sabbath School 
of Joppa Presbyterian Church. Although his professional duties 
called him to various portions of this and other states, his home 
was within a half mile of where he was born, and he now sleeps 
in the old Clement graveyard on the hill, just beyond, over- 
looking the meadow and playground of his boyhood — a fit, peace- 
ful resting place, so near to home, so close to heaven. Mr. 
Clement died June 4, 1886. 

5*. A. Ashe. 


)OUIS HENRY CLEMENT was born in 
Mocksville, Davie County, N. C, January 19, 
1854. His father was John Marshall Clement, 
and his mother was born Mary Jane Haden, 
only daughter of William Haden, a leading 
citizen of Davie County, and his wife Mary 
Welch, a woman of fine intelligence and strong Christian 

His paternal grandfather was John Clement, who represented 
Davie and Rowan counties in the General Assembly of North 
Carolina for many years, and also served most acceptably as 
clerk of the superior court of Davie County, dying at his desk. 
His grandmother on the paternal side was born Nancy Bailey, 
a worthy member of the old and honorable Davie County family 
of that name. 

Mr. Clement was reared in Mocksville, and after excellent pre- 
paratory training, entered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, 
Pa., and was graduated with honor, in the class of 1876, his 
father having been valedictorian of the class of 1846, in the same 
college. At college he was one of the most popular of the stu- 
dents and while ranking well in his classes, excelled in debate 
and in the activities of the literary societies. 

Returning home after his graduation, he followed his father's 


footsteps again, in studying law under that great jurist, Hon. 
Richmond M. Pearson, at Richmond Hill, and was licensed as a 
lawyer by the Supreme Court of North Carolina in June, 1877. 

He began practice in Davie County, being solicitor of the in- 
ferior court for two years, but removed to Salisbury in 1880, 
forming a law partnership with that splendid gentleman and able 
lawyer, Hon. Kerr Craige, which lasted until 1893, when Mr. 
Craige became third assistant postmaster-general, in President 
Cleveland's administration. 

Practicing alone for several years, in 1909, Mr. Clement took 
into partnership his son, Hayden Clement, then recently admitted 
to the Bar, and the firm, Clement & Clement, is now (1916) one 
of the best known and most successful in the State. 

In 1885, Mr. Clement was appointed solicitor ad interim of 
the ninth judicial district of North Carolina, upon the death of 
Joseph Dobson, Esq., the incumbent, and in that, as in all other 
positions, he discharged the duties of the office with faithfulness 
and acceptability. A Democrat in political faith, he has never 
been a candidate for political office, though often importuned, 
preferring the practice of his chosen profession and the quiet 
of his lovely and congenial home to the turbulence of political 

In November, 1878, he was happily married to Miss Mamie C. 
Buehler, of Gettysburg, Pa., a daughter of Hon. Edward B. 
Buehler, a leading citizen and prominent lawyer of that place. 
Mrs. Clement was a lovely woman, queen of every Christian and 
social grace, a devoted wife and mother, and the charm of a 
large circle of congenial friends. After a brief illness, immor- 
tality claimed her, April 20, 191 3. 

Mr. Clement has four sons, Hayden Clement, his law partner, 
who was for two years assistant and acting attorney-general 
of iNorth Carolina, and is now solicitor of the fifteenth ju- 
dicial district; Dr. Edward Buehler Clement, now a success- 
ful medical practitioner at Atlantic City, N. J. ; Donald Clement, 
a successful young business man of Salisbury, and Louis H. 
Clement, Jr., now a student at Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. 


Hayden and Edward B. are graduates of the University of North 
CaroHna, and both Donald and Louis H., Jr., are alumni of the 
same institution. 

In 1908, Mr. Clement was honored by unanimous and unso- 
licited election as president of the North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion, and for ten successive years has been president of the local 
bar association of Rowan County; both of these positions being 
strong testimonials of the esteem in which he is held by his pro- 
fessional brethren. 

In 1910, the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by his 
alma mater, Pennsylvania College, along with Hon. Martin G. 
Brumbaugh, now governor of Pennsylvania, and Judge Harter, 
of Canton, Ohio. 

For years Mr. Clement has been a communicant of historic 
St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Church, of Salisbury, and is a 
Mason of high degree, being a Shriner. 

As a lawyer Mr. Clement has always enjoyed the confidence 
and respect, not only of his brethren of the Bar, but of the com- 
munity at large, and of a large and intelligent clientele. He has 
proven himself not only an able and effective advocate, but a 
wise and prudent counsellor as well. 

As a citizen he has always been generous, hospitable and pub- 
lic spirited. Of engaging address, cordial manners, neatness and 
tastefulness in dress, with a friendly word and genial smile for 
all, Mr. Clement is deservedly popular with all classes of the 
community, and with a wide circle of friends throughout the 

Of liberal education, of extensive reading and wide informa-- 
tion, added to a sparkling wit and cheery humor, he is the most 
delightful of companions. 

Such is the simple story of a quiet but useful and honored 
life, now approaching its unclouded evening, and it has been a 
labor of love to an old friend and neighbor to set it down here 
for remembrance. 

Theodore F. Klutts. 


lOME eccentric genius has said that ''every man 
has a right to choose his own ancestors and 
the environment of his own birth." If this 
privilege were possible, it would doubtless be 
highly acceptable to some and utterly rejected 
by others. Hayden Clement, the subject of 
this sketch, has no just grounds of complaint at his ancestors 
or the environment of his birth. He was born September 25, 
1879, ^^ the little town of Mocksville, N. C, the ancestral home 
of his illustrious forebears. He is a splendid fulfillment of the 
law of nature, that "like begets like," and his success, character, 
achievements and ability are but the transmitted reflection of a 
noble mother and the incarnated uprightness of a high-minded 
father. It would have been a travesty upon the law of nature 
for Hayden Clement to have failed to make a success. 

His father, Louis H. Clement, who is one of the foremost 
lawyers of the State, moved from Mocksville to Salisbury when 
Hayden was an infant. Young Clement attended the public 
schools of Salisbury, and completed his preparatory education at 
Horner's Military Academy. In September, 1899, he entered the 
University of North Carolina as a freshman, and within a short 
time after he entered his classmates recognized in him a real 
leader. He was never obtrusive but deeply interested in almost 


every phase and activity of college life. He was a real leader of 
University affairs, and manifested a breadth of vision and grasp 
of essentials that have characterized his service in later life. In 
his senior year, instead of graduating he yielded to the impulse 
of his own inclination and to the "call of the fathers" and began 
the study of law. 

In 1903 he was admitted to the Bar and began his chosen pro- 
fession at Salisbury, he being the fourth generation wherein the 
oldest son on the paternal side was a lawyer. His grandfather, 
John Marshall Clement, was recognized as one of the ablest law- 
yers of his day. His grandfather, Hon. Edward B. Buehler, 
on his mother's side, was also a prominent Pennsylvania lawyer 
and jurist. He rose rapidly in his profession and soon com- 
manded the confidence and good will, not only of his own people, 
but of the entire State. 

In January, 1907, he was appointed assistant attorney-general 
of North Carolina, this office having been created owing to the 
illness of the attorney-general, he being the first assistant at- 
torney-general of the State, and served in this capacity for two 
years. While in this office he had entire charge of the duties in 
the attorney-general's deparment, the Legislature having by spe- 
cial act conferred on him all powers, privileges and duties of the 
attorney-general. He was the first man to recommend, and 
through his efforts was passed, the law abolishing public execu- 
tions in North Carolina. He was the first man to recommend 
the creation of four additional superior court judges, and the 
division of the State into two circuits. It was also through his 
efforts that the number of challenges in criminal cases was 
changed. As assistant attorney-general he actively participated 
in the railroad rate and freight litigation, the results of which 
were highly beneficial to the progress and development of the 
State. He also passed on the constitutionality of the prohibition 
act as voted by the State in May, 1908. His sound judgment 
and legal acumen so impressed the State that he was universally 
complimented and highly endorsed for the Democratic nomina- 
tion for attorney-general. 


In 1908 he entered the race for attorney-general of the State 
and received more votes in the primaries than all his opponents 
combined, but not quite enough to insure his nomination. He 
went into the historic Charlotte convention lacking forty votes of 
a majority. In the convention he was defeated by reason of the 
bitter factional fight between Kitchin, Craig and Home, in a 
three-cornered fight for the nomination for governor. 

After his term as assistant attorney-general expired he re- 
turned to Salisbury and formed a partnership with his father in 
the general practice of law. Very soon he was called to act as 
chairman of the congressional committee of the eighth district. 
He immediately commenced a systematic campaign of organiza- 
tion throughout the district, which resulted in the election of 
Hon. R. L. Doughton to Congress. In this fight there was ac- 
complished a change of over 2,000 votes, and a district which 
was considered by many wholly Republican was transformed 
into a strong Democratic district. In 1912 he again managed 
Mr. Doughton's campaign, but resigned to accept the office of 
solicitor of the fifteenth judicial district, to which he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Craig in March, 1914. 

His political strength was so pronounced in the eighth dis- 
trict that he was chosen a delegate to the Baltimore Convention 
which nominated Woodrow Wilson for President. 

On June 25, 1913, he was married to Miss Clay Wornall 
Croxton, a daughter of Colonel and Mrs. J. H. Croxton, of Win- 
chester, Ky. Mrs. Clement, like her husband, is sprung from a 
long line of distinguished ancestry, her father being a colonel 
under General Morgan during the W^ar between the States. They 
have one child, a son, named Hayden Croxton Clement. 

The people of the fifteenth judicial district were so well 
pleased with Hayden Clement's capable and impartial administra- 
tion of the criminal law that he was unanimously nominated to 
succeed himself as solicitor in the Democratic primaries, and was 
unanimously elected in the general election of 1914, which posi- 
tion he continues to hold. He is one of the most vigorous, and 
withal one of the most humane, solicitors of the State. He is 



always fair, and places justice above reputation, mercy above 
excessive punishment. No young man in the State has risen as 
rapidly or made good more completely than has Hayden Clement. 
As a vestryman in St. Luke's Episcopal Church, and as a mem- 
ber of the Sigma Nu Fraternity, the Masons and Junior Order^ 
he has made many loyal friends. As a courageous champion 
of clean politics and the welfare of the average man, his services 
have been invaluable; as an efficient public official, he is one 
who knows no favoritism ; as a patriot and gentleman he has no' 
superior in North Carolina. Indeed, it may truthfully be said 
of Hayden Clement he is one of the State's best and ablest young 
men, -and that broader fields of usefulness are just before him. 

O. Max Gardner. 


fLWAYS unsatisfied but never dissatisfied." 
This was said of another constructive genius 
who wrote his name across this continent, and 
whose achievements have been seldom fnatched 
in the field of human endeavor. The same quo- 
tation may be applied with equal truth and ap- 
propriateness to Mo^es H. Cone, who in a more restricted sphere 
and with more limited resources was never satisfied with results 
which satisfy the ambition of the average man in his chosen 
field of activity. 

Within a decade after his advent into the field of the cotton 
milling industry he had forged his way to the foremost place 
among the cotton manufacturers of this State, and had written 
his name across the face of Piedmont North Carolina. Within 
less than two decades he had won a place in the commercial and 
financial circles of the South, scarcely second to any man in 
power, in character, in resources, and in ability to command what- 
ever support his plans demanded. 

His mind was clear and brilliant in its ready grasp and mas- 
tery of every proposition with which he was confronted in his 
onward march to success. While other men doubted and dallied, 
his daring genius was bridging the chasm of doubt and scaling 
the unexplored heights. In a larger field, with ampler oppor- 


tunity, his marvelous intellect would have scored more largely 
and more grandly for himself, his associates, his community and 
his country. 

In New York, or Boston, or San Francisco, or Chicago, he 
could have coped with Morgan, or Hill, or Harriman, or Ryan. 
His was a genius that needed only a field big enough for the 
operation of its transcendent power. 

Born June 29, 1857, ^^ ^^^ t^^" obscure village of Jonesboro, 
Tenn., he was carried, thirteen years later, to Baltimore, Md., 
to which city his father moved the entire family in 1870. There 
his father, Herman Cone, engaged in the wholesale grocery busi- 
ness, between which and the city school young Moses divided 
the next eight years of his life. 

In 1888 he was happily married to Miss Bertha Lindau, who 
survives him. 

From the sterling qualities of a father who taught by precept 
and by example the by-laws of honor, and from the beautiful 
traits of a mother's ideal character he fell heir to the influences 
which were required for a well-rounded development of his 
physical and mental strength during these first twenty-one years 
of his life. Scarcely less potential was the sweet and sustaining 
influence of a devoted wife through the remaining years. 

In 1878 he and his brother, Ceasar Cone, were admitted and 
made partners in the father's wholesale grocery business under 
the widely known name and style of H. Cone & Sons. The 
record of the growth and expansion of the extensive business of 
this noted firm for the next twelve years is the story of the 
struggles, the hardships, the grit, the push and the pluck of these 
ambitious young men. 

It was during these twelve years of toil that Moses H. Cone 
studied the conditions and acquired his accurate knowledge of 
the resources and possibilities of the South. His keen, observant 
eye had seen in rich profusion the abounding evidence of her 
undeveloped and undiscovered wealth. His ear had caught the 
music chanted by her thousands of streams of untouched power. 
He had witnessed her rich forests as they fell and melted into 


ashes. He had watched the bounteous harvests as they went 
begging for a market. With every recurring season he had 
noted her chief staple — the chief source of her revenue — was 
shipped a thousand miles to find a mill to spin and weave it for 
the counter. Here and there he saw the Httle cotton mills, with 
antiquated machinery, struggling for existence and begging for 
capital. On every hand he beheld poverty in the midst of wealth. 
Beyond the borders of this Southland he followed its chief prod- 
uct to New England, where it had brought thrift, and progress, 
and power. With prophetic eye he foresaw the time when the 
South would build her own mills and cease to give to New Eng- 
land the profits which of right belonged to her. It was a dream 
that came to him during the long night the South slept in help- 
lessness, neglect and poverty. This dream bodied forth and 
materialized in 1890 in the conception, creation, and organization 
of the Cone Export & Commission Company, with its principal 
office in the city of New York. Its object was to handle the 
output of the cotton mills of this State, to keep within her borders 
some of the profits which had been flowing steadily into the cof- 
fers of the large commission houses of the North, and to stimu- 
late and diversify the manufacturing of cotton goods in the 
South. In short, to do for ourselves what we had been paying 
the North to do for us. It was the first and boldest attempt yet 
made by any southern organization to compete along this line in 
the markets of the world. Scarcely had this company opened 
its doors and books in its office on Worth Street, New York, 
before the country was engulfed in the vortex of a panic that 
shook to its foundation every commercial institution and indus- 
trial plant in the South. Within less than a year after it had 
entered upon its career, in the face of the fiercest competition 
and world-wide panic, and without the prestige of experience or 
reputation, it secured contracts from forty mills, giving it ex- 
clusive power as the selling agent of the entire output of these 
mills for a period of five years. 

These five years were the supreme test of the capacity of 
Moses H. Cone. No man with such a burden ever faced a 


darker cloud than that which overshadowed the busmess condi- 
tions of this country during these years. Unknown in the money 
markets of New York, a stranger in the fievd of textile industry 
and manufactures, untrained and unlearned in the technical es- 
sentials demanded by this new venture, he threw the whole 
strength of his body and mind into the stupendous struggle and 
burned every bridge behind him. An ordinary man would have 
gladly surrendered to the uncounted odds against him in the 
struggle. It is now a matter of history that he saved himself, his 
company and the forty mills that struggled with him in the dark 
hours of that memorable panic, and there are witnesses yet living 
who bear testimony to the masterful skill with which he did it. 
At the end of these five years there was not a bank between the 
metropolis of the North and the metropolis of the South where 
his name was not known, recognized and honored. To have 
lived through these five years of depression and financed with 
success an enterprise requiring for its operation millions of dol- 
lars was an achievement that at once stamped Moses H. Cone as 
a financier, builder, and leader without a peer in the State of his 
adoption. The recital of this story is tinged with the shade of 
pathos. It fell to the lot of the writer to have some personal 
knowledge of that heroic struggle and of the almost superhuman 
efforts required to surmount the obstacles that beset its unblazed 
path. The price of this success was the impairment of the vitality 
of this wonderfully strong man. The insidious effect of this 
titanic strain and tax touched a vital spot and cut short a life 
brilliant with achievement and rich in service to his fellows and 
his country. 

It is worthy of note that at the date of the advent of Moses 
H. Cone into this field these forty mills were manufacturing only 
one class of goods, known as plaids. None of them had facili- 
ties for making the higher class of goods. This resourceful man, 
in conjunction with Ceasar Cone and others, organized and estab- 
lished in 1893, at Greensboro, N. C, the Southern Finishing Mills 
— the first institution of its kind in the South that was equipped 
to finish goods of the finer grade in a first-class manner. This 


was the beginning of the movement for the vast improvement in 
the character of the colored fabrics of southern mills. 

It was in 1895 that he and his brother, Ceasar Cone, foreseeing 
an era of prosperity for the South and the inviting field awaiting 
the investment of capital in the development, diversification and 
extension of her manufacturing interest, decided to invest and 
build more largely in their chosen line of work. After an inspec- 
tion and a study of various places and sites, together with the in- 
ducements offered, Greensboro was finally selected as the central 
and most favorable point for their operations and for the erection 
of their largest mills. A large section of land, embracing several 
thousand acres running north and east from the corporate limits 
of Greensboro, was purchased, and here have been erected and 
put into operation the large mills known as the Proximity, the 
Revolution and the White Oak Mills. The last named makes the 
well-known goods called denim, and is the largest denim mill in 
the world. While Moses H. Cone never had anything to do with 
the details in the management and operation of these mills, it was 
his master mind that conceived, planned and finished them in 
conjunction with Ceasar Cone, whose cool judgment, capacity for 
detail and practical mind were equally potential in their projec- 
tion, completion and operation. Around them is to-day a popula- 
tion of nearly ten thousand people, contented and happy in the 
enjoyment of nice and comfortable homes, safeguarded with sane, 
sanitary regulations, elegant and commodious school buildings 
and beautiful churches. 

It is within the limit of accuracy to state that the prosperous 
city of Greensboro is more largely indebted to Moses H. Cone 
for the marvelous growth of the past fifteen years than to any 
other man living or dead. The county of Watauga, in western 
North Carolina, was also touched by the wand of his inspiring 
skill and constructive genius. Seventeen years ago he purchased, 
near Blowing Rock, in this county, a large boundary of land, on 
which he built a magnificent home. His orchards and vineyards 
thereon have won prizes and fame. The improvements, the 
methods and the model work of his farm have taught and stimu- 


lated the whole county. His contribution to good roads and good 
schools — those twin movements without which no county or state 
can go forward — made him the idol in that county, in whose 
bosom he sleeps to-day. 

When North Carolina's historian shall have counted the ma- 
terial assets of this generation, he will find that no one citizen 
has contributed more to its awakening and upbuilding in propor- 
tion to his opportunity than Moses H. Cone. Without prestige 
and credentials save those of his own face and character, he went 
to the money street of this country's metropolis, bearded capital 
in its cold den, won its confidence, and with his own check trans- 
mitted it into the commercial arteries of his State and the South. 
Without training or experience or help save that of his brother, 
he dropped his case of grocery samples in 1890, and within a 
dozen years controlled more spindles and looms and dollars than 
any other man between the Potomac and the Rio Grande. And 
with it all he did not worship the almighty dollar. Money for 
the sake and name of money with him was not an object. He 
wrought and toiled for the mere sake of doing and achieving 
something better. 

He was the soul of honor. Direct and frank, he was imperious 
and relentless in his contempt of sham and all manner of hypoc- 
risy. A Democrat in politics, he was sternly independent when 
he thought his party shirked or dodged or compromised on any 
policy or principle. His convictions were always the result of his 
own thinking, based upon the facts of his own collection, and in 
their expression at the ballot box or elsewhere he was as open and 
as courageous as were his Hebrew ancestors in the days of 
Israel's earliest contest. He was a member of the order of Elks, 
whose cardinal corner-stones are justice, charity and brotherly 
love. These were his religion, and his life among those who 
knew him was a radiant exemplification of these virtues. His 
alms and his benefactions were bestowed with generous hand 
through a thousand channels — not one of which is to be dese- 
crated by the cold type. His generous soul was pity itself in the 
presence of distress and human suffering. 


A stern, aggressive, brave, noble man — a conqueror in the 
field of human contest where commercial battles were fought and 
won or lost; but in the social circle, by the hearthstone of a 
devoted wife and loved ones, and with his fellows, he was the 
affectionate husband, the unselfish brother, the charming com- 
panion and the knightly gentleman, wearing ever the badge of a 
true man and the white flower of a life unspotted. 

There was a sadness keenly tender and touching in his going. 
To repel the approach of the fell malady that threatened his 
health and life, he planned a trip around the world, in the hope 
that he might find remedy or strength, or both, for the battle 
against the implacable enemy, as well as to find and study new 
fields for the operation of the growing business of his companies. 
This trip covered a year, and he visited the most interesting coun- 
tries of the world. His capacious mind drank deeply at every 
fountam where history, literature, art and commerce had emp- 
tied and stored their secrets and their treasures. The people of 
his home city and elsewhere greeted his return with warm wel- 
come and unusual honors for a private citizen. At the banquet 
table and in the school auditorium he was induced to tell of his 
travels, and his story scintillated with the delightful impressions 
of things he had seen with his own eyes, and was narrated in a 
style all his own — unique, fresh, vigorous and captivating. But 
to the discriminating eye it was plain and it was sad that the glow 
of health was pahng and fading from his strong face. Uncom- 
plainingly he resumed his place in the leadership of the afifairs of 
his companies, and was Napoleonic in the handling of great com- 
plications at that time confronting him. With his old-time en- 
thusiasm and intense energy he went to his post of duty, and 
there remained with intrepid fortitude until the inroad of his 
malady and the warning of his physician summoned him to the 
hospital in the city of Baltimore, where neither skill nor love 
could stay the approach of the pale messenger. 

His friends outside of the circle of those most near and dear 
were not prepared for the sudden message which flashed over the 
wires on December 8, 1908, telling the world that this brilliant 



career of fifty-one years had ended. In beautiful Watauga, on 
the crest of his own mountain, overlooking the home of his choice 
and the hearthstone of his love, and where the first blush of the 
morning gleams and brightens and the last ray of the departing 
day lingers and melts into soft twilight, he is camping with his 
face still to the stars, in this pavilion of God's own making. 

G. Samuel Bradshazv. 

'ria^ Z, l.-^ yl%^^, .^^/5jf/4*^ 


fORTH CAROLINA'S future historian will 
place the name of Cone among the first of the 
industrial and commercial leaders who con- 
ceived and inspired the revolution in her indus- 
trial life. In the wondrous transformation of 
what is known as the Piedmont section since 
1896 there has been no single factor more potent than the daring 
enterprise of the Cones. 

It was the unclouded foresight and restless energy of Moses 
H. Cone which in the dark days of the early nineties brought 
to life the Cone Export & Commission Co., and through its co- 
operative agencies saved from bankruptcy many of the older 
cotton mills of the State. In the projection, organization and suc- 
cessful operation of this company, Ceasar Cone, with clear head 
and steady hand, stood by the side of his brother at every step 
in this perilous venture. In 1891 the old and successful firm of 
H. Cone & Sons of Baltimore, was dissolved. The two brothers 
had been members of this notable firm, and through its wide con- 
nections and ramifications had obtained an accurate knowledge 
of the conditions and resources of the South. It is to their 
credit to note that they were the first among non-resident capi- 
talists to see clearly and to appreciate fully the unbounded possi- 
bilities of this old commonwealth. With prophetic eye they fore- 


saw the beginning of the development of our vast resources. The 
Cone Export & Commission Co. was their first venture in the 
handhng of cotton goods. This put them in close touch with our 
cotton mills, and led them into the unexplored territory of our 
industrial life and possibilities. The keen, alert and astute mind 
of Ceasar Cone was not slow in seizing the rich opportunity be- 
fore him in the field of cotton manufacturing and in the acquisi- 
tion of real estate at the marvelously low prices then prevailing. 
In his survey of the field, he was attracted by the unrivaled ad- 
vantages of Greensboro, N. C, the local habitation of the Cone 
Export & Commission Company, which is situated within sight 
of the cotton fields. Her unsurpassed railroad facilities, delight- 
ful climate, sturdy population, cheap fuel, high-class labor, cheap 
real estate and other inducements awaited his resouceful touch. 

In conjunction with his brother, Moses H. Cone, who was 
associated with him in all of his enterprises and extensive invest- 
ments, he acquired by purchase several hundred acres of land, 
lying inside, outside and adjoining the corporate limits of the 
Gate City, on which was erected, in 1895 and 1896, the large 
cotton mill of the Proximity Manufacturing Company, of which 
he is the acting and active president. The dominant idea in the 
organization of this company was to manufacture a class of goods 
not made in the South prior to 1896. Starting with two hundred 
and forty looms, in less than ten years this company has not 
only increased its number to two thousand, but has also en- 
larged its capital stock and has built another mammoth plant, 
known as the White Oak Mill, which is the largest cotton mill 
in the South and the largest denim manufacturing plant in the 
world. The capacity of these mills requires the employment of 
more than four thousand people, the annual consumption of more 
than twenty-eight million pounds of cotton, and will turn out 
more than fifty-six million yards of cloth every year. 

While Ceasar Cone was largely interested in other business and 
financial institutions, his life's real work was here. His master 
mind, indomitable will and restless energy were concentrated in 
the successful operation of these mammoth plants. Due to his 


directing genius the twin towns or villages surrounding these 
plants are fast becoming models of cleanliness and beauty. In 
his broad, humane and generous provisions for the comforts of 
the homes of the operatives, he led the manufacturers of the 
South. He established a system of offering prizes, or rewards, 
to those who excelled in the neatness and adornment of their 
homes and yards with flowers and other aesthetic appurtenances. 
Nor has he been content to stop here. He took another advanced 
step in providing, at the expense of his company, the very best 
school facilities, including kindergarten work, in high-class, mod- 
ern and comfortable school buildings for all the children of school 
age. He also saw to it that ample boarding-houses, hotels and 
churches were built and maintained, and that every accommoda- 
tion necessary for the well-being and welfare of his people was 
secured and provided in ample measure. His broad-minded 
policy went beyond the mere exchange of money for labor and 
sought the promotion of his own interest in the comfort, content- 
ment and happiness of his employees. 

Ceasar Cone never built air-castles for the crowded columns of 
yellow journals. He shrunk from the flashing lights of the grand 
stand. He courted neither notoriety nor public honors. He pre- 
ferred the music of the spindle and the loom of his mills to that 
of the brass band. There was more beauty for him in a check 
covering a week's output of his big mills than there would be in 
a commission to Congress. He was in love with his work of 
building for himself, his community and his State. Success in 
this work was the lone goal of his ambition. He inherited the 
sturdy traits and sterling qualities of a successful father, Herman 
Cone, who came from Bavaria, Germany, to this country in 1847, 
at the age of eighteen, and started with a capital aggregating the 
sum of fifty cents. His father enlisted soon thereafter with a 
brother-in-law in the mercantile business near Richmond, Va., 
and prospering there for a few years, followed the westward 
"Star of Empire" until he reached Jonesboro, Tenn., where he 
embarked and succeeded in the general mercantile business. Here 
the subject of our sketch was born, April 22, 1859, ^^d hved 


until 1870, when his father removed to Baltimore and established 
the wholesale grocery business of H. Cone & Sons, where Ceasar 
remained in the public schools of the city until he reached the age 
of fourteen years. This completed his education. His inheri- 
tance from his mother was not less potent in its influence for 
good. Her name was Miss Helen Guggenheimer. She also came 
from Bavaria, Germany, and was born within ten miles of her 
husband, ten years later, and reached this country with her pa- 
rents at the tender age of eight years, though she had never met 
him before coming to this country. They were married in Rich- 
mond, Va., in 1856. There were thirteen children — three girls 
and ten boys, of whom the three girls and seven boys still sur- 
vive. Ceasar was the second child. 

At fourteen years of age in the stationery business, as general 
utility boy in a Baltimore firm, he started. He never departed 
from the sane methods and sound precepts inculcated under the 
parental guidance of his tender years. The paternal lesson was 
rigid honesty, rigid economy and rigid observance of every obli- 
gation. The life of Ceasar Cone was a living exemplification of 
this lesson. 

' The crowning event of his life was his marriage, in 1894, to 
Miss Jeannette Seigel, a lady of rare gifts, graces and attain- 
ments. The children of this happy union are three bright boys. 
With ample capital, strong of body as well as mind, aggressive 
and sagacious, broad viewed in all things, thoroughly posted and 
always alert, he was the triumphant master of every detail of his 
great work, and only laid . the foundation for a career which 
promised still richer returns for himself and larger results for his 
adopted State. His rightful place was on the solvent list of North 
Carolina's choicest assets. No sketch of this sterling citizen 
would be just or complete without mention of his broad and 
generous public spirit and his ready willingness to respond to 
every meritorious public demand upon his time, labor or purse. 
As president of the Central Carolina Fair Association, as presi- 
dent of the Greensboro Chamber of Commerce, and as officer 
and contributor in many other pubhc movements projected for 
the weal of his community, his county and the State he rendered 


distinct and conspicuous service. His was a busy life, and its 
forces are disciplined and controlled by a mind richly stored by 
a severe study of the practical side of those things which touch 
it. His ideals were unwarped by intolerance in religion or poli- 
tics. His record in the fiercely contested fields of commercial 
warfare was unstained. High-minded, clean-cut, straight and 
direct in all dealings, he won respect and commanded confidence 
in every field of endeavor in which he moved and operated. 

The far-reaching influence of a life like this was not limited. 
It touched with its spirit of helpfulness not only the thousands 
within his own immediate community, but it reached out, perme- 
ated and uplifted the entire county and State. Indeed, the strength 
and greatness of the commonwealth are to be found in the 
strength of the character of the individual citizen. Men like 
Ceasar Cone are the pillars on which North Carolina's bright 
future rests to-day. 

Mr. Cone died very suddenly, in Greensboro, N. C, March i, 
191 7, leaving a widow and three sons. 

No finer or more eloquent tribute could be paid to the memory 
of this great citizen than that paid by Judge William Preston 
Bynum, a friend of many years, in the funeral oration at his 
grave. Said Judge Bynum : 

'*In a spot, selected by himself as his last resting place, overlooking 
the mills which were the objects of his pride and his care, and the homes 
of the people whom he loved so well, we lay to rest the builder and bene- 
factor of this community. . . . 

"When the historian comes to write the history of the people of this 
State, to take an account of the industrial progress and achievements of 
the generation in which we live, and award the meed of praise for the 
marvelous awakening that has marked our day, he will find that few con- 
tributed more to that worthy end than Ceasar Cone. . . . 

"But in the flower of his manhood and usefulness, as he crossed the 
meridian of life, the hand of Jehovah mysteriously beckoned him* away 
into the light beyond, and he has been gathered unto his fathers. But he 
still lives. His, indeed, was one of those lives than can never die or be 
forgotten. He lingers and will ever linger with us, the fragrance of a 
precious memory, the embodiment of a mighty force which shall strengthen 
and bless our community for generations to come." 

G. Samuel Bradshaw. 


N HIS ^'American Commonwealth" Mr. Bryce 


"It has been well said that the position which women 
hold in a country is, if not a complete test, yet one 
of the best tests of the progress it has made in 
civilization. When one compares normal man with 
settled man, heathen man with Christian man, the ancient world with the 
modern, the Eastern world with the Western, it is plain that in every 
case the advance in public order, in material comfort, in wealth, in 
decency, in refinement of manners, among the whole population of a 
country . . . has been accompanied by a greater respect for women, by 
a greater freedom accorded to them, by a fuller participation on their 
part in the best work of the world." 

Following- an interesting and enlightening account of the prog- 
ress made in American, the same author says : 

"If women have, on the whole, gained, it is clear that the 
nation gained through them. As mothers, they mold the characters 
of their children; while the function of forming the habits of 
society and determining its moral tone rests greatly in their hands. But 
there is reason to think that the influence of the American system tells 
directly for good upon men as well as upon the whole community. Men 
gain in being brought to treat women as equals, rather than as graceful 
playthings or useful- drudges. . . . Those who know the work they have 
done and are doing in many a noble cause admire their energy, their 
courage and their self-devotion. No country seems to owe more to its 
women than America does, nor to owe to them so much of what is best 
in their social institutions and in the beliefs that govern conduct." 


Sna 4i-^ zf H^i/ZtaTis ^Si-a yVO^ 

^cULc^ /^^^^alL ^(y^t^ 

^^^S Z. r^nAf^e^^,,, J^c-Ais/i^. 


These reflections by a student and interpreter of American 
institutions and life justify the editors of this work in their pur- 
pose to place in the company of eminent North Carolinians, in 
whose lives and character the history of the State is illustrated, 
her past and genius understood, a record of the life and service of 
a woman who has contributed in no small degree to the inaugura- 
tion and accomplishment of movements securing greater freedom 
and larger participation in the work described by Mr. Bryce. 

As the explanation of corporate, institutional life must be 
sought in the origin and development of primal causes, so the 
personal units can be understood and interpreted only through 
a study of heredity and environment. Following this line of in- 
vestigation, we find that D*Arcy Southall, coming from Ireland, 
settled (1740) in Henrico County, Va. His descendants have 
held high positions and rendered loyal service in both the civil 
and military life of the State. Thomas J. Southall, one of them, 
was a native of Amelia County, Va. His father died at an early 
age, and his mother, a native of North Carolina, returned to this 
State. Her son was reared and settled, upon reaching his ma- 
jority, in Murfreesboro, N. C. He was a man of sterling integ- 
rity, strong sense of justice and large sympathy. 

Isaac Walton, bearing the name of, but claiming no relationship 
with the kindly and contemplative angler, settled in Virginia. 
He married Rebecca Rowe. 

His son, George Walton, went to Georgia, where he rendered 
eminent service to the State. He was an ardent patriot. He was 
a member of the Continental Congress, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, governor of the State, congressman and 
United States senator. 

Edward Dromgoole was a native of Sligo, Ireland. Coming to 
Virginia in 1770, he married Rebecca,* the daughter of Isaac 
and Rebecca Walton. Early in life he became a minister of the 
Methodist Church. Bishop McTyeire writes of him : 

"A native gift of oratory and an elevated and commanding character 
were developed during the next twelve years, which he spent in the 

*Bishop McTyeire erroneously gives her name as Mary. 


itinerancy. In Virginia, North Carolina and Maryland the fine results 
of his influence were inwrought into the social and religious life of 
Methodism. Marrying, he located and made his home in Brunswick 
County, Va., and died in 1834, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. . . . 
His wife bore him ten children. Their happy union lasted forty-nine 
years. His numerous family, including many slaves, were brought under 
Christian influence, and his large hospitality was tested by the entertain- 
ment of a conference." 

Two of his sons were ministers of the Church. Mr. Moore 
says of Mrs. Dromgoole: 

"She was a most estimable lady, of refined sensibilities, cultivated tastes 
and polished manners. Soon after her conversion she connected herself 
with the Methodists, and on March 7, 1777, was united in marriage to 
Edward Dromgoole. . . . He was the bosom friend of Bishop Asbury 
and Jesse Lee. . . . Tradition has perpetuated his fame as a preacher, 
and the story of some of his pulpit efforts will form a part of the romance 
of Methodist history." 

One son, George Coke Dromgoole, won distinction in the 
service of the State of Virginia. He was a member of the Legis- 
lature, president of the senate and member of the constitutional 
convention of 1829. He represented his district in Congress in 
1835, 1841, 1843, 1847. 

Rebecca, daughter of Edward Dromgoole, married Dr. Rich- 
ard Swepson Sims. Of this union was born Edward Dromgoole 
Sims (1805- 1 845), who graduated at the University of North 
CaroHna (1824), sharing, with Mathias E. Manly and William 
A. Graham, the first honors of the class. He entered the ministry 
of the Methodist Church, was professor at Randolph Macon 
College, and later in the University of Alabama. He was the 
first to introduce the study of Anglo-Saxon into the United 
States. Bishop McTyeire says that in his death the Church lost 
one of her ripest scholars and one of her purest and most de- 
voted ministers. 

Another son, Alexander Dromgoole Sims, also an alumnus of 
the University of North Carolina, became a lawyer of distinction 
at Darlington, S. C, representing in Congress the district in 
which he lived in 1845-49. 


Susannah Sims, daughter of Richard Swepson Sims and Re- 
becca Dromgoole, married Thomas J. Southall, and their daugh- 
ter, Sallie Swepson Sims Southall (now Mrs. Gotten), is the sub- 
ject of this sketch. She was born at Lawrenceville, Brunswick 
Gounty, Va., June 13, 1846. Her parents having moved to Mur- 
freesboro, N. G., their daughter, after several years' attendance 
at the Wesleyan Female Gollege, then located in that town, was 
sent to and graduated from, Greensboro Female * Gollege, May, 
1863. She taught school for two years and on March 14, 1866, 
was married to Robert Randolph Gotten of Edgecombe Gounty, 
N. G. Mr. Gotten was of the Gotten family,* residing for several 
generations in Edgecombe, enjoying the esteem and confidence of 
the people of the county. He enlisted in the Scotland Neck Gav- 
alry at the beginning of the Givil War, and served with unswerv- 
ing courage and fidelity until the surrender of General Lee. As 
with a very large majority of the young men of the South, he 
came out of the war with no financial resources, but immediately 
went to work, laying the basis of a long and honorable career. 
He began merchandising in Tarboro, and later conducted a large 
mercantile business in Wilson, N. G. Becoming interested in 
planting, he removed to Pitt Gounty, where he has for nearly 
fifty years resided and successfully conducted and enlarged his 
farming operations on Gottendale and Southwood plantations sit- 
uated about seven miles from Greenville. Mr. and Mrs. Gotten 
have been singularly blessed in their lives. Without ostentation 
or extravagant display, they have builded a home life in all re- 
spects in accord with their tastes, needs and happiness, in which 
they have reared sons and daughters who have brought to them 
joy and honor. In their home they have dispensed hospitality in 
the best and finest spirit and purest refinement. Notwithstanding 
Mrs. Gotten's sympathetic interest and active participation in all 
movements by women, she says that her chief work and interest 
in life have been that of a wife, a home-maker and the mother 
of a family. 

*For the history of the Gotten family, see in this volume under Godwin 
Cotton Moore. 


Her first opportunity and call to service other than in her home 
came in the appointment as one of the lady managers for North 
Carolina at the World's Fair, Chicago, where she served on both 
the national and state boards. As chairman of the woman's 
committee for North Carolina, she organized and successfully 
executed the plans for bringing to the attention of the world 
what was most interesting in the State's past and present. She 
devoted much time and labor in gathering relics and information 
for this purpose. She conceived and executed the idea of com- 
memorating the birth of the first white child in English America, 
by securing and placing in the Woman's Building, at the Chicago 
World's Fair, a desk made of white holly wood, grown on Roa- 
noke Island, the birthplace of Virginia Dare. After the Fair, the 
desk was placed in the State Library, Raleigh, where it was seen 
by many people. This desk is now in the auditorium of. the 
Raleigh Women's Club, that being the first women's club build- 
ing erected in this State, and by Mrs. Cotten deemed a fitting 
place for this memorial from North Carolina women to Virginia 
Dare. In the prosecution of the work in connection with the 
World's Fair, Mrs. Cotten's interest was stimulated in the study 
of the early history of the Stae, both legendary and recorded. 
Much buried lore was unearthed and many valuable relics re- 
covered, especially the famous painting of the Edenton Tea 
Party, which she resurrected at that time after much persistent 
work. Among some of the beneficent activities in which Mrs. 
Cotten has taken a special interest and given valuable aid was 
the first collection of books written by North Carolina women 
previous to 1893. This collection was made by her, and presented 
to the famous International Library of books written by women 
which was in the Woman's Building at Chicago. As an apprecia- 
tion of this work, Mrs. Cotten received a World's Fair medal 
and diploma containing a list of the books and the names of the 
authors. The diploma she presented to the State Library, as an 
illustration of the work performed by North Carolina women 
in literature in the history of the State. The medal is a valued 
souvenir in her family. Mrs. Cotten also served the State on 


the board of managers at the Atlanta and the Charleston expo- 
sitions. This service brought her in touch and afforded the 
opportunity for co-operation with women who were engaged in 
a sphere of work which had always strongly appealed to her — 
the human element in the personal and social life of people. 
While in the rearing and education of her children, of whom 
six have grown to maturity, and extending practical aid and sym- 
pathy to the large number of persons of both races, living upon 
and cultivating her husband's lands, she saw visions of a larger 
field of endeavor for uplift, especially for the mother and chil- 
dren. With an enthusiasm born of a warm sympathy, guided by 
a strong, practical viewpoint, acquired by experience, she enlisted 
in the work in which Mr. Bryce says American women have ac- 
complished such large results. She was profoundly interested 
in the mission, and actively participated in the work of the 
National Congress of Mothers. As an evidence of appreciation 
of her zeal and service, she was honored by its members with the 
position of honorary vice-president, for life. 

Deeply interested in the work of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy and the King's Daughters, she has for many years, 
been an active member of these organizations. Mrs. Cotten has 
found, however, in recent years the largest opportunity and field 
for service in the Federation of Women's Clubs, which she calls 
"A sisterhood of women, united in an effort for universal uplift." 
And she also says, "The club movement has more nearly brought 
a realization of the dream of a united womanhood than anything 
yet known to the world, with an ever-widening vista of wider 
scope, stronger union and greater results to be attained as the 
years pass on." 

At the session of 191 1 she was elected president of the North, 
Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, and served with marked 
ability for two years. During her administration the Federation 
actively supported and aided in securing the passage, by the 
Legislature of this State, of an act making women eligible to 
election and service on public school boards. The work of the 
woman's clubs in almost every department of social, industrial. 


educational life, improving the homes and the schools, promoting 
sanitation and health, stimulating and directing interest in house- 
hold economics, literature, library extension, civics and conserva- 
tion, has made a marked impression for good in the State. There 
is probably no agency operating upon the future happiness of the 
people so profound in its influence and promising such large 
results as that of the Federation of Women's Clubs of North 
Carolina. Nor is there any movement more worthy the careful, 
intelligent, open-minded examination and study of men. 

For several years Mrs. Cotten was chairman of the state de- 
partment of child study in the North Carolina Federation of Wo- 
men's Clubs and, later, had charge of its department of extension. 
Her federation song, composed in 1910, has been an inspiration 
to all members. As one of the expressions of appreciation of her 
service in the Federation of Women's Clubs of the State, its edu- 
cational loan fund, for the purpose of helping North Carolina 
girls needing aid in securing an education, has been named, in her 
honor, the Sallie Southall Cotten Loan Fund. She has also been 
made honorary president for life. Appreciating the value and 
importance of local organization, Mrs. Cotten has actively par- 
ticipated in the formation of local clubs. She is president of the 
Pitt County Federation, which, among other good works, has 
brought into existence and maintains a loan fund for the edu- 
cation of Pitt County girls at the East Carolina Teacher's Train- 
ing School. She was also for twelve years president, and upon 
her retirement was made honorary president for life of the End- 
of-the-Century Club of Greenville. 

One who has been a co-worker with Mrs. Cotten writes of her: 

"A loyal alumnus of Greensboro Female College, she has always been 
a zealous advocate of the cause of education, especially of rural children 
and the normal and domestic education of rural teachers." 

Another, who knows, by co-operation and association of Mrs. 
Cotten's work of uplift and help, says: 

"With all her literary work, club work, church work and the cares 
of her own household, she finds time to work among the women of her 


neighborhood — to visit the sick, prescribe for the weak babies and be a 
real neighbor to those around her." 

As said by one capable of speaking: 

"She, above all things, dislikes flattery; she shrinks from anything that 
suggests self-exploitation, and in all that she does self is lost sight of — 
the cause, and the cause only, being her one concern." 

That she secures and retains the esteem, confidence and affec- 
tion of those for whom and with whom she works is explained 
by her personal loyalty, her sincerity and unselfish devotion to 
duty. She is open-minded, fair in judgment, patient in listening, 
considerate of the sensibiHties of others and gracious in manner 
to those of every degree in life. She represented the North 
Carohna Federation of Women's Clubs at the biennial meetings 
of the General Federation in Milwaukee (1900), Boston (1908), 
Chicago (1914), New York (1916) and has been recently 
chosen director for North Carolina on its board of directors. 
Mrs. Cotten has been since its organization a member of the 
State Literary and Historical Association, and of the Social Serv- 
ice Conference. Her work has been broad and far reaching, em- 
bracing social, literary and patriotic lines. In early life many 
magazines published articles from her pen on popular subjects, 
as well as poems which evinced the delicacy of taste and clear- 
ness of vision which has always been hers. In her club work 
she has generously responded to invitations to address organiza- 
tions and schools upon subjects of mutual interest. A volume of 
her writings — prose and poetry — would illustrate her method of 
thought and style of expression better than any description. Her 
principal literary effort is "The White Doe, an Indian Legend," 
embodying the tradition of the fate of Virginia Dare. Fine in 
conception, true to tradition and graceful in execution, it reveals 
the intellectual breadth and poetic cast of the mind of the author. 
Fond of writing, she is none the less an animated and interesting 
conversationalist, expressing her thoughts with clearness and 
force. She is cordial and sympathetic in manner, and intolerant 
only of indirection and insincerity. She is especially happy in her 


attitude toward young life. Its aspirations, its emotions, its 
spirit of inquiry, appeal strongly to her, while she secures and 
holds its confidence. 

While Mrs. Gotten has entered into the work of securing a 
fuller participation of women in solving the problems of modern 
life, with an ardent enthusiasm she has recognized the truth that 
all progress must be made by appealing to and conserving those 
forces which have produced existing conditions. She is tolerant 
of the views and opinions of others, although strong in her own 
convictions, patient in waiting for results, and in all things show- 
ing forth a "sweet reasonableness" of mind. While she sees in 
the code of laws much which is hard to be understood and does 
not "square" with her conception of social justice, she recognizes 
that laws are the result of the struggle of mankind for a work- 
able system of social organization — that sudden and radical 
changes are not always progressive. Hence, while desiring to 
see inequality and injustice, especially in regard to the rights 
and duties of women and children, wives and mothers, removed, 
she is always reasonable both in what she proposes and in her 
manner of bringing about the result for which she labors. Mrs. 
Gotten recognizes the profound changes in the social, industrial 
and political life of the American people, through the organized 
and federated agencies, created and controlled by women, and 
that the end is not yet, that the evolutionary forces have not yet 
exhausted themselves, that before the final adjustment is reached, 
political power, with its resultant responsibihty, will come to the 
women of America. She also recognizes the truth that this is 
not the first or essential step in the realization of the ultimate 
purpose of women, service and uplift. Her family life in all of 
its aspects and its relations is cheerful and happy. Mr. Gotten, 
while devoting his time and attention to his large business and 
agricultural interests, has given sympathetic encouragement to 
the work in which Mrs. Gotten has been so ardently interested. 
He has taken an active interest in all questions affecting the wel- 
fare of the State and county, promoting public schools, good 
roads and general uplift. He served for several years as pre- 


siding justice of the criminal court and represented Pitt County 
in the senate and house of representatives of the state Legisla- 
ture. Mr. and Mrs. Gotten have three sons and three daughters : 
Bruce, Baltimore, Md., married Mrs. Jesse Tyson. Until his 
resignation, he was first lieutenant in the United States Army. 
Lyman Atkinson, commander. United States Navy, married Miss 
Elizabeth Henderson, of Salisbury, N. G. Preston Sims, Bos- 
ton, attorney at law, married Miss Willa Strange, Danville, Va. 
Agnes married Julian B. Timberlake, Raleigh, N. G. Sallie 
Dromgoole married Russell Wiggin, Winchester, Mass. Elba 
married Douglas Wesson, Springfield, Mass. Their children and 
grandchildren are a source of pride and joy to Mr. and Mrs. 
Gotten, who have both been for many years communicants of 
the Episcopal Ghurch. 

H. G. Connor, 


N 1753 Rowan and in 1762 Mecklenburg were 
formed from Anson County. In neither case 
was the western boundary marked. Until the 
formation of Tryon County in 1768 and Surry 
in 1770, Rowan and Mecklenburg were the ex- 
treme western counties of the State. These 
two counties were settled most largely by the Scotch-Irish, but 
there was also a stream of Germans, together with some English. 
Although Mecklenburg was not established as a county until 
1762, there were settlers certainly as early as 1748. On October 
7, 1749 John Cathey and John Price obtained grants for lands 
in what is now Mecklenburg, and in each of these grants is a 
statement that the grantee was living upon the land. 

The Scotch-Irish were good judges of land, very devout, and 
fond of books. Their settlements were usually marked, there- 
fore, by churches and schoolhouses. One of the early churches is 
Hopewell, situated eleven miles from Charlotte, on the Beattie's 
Ford road. The records of the Synod of Philadelphia for 1766 
show that Hopewell and Center churches applied through that 
body for the Rev. Nathan Kerr as pastor. The Synod of New 
York has reference in its records for 1767 to petitions for pastors 
from other Mecklenburg churches, but Hopewell is not included. 
In May, 1788, the Synod of the Carolinas was organized at Center 


Church, and at that time there were ten Presbyterian ministers 
in the State. The people had not been without reHgious services 
at earher dates however. It is known that there was preaching 
near Hopewell as early as 1752 by the Rev. John Thompson. The 
services were said to have been held beneath a tree in the yard 
of Richard Barry, one of the early patriots who participated in 
the skirmish at Cowan's Ford. Rev. Hugh McAden, whose serv- 
ices were mainly in the eastern section of the State, made a tour 
through this section in 1755. He records meeting Rev. Mr. Miller 
of the Baptist Church, showing that this denomination was also 
active in mission work there. During the same year Governor 
Dobbs visited that section for the purpose of establishing Fort 
Dobbs, between Salisbury and Statesville, for the protection of 
the early settlers and friendly Catawba Indians from the Chero- 
kees. Missionaries were also sent by the synods of New York 
and Philadelphia ; and some of these were desired as pastors by 
these Carolina churches. Rev. Alexander McWhorter who was 
one of them, became president of Liberty Hall Academy, for- 
merly known as Queen's College or Queen's Museum.. On Octo- 
ber 31, 1799, the synod met at Hopewell, and at that time Rev. 
Samuel Craighead Caldwell was pastor of Hopewell and Sugar 
Creek churches. Within the bounds of Hopewell was the skirm- 
ish at Mclntire's Farm, in which a few patriots, fourteen in 
number, succeeded in harassing and rendering unsuccessful a 
foraging expedition of the British, consisting of 450 infantry and 
60 cavalry with 40 wagons. 

Cowan's Ford is only a few miles distant. It was there that 
General William Lee Davidson was killed while opposing the pas- 
sage of Cornwallis. A few miles north of Hopewell, and on the 
Beattie's Ford road, is located Baker's graveyard.* Its first 
interment was the remains of Rev. John Thompson, who died in 
1753 and was buried under the floor of the house in which he 
lived and prayed. Mr. Thompson was born on the banks of the 
Foyte, in Ireland, and came to America in 171 5. He attended 

*This graveyard is located by some writers in Iredell County, on the 
road between Salisbury and Beattie's Ford. 


all the meetings of the Synod of Philadelphia from 1717 until 
1746 except two years, when absent on account of sickness, and 
in each case he had been moderator for the previous year. In 
1744 he was appointed to correspond with the people of North 
Carolina, who had sent a petition to the Synod for a minister. 
His land grant from the State bears date of March 25, 1750, and 
is for (^2^ acres on the west side of Davidson's Creek. He also 
obtained grants from the Selwyn agents. Some of this land was 
sold to James Murdock, the consideration being the yearly pay- 
ment of "one peppercorn at the feast of St. Michael, the Arch- 
angel." He took up several other tracts, one on Fifth Creek, 
one where William Swan recently lived, and one where the Rev. 
James Hall lived. Baker's graveyard takes its name from Samuel 
Baker, who married Elizabeth, the daughter of Mr. Thompson, 
who lived in a house near by. After the death of Mr. Baker 
the widow was married to Dr. Charles Harris, and became the 
mother of Charles J. and William Shakespeare Harris. Another 
daughter of Mr. Thompson was Hannah, the wife of Roger 
Lawson. Here also was buried Samuel Wilson, an early and 
wealthy settler of Mecklenburg, a kinsman of Benjamin Wilson, 
who was a distinguished English portrait painter at the court of 
Charles, and the father of Sir Robert Wilson, one of England^s 
most distinguished generals. The home of the late Dr. W. S. M. 
Davidson marks the site of the Wilson residence. In Baker's 
graveyard rest also the remains of Hugh Lawson, the grand- 
father of Hugh Lawson White, Henry Henry and his wife (Isa- 
bella Ramsey of Dundee), who was the widow of Robert David- 
son, and the mother of John Davidson, the subject of this sketch. 
Robert Davidson was one of the early settlers in Chestnut 
Level, Lancaster County, Pa. He was in better financial circum- 
stances than the majority of the pioneers as is shown by the fact 
that he was able to bring two servants with him to his American 
home. His eldest son, John, was born December 15, 1735. 
Shortly after the birth of Mary he died. Some years afterward, 
the widow with the two children joined the southern tide of 
emigration, and settled near the site of the present town of 


Salisbury. In this neighborhood was an excellent school, con- 
ducted by Henry Henry, a very scholarly man and former stu- 
dent of Princeton, and consequently John and Mary Davidson 
enjoyed very superior educational advantages for the time. Mr. 
Henry succeeded in winning not only the love of his pupils but 
the heart and the hand of the beautiful and accomplished mother 
of John and Mary. September 27, 1766 he obtained a grant for 
lands located in Mecklenburg, on the Catawba, adjoining the 
lands of James Price (who subsequently married Mary) and 
John Cathey, and he removed with his family to that place. 
About the time John became of age he moved to Mecklenburg, 
and soon married Violet, the most beautiful of the daughters of 
Samuel Wilson (of whom mention has been made) and his first 
wife Mary, who was the sister of Moses Winslow, one of the 
patriots of Rowan. Their eldest daughter, Mary Wilson, be- 
came the wife of Ezekiel Polk, and the grandmother of Presi- 
dent James K. Polk. Two of the sons, Samuel and David, were 
Revolutionary soldiers. David was in the skirmish at Cowan's 
Ford. The wife of Major David Wilson was Sallie McCon- 
nell, an aunt of Hugh Lawson White. The second wife of 
Samuel Wilson was the widow Potts, and the third wife was 
Margaret, a daughter of Patrick Jack, and sister of Captain 
James Jack, the bearer to Congress of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

On October 26, 1767, John Davidson obtained a grant for 
land on the Catawba, near Tool's Ford and adjoining the lands of 
Samuel Wilson and Edward Cussick. This place he named 
Rural Hill. As he increased in wealth his pioneer dwelling was 
replaced by an elegant brick mansion — the first to be erected in 
that section. The date 1788 was cut in the glass on the transom 
over the front door, showing the date of building. It was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1886. Its site is now in possession of Joseph 
Graham Davidson, a descendant in the fourth generation. On 
these and adjacent lands which were obtained by subsequent 
grants, John Davidson reared a remarkably distinguished family 
of ten children, as follows: (i) Sallie, wife of Rev. Alexander 


Caldwell (son of Rev. Dr. David Caldwell of Guilford and pas- 
tor of Sugar Creek Church) ; (2) Isabella, wife of General 
Joseph Graham, a distinguished officer of the Revolution, who 
"commanded in fifteen engagements with signal wisdom, cour- 
age and success"; (3) Rebecca, wife of Captain Alexander Bre- 
vard, a noted officer of the Revolution; (4) Mary (Polly), wife 
of Dr. William McLean, assistant surgeon in the Revolution and 
an eminent physician; (5) Elizabeth (Betsy), wife of William 
Lee Davidson, who was a son of the general of the same name; 
(6) Violet, wife of William Bain Alexander, who was a son 
of John McKnitt Alexander, the secretary; (7) Margaret, wife 
of Major James Harris of Cabarrus; (8) Robert (Robin), who 
married Margaret (Peggy), a daughter of Adlai Osborne of 
Iredell; (9) John (Jackey), who married SaUie, a daughter of 
Adam Brevard and a niece of Ephraim Brevard, author of the 
Mecklenburg Resolves ; and (10) Benjamin Wilson (Independ- 
ence Ben), born on the twelfth anniversary of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration, who married Ehzabeth (Betsy), a daughter of 
James Latta. This family has produced more than a score of 
sons and daughters who have won state or national distinction as 
statesmen, jurists, physicians, ministers, authors, soldiers and 
captains of industry, among them being a chief justice, four mem- 
bers of Congress; and one who w^as a governor. United States 
senator and secretary of the navy. 

The pioneer days were the days of the log cabin and plain fare, 
and the pioneer was a ready man at nearly everything if not a 
highly skilled one. Along with many of the pioneers, John 
Davidson had a blacksmith's shop with a practical knowledge of 
iron working, as he had of nearly all the other arts required at 
the time. On account of his subsequent career as an iron mas- 
ter, special stress has been laid on his ability to work iron, and 
he is spoken of generally and unjustly as a blacksmith, to the 
exclusion of the other arts in which he was equally skilled, and 
a list of which would be rather long. 

Mr. Davidson managed his affairs with signal success and soon 
became a magistrate and one of the principal men of the com- 


munity. He was elected a member of the lower house of Assem- 
bly for 1773, having Martin Phifer as his colleague at the session 
beginning January 25th, and Thomas Polk at the session be- 
ginning December 4th. Among the measures in which he was 
particularly interested was a bill which he introduced for estab- 
lishing a court house in the town of Charlotte. Mr. Davidson 
presented a petition for this purpose on February 2, 1773. The 
act was passed by the Assembly, but was disapproved by Gov- 
ernor Martin for ''containing matters foreign to its title and 
that have no relation to each other." This act was amended, 
passed and approved by Martin March 19, 1774. Davidson was 
also interested in the acts which proposed altering the dividing 
lines between Mecklenburg, Rowan and Tryon; fixing the costs 
of prosecution upon the plaintiff upon failure to convict ; and 
estabHshing a public road to the coast to give connection with 
the Atlantic. He was also a member of the Committee of Safety 
for Mecklenburg. 

John Davidson was a man of action as well as resolves, and 
served as major in the militia forces under both the provincial 
and state governments. In September, 1775, he was ap- 
pointed major of Colonel Thomas Polk's regiment, and was 
with it in the Snow Campaign of that year against the Scovelite 
Tories about Ninety Six in South Carolina. In April, 1776, he 
was made first major of the Mecklenburg militia, under Colonel 
Adam Alexander. In the summer and fall of that year he served 
under Rutherford in his campaign against the Cherokees, who 
were then causing considerable trouble. He was with Sumter 
at Hanging Rock in 1780, and after the War of the Revolution 
was made a brigadier-general of the state militia. 

One of Davidson's greatest services to the State was his part 
in the development of the iron industry of Lincoln County, just 
across the Catawba from his home. In 1789 the Big Ore Bank 
in Lincoln was granted to General Peter Forney and others. 
Two years afterward a part of the interest was sold to Major 
Davidson and his two sons-in-law, Captain Alexander Brevard 
and General Joseph Graham. The company thus constituted 


built Vesuvius Furnace and later Mount Tirzah Forge. Four 
years afterward these three purchased the entire Forney inter- 
ests in these forges. These iron works were known far and wide, 
and among other things furnished the government with cannon- 
balls in the War of 1812. The Federal census of 1790 makes 
Major Davidson (next to Colonel Thomas Polk) the largest 
slaveholder in Mecklenburg, his slaves numbering twenty-six. 
His slaves were native Africans, purchased at Charleston from 
New England ships. 

Major Davidson's mother was said to have been a very beauti- 
ful woman, rather lavish in her expenditures, and the son is 
said to have inherited his mother's charming personal qualities 
and features. His distinguished grandson, William A. Graham, 
is said to have borne a striking resemblance to him in his com- 
manding figure, dignity of manner, and grace of bearing. Al- 
though a man of great wealth, he was industrious and frugal 
in his tastes and led the simple life. Being Scotch-Irish, he was 
fond of the Bible and a devout student of its precious truths. 
He always closed the labors of the day with prayers, and in- 
sisted upon the presence of all the members of his family. 

In 1824, after the death of his wife, he made his home with 
his daughter Elizabeth (Betsy), wife of William Lee Davidson, 
who lived near the present site of Davidson College, and on the 
plantation now known as the Sloan place and about two miles 
distant. He died there January 10, 1832, in the ninety-seventh 
year of his age, and was carried back to his old homestead and 
laid to rest on the spot selected by himself, and by the side of his 
beloved wife, who preceded him a few years. 

The writer is indebted to the "Colonial Records," the records 
of land grants in the office of the secretary of state, the North 
Carolina Booklet and the well-known histories of Foote, Wheeler, 
Hunter, Alexander, Graham, Tompkins; and to Mrs. A. B. 
Andrews and Dr. D. H. Hill, descendants of Major Davidson. 

W. A. Withers. 



[E biography of James Davis, the proto-typog- 
rapher of North CaroHna, is practically the his- 
tory of the North Carolina press for the first 
generation of its existence. There were four 
other printers and at least two other presses, 
but Davis was pre-eminently the founder of the 
art in the colony, and to him belongs not only the honor of intro- 
ducing but also of establishing this great civilizing and educat- 
ing agency. 

With the exception of Georgia, North Carolina was the last 
of the original thirteen colonies to receive the printing press. 
The immediate cause of its introduction was the desire to revise 
and print the laws, which had not been codified since 171 5. In 
1746 Edward Moseley, Samuel Swann, Enoch Hall, and Thomas 
Barker were appointed to revise and print the several acts of 
Assembly in force in the province. The revision was completed 
in 1749, confirmed and declared to be in force (chap. 6, Oct. 
sess., 1749). Their work on the revisal had already brought the 
committee face to face with the question of publication, and at 
the April, 1749, session of the Assembly, an act had been passed 
under which James Davis was encouraged to remove to North 
Carolina. He was given a salary of £160 proc. money, to "begin 
and commence from such time as the said James Davis shall have 


set up his press at Newbern . . . and be ready to proceed on his 
business of printing." The contract was for five years, while the 
services required were the printing of legislative journals and 
proceedings, laws, proclamations, and other official matters. 
Davis was required to reside in Newbern, was given absolute 
copyright on all government documents published by him, and 
his salary was to be raised by a levy of fourpence on every 

Davis imported and set up his press and entered upon his 
contract June 24, 1749. This is the birthday of the fourth estate 
in North Carolina. He came from Virginia, and most probably 
from Williamsburg, as there were then presses at no other place. 
He was born in Virginia, October 21, 1721, and was probably 
brought up at the printing trade, but of his early life we know 
nothing. His mature years were all spent in North Carolina, 
where his work for the advancement of the commonwealth will 
give him a place among the men whose lives have been worth 

His first work seems to have been to print the proclamation 
money and the journals of the Assembly for 1749 and 1750, and 
this he probably continued to do as long as he remained a printer. 
His first important publication was "Swann*s Revisal," which had 
been prepared by the commissioners appointed in 1746. He 
could hardly have begun work on this publication before the 
formal ratification of the compilation by the Assembly at October 
session, 1749, but Governor Johnston writing to the Board of 
Trade, December 21, 1749, says the revised laws "are now in 
press and I expect to be able to send your Lordships a copy of 
them by the middle of June next." A copy with the imprint 
1750, however, is unknown. Until recent years it was thought 
that 1752 was the only date of publication, but at least five copies 
are known with the imprint 1751. These are distributed as fol- 
lows: One each in the libraries of Congress, Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society (Charlemagne Tower Collection), New York 
Public Library (Lenox), New York State (destroyed in 191 1) 
and my own. Of these five copies my own is clearly the first 


published, for it ends with the laws for 1750. All the other 
copies have the laws for July session, 1751, which shows that 
my copy was published before July session, 1751. The 1751 
edition is followed by an eight-page table, while that for 1752 
has a two-page table and a new title page. An imperfect copy 
without title page, also in my collection of Caroliniana, is doubt- 
less a 1751 issue, for p. 330 shows an offset of the word "Table." 
This indicates that it was bound and ready for sale, but as it was 
not immediately disposed of, the table was removed and the 
laws of 1 75 1 added. It is probable that the sheets of the 1752 
issue are the same as those of the 1751, with possibly a few 
changes and corrections here and there. Of the 1752 issue thir- 
teen copies are known, seven of them being in public libraries. 

This first printed revisal of the laws of North Carolina is 
worthy of the attention here given because it is the first book 
printed in North Carolina, is, so far as known, the first book 
printed by James Davis, and is the corner-stone of the history 
of the State and of her domestic literature. With age and be- 
cause of imperfect tanning the leather binding assumed a yellow- 
ish hue, and this gave it the popular name by which it is still 
known — "Yellow Jacket." 

After the publication of this revisal Davis continued to print 
the session laws, the journals, the paper currency and the miscel- 
laneous matters of the colony. He served the colony and State 
as public printer for about thirty-three years, 1749-82. But his 
path was not always a smooth one, nor was his work always satis- 
factory. His original contract was for five years. It was re- 
newed in 1754, 1757, 1760. In 1762 he asked for reappointment, 
but it was rejected by the council, for this involved the larger 
question of the struggle between the governor and the council 
on one side and the house of commons on the other. McCulloh 
brought in a bill in the council to appoint Alexander Purdie as 
public printer. It seems that Davis had not given entire satisfac- 
tion to the lower house, but it was necessary to have a printer, 
and he was reappointed for six months "and from thence to the 
end of the next session of Assembly and no longer." In 1764 


his nomination was again defeated in the council. Then follows 
a bit of spicy correspondence between the governor and the lower 
house, which shows what manner of men these colonial Caro- 
linians were, proves that they well deserved Bancroft's appella- 
tion of the freest of the free, and is too delicious to be para- 
phrased. Under date of March 5, 1764, Governor Dobbs writes 
to the lower house: "I can never approve of the late printer ap- 
pointed by the Assembly, upon account of his negligence. ... I 
must therefore recommend it to the Assembly to . . . encourage 
a printer to reside where he can attend the government and As- 
sembly and do his. duty to the public, and not barely consider 
his own profit and conveniency." The lower house thereupon 
appointed a committee to employ a public printer at £200 per 
annum, and this committee invited Andrew Steuart of Philadel- 
phia to come to North Carolina. On November 21, 1764, Dobbs 
informed the house that as a bill to appoint a printer had failed 
in the council, he had, with the consent of the council, appointed 
Andrew Steuart as public printer for eighteen months, "from 
the 24th day of June last, the time of his arrival here." This 
angered the commons, and they resolved that 

"The appointment of a printer, under the sounding appellation of His 
Majesty's printer . . . is of an unusual nature, truly unknown either to 
our laws or constitution, and as it appears to us a most extensive stretch 
of power, and may, in its tendency, establish a new office to exact new 
fees . . . we, the Assembly of this province, therefore to guard the 
liberties of the subjects and our indubitable rights, do resolve, That we 
know of no Such office as His Majesty's printer of this province; and of 
no duties, fees or emoluments annexed or incident to such office; and 
that the said appointment is of a new and unusual nature unknown to 
our laws, and is a violent stretch of power." 

In answer to this patroitic outburst Dobbs replied two days 
later by appointing, "in support of His Majesty's Just Preroga- 
tive," Andrew Steuart to be his Majesty's printer. On the same 
day the house resolved to pay Steuart £100 for his "voyage, 
trouble and expense," in coming to the province, and resolved 
that James Davis be reappointed to the office, and made his elec- 


tion doubly sure by ordering that the treasurer pay out no money 
*'by order of the governor and council without the concurrence or 
direction of this house." 

But however angrily the house might fulminate we know that 
Steuart retained his appointment and printed the session laws for 
1764, for there is a copy in my collection. Whether he was ever 
paid for his labor is another matter. 

Davis prepared and in 1764 published a revisal of the laws of 
the province, 1751-64; in 1765 he issued a "Collection of all the 
Acts of Assembly" then in force, from 171 5 and including what 
he had published in the edition of 1764. In 1773 he pubHshed "A 
Complete Revisal" (which appeared prior to October 8) ; in 1774 
he compiled and published his ''Office and Authority of a Justice 
of the Peace," the first book of its kind issued in North Caro- 
lina. The "Revisal" of 1764 is the rarest of all North CaroHna 
revisions, but four copies being known; that of 1765 is the next 
rarity. The editions of all these revisals and of the session laws 
must have been very small, for as early as 1773 Governor Martin 
writes the Earl Dartmouth that "the laws of this province are 
more rare than any book that can be named." 

It is believed that Davis printed the session laws with regularity 
from 1749 to 1782 (except 1764), for he was re-elected public 
printer in 1766, 1770 and 1774. At the April session, 1777, the 
Assembly saw fit to drop Davis as public printer, and chose in his 
stead John Pinkney, a bankrupt printer of Williamsburg, Va., 
for those were the days when any outgrown garment or outworn 
creed was good enough for circulation in North Carolina if it but 
bore the Virginia brand, and the public printing office was trans- 
ferred from Newbern to Halifax. Contemporary accounts give 
us the remainder of the story. Caswell writes Hezekiah Alex- 
ander under date of September 15, 1777: "The Assembly thought 
proper to remove an old servant (the printer) for neglect of duty 
and appoint one who resided in Virginia, who after long delay 
removed to Halifax about five or six weeks ago, where he died." 

Willie Jones tells us more of the successor of the faithful 
Davis. He writes Caswell under date of August 29, 1777: 


"Mr. Pinkney is dead ; his death is not regretted by a single person 
who knew him in this part of the world. His conduct was so scandalous 
that we only regret that he did not die before he had an opportunity of 
abusing this State in the gross manner he has done. I used every means 
in my power to stimulate him to his duty, and to enable him to perform 
it ; but all to no purpose. When I went to Williamsburg after my return 
from Newbern, I found he was so involved there that his creditors 
would not let him depart without money or security, and to expedite 
the public business, I advanced him money and became his security to the 
amount of upward of £400, for which I have no kind of security. His 
types were brought to Halifax, and I think of detaining them until I 
am made secure." 

What did Davis now do when the State was without a printer? 
He carried the acts through the press at his own expense, relying 
on the justice of the Assembly for reimbursement. Had his pur- 
pose been to defend his career in the eyes of posterity no man 
could have made a more overwhelming reply to his detractors than 
did Davis by this patriotic act. He was reappointed public printer 
in November, 1777, but from then till the end of his public career 
he seems to have had hard fortunes, due to the stress of the times. 
From a petition that seems to belong to 1780 we learn that he 
was sustaining heavy losses by reason of the rise in printing ma- 
terials, by depreciation of currency, and the slowness of payment. 
He had applied to the Assembly from time to time for relief, 
"but was unhappy enough to receive no other consolation than 
being again appointed printer to the State." The Assembly con- 
tinued to neglect him; paper rose to £100 per ream, and he de- 
termined to resign, but was dissuaded by appeals to his patriotism. 
The Assembly, on February 9, 1781, requested him "to continue 
in the business of public printer." May 18, 1782, his son, Thomas 
Davis, was appointed public printer in his place. The latter had 
removed his press to Halifax in February, 1782, and the laws for 
April session, 1782, bear the Halifax imprint, as do those for 
April session, 1784, while those for October session, 1784, show 
him again in Newbern. This seems to have been the last issue 
with a Davis imprint, for Arnett and Hodge became public 
printers in December, 1785. James Davis was then dead. His 


son Thomas seems to have gone out of business and died about 

Besides his work as public printer there was Httle for James 
Davis to do in the colony of North Carolina in the line of his 
trade, but he was not idle ; he aided in building the commonwealth 
in many ways and was always a useful and progressive citizen. 
Besides his official publications, laws, revisals, journals, procla- 
mations and similar matters, and such semi-public works as his 
"Justice of the Peace," of 1774, he published in 1753 Clement 
Hall's "Collection of Christian Experiences," the first book or 
pamphlet so far as known to be compiled by a native of North 
Carolina. In 1756 he printed a sermon, another in 1761, and 
another in 1768. In 1778 appeared Ruddiman's "Rudiments of 
the Latin Tongue" and Dyche's "Spelling Book." Such were 
the feeble beginnings of literary life in North Carolina. 

Besides the revisals made and published by him in 1764, 1765 
and 1773, he was appointed December i, 1777, to revise the acts 
and lay a fair copy of "the whole compilement" before the next 
session of Assembly, and four days later he was allowed £500 
for the work. Again on May 12, 1783, a bill was brought in to 
authorize him "to revise, print and publish all the laws now in 
force and use." This bill was in answer to an offer from him, 
but, like the proposal of 1777, came to naught. (See chap. 46, 
laws of 1783 and chap. 4, laws of 1787.) 

To Davis belongs also the honor of establishing the first news- 
paper in the colony. This was the North Carolina Gazette "with 
the freshest advices, foreign and domestic." No. i probably ap- 
peared in the spring of 1755, as No. 103 is dated April 15, 1757. 
It was published Thursdays, on a sheet post size, folio, often on 
a half sheet, and bore the imprint, "Newbern : Printed by James 
Davis, at the Printing-Office in Front street, where all persons 
may be supplied with this paper at Sixteen shillings per Annum : 
And where Advertisements of a moderate length are inserted for 
Three Shillings the first Week, and Two shillings for every week 
after. And where also Book-binding is done reasonably." This 
newspaper venture succeeded perhaps better than was to have 


been expected. The Gazette was published about six years and 
then suspended. The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Mass., has five copies of this Gazette, of which No. 200 bears date 
October 18, 1759.* 

In 1764 Davis issued the first number of the North Carolina 
Magazine, or Universal Intelligencer. It was printed on a demy 
sheet in eight pages, quarto, with a view to its being bound ; was 
divided into two columns without rules and the printed page was 
eight by five and a half inches. It was jejune and vapid. The 
want of regular mail facilities rendered the news department very 
insufficient. The first number was from Friday, June i, to Fri- 
day, June 8, 1764. At the close of 1764 a new volume was 
begun, with a diminution of one-half in size and nothing in price. 
It is unknown how long the Magazine continued to be published, 
but it was succeeded by the North Carolina Gazette, which 
appeared again on May 27, 1768. It was numbered one and was 
enlarged to a crown sheet folio. It is probable that there was no 
suspension in the publication between 1764 and the reappearance 
of the Gazette in 1768, and that the reappearance of this paper at 
that time simply marks a return by Davis to the name first used 
by him in 1755. The copy of the Gazette for July 4, 1777, is 
numbered 383, and has as its motto "Semper pro Libertate et 
Bono Publico." It is a small folio of four pages, two broad col- 
umns to the page, on a sheet twelve by sixteen inches. On June 20, 
1778, it was reduced to a quarto, and so continued until Novem- 
ber 7, when it resumed its former size. The last number in the 
volume here described is that for November 30, 1778. It was 
suspended perhaps soon after that date, for Davis writes the 
governor November 2, 1778, that his son Thomas had been 
drafted into the army, that he was chief hand in the printing 
office, and that without his aid it would be impossible to carry on 
the newspaper, and the prospectus of another North Carolina 
Gazette started in August, 1783, says "there has not been a news- 
paper published in North Carolina for several years." The paper 

*See full-size fac-simile in Ashe's narrative "History of North Caro- 
lina " Vol. I. 


used on the Gazette was fine, heavy and water lined, but as the 
war advanced it became of an inferior quality. The impression is 
somewhat blurred, but Davis's work is generally very good. 
There are no column rules and no head rules. There is no edi- 
torial matter and very little local news. The body of the paper 
was filled with reports from the seat of war and from Congress, 
and that the pressure on his columns was sometimes greater than 
he could meet we learn from the fact that at times he omits his 
own advertisements and even his imprint. 

Davis's work as a printer made him prominent in Newbern 
affairs. He was appointed postmaster there in 1755 ; in that year 
he contracted to carry the mails from Suffolk, Va., to Wilming- 
ton, N. C, and was still doing this work in 1758. He was 
elected to represent the town in the Assembly in 1754, but as he 
was then sheriff was pronounced inelligible ; he was elected again 
in 1755 and then took his seat; he was also a member in 1756, in 
1757, and in 1760 represented Craven County. He was a justice 
of the peace in 1768, 1771, 1774, 1776 and 1778; was foreman 
of the grand jury in 1771 ; commissioner of Harlow's Creek 
Canal in 1766; signed the Craven County address on Liberty in 
August, 1774; was on the committee to arm and fit out a vessel 
of war in 1775, and in March 1776 he was a commissioner of 
exports for Newbern; was a member of the Provincial Conven- 
tion which met in Newbern in April, 1775, and of the Hillsboro 
Congress of August, 1775, as .'a representative of Newbern, 
and in the latter was on the committee to prepare plans for the 
regulation of internal peace, order and safety of the province; 
was a member of the Council of Safety of Newbern in March, 
1775; was elected a judge of the oyer and terminer court for 
Newbern District in 1777 and in January, 1781, was a member 
of the Council of State. 

Although it is thus evident that he was an ardent Whig in 
the Revolutior^, he had his enemies and did not escape the 
charge of Toryism; he was also a man of strong passions and 
these were not always under control. He accumulated large 
property in negroes and real estate, and died in Newbern, in 


February or March, 1785, as his will is probated at March term, 
1785. We learn from this will that his presses and other print- 
ing materials then in Newbern were in the hands of Robert 
Keith & Company. All the printing apparatus and the book 
bindery was given to his son Thomas, who had been as early 
as November 2, 1778, "chief hand in the office," and in 1782 had 
succeeded his father as public printer, but after 1784 the name 
Davis disappears from the history of North Carolina typography, 
his material and apparatus being probably taken over by Frangois 
Xavier Martin. 

Davis married Prudence Herritage, a connection of the wife of 
Governor Caswell. He had four sons : James, the eldest, married 
in the West Indies and died in Havana, Cuba ; John, the second 
son, served in the patriot army, was captured and imprisoned 
at Charleston, was later transferred to a British man-of-war, 
refused to do menial service on ship board and died under the 
lash (see State Records, xv, 377-78 for the details of this 
infamous cruelty) ; William, the third son, also saw service in 
the patriot army ; Thomas was the youngest son. If there were 
daughters no record has reached this writer. 

This sketch is based on the "Colonial and State Records," 
where Davis occupies an honorable place, on my "Press of North 
Carolina in the Eighteenth Century," and that in turn in part on 
Thomas's "History of Printing," and in part on an examination 
of Davis's newspapers and imprints. Of the long line of suc- 
cessors to Davis in the art preservative in North Carolina there 
is no name more worthy and none to whom the State owes a 
larger debt of gratitude. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 



'HOMAS DIXON, an English Quaker, sailed 
from Liverpool for Philadelphia about 1700. In 
1750, Simon Dixon, his son — the father having 
died — left Bucks County, Pa., and came south- 
ward to North Carolina for the purpose of 
finding a suitable location for himself and 
friends. In the following spring, at the head of a company of 
his friends and neighbors, he settled on the headwaters of Cane 
Creek, a tributary of Haw River, in what was then Orange, 
afterward Chatham and now Alamance County. 

He purchased from Earl Granville a large tract of land, and 
immediately erected a grist and saw mill and established a store 
at what is now the present location of the village of Snow 

This was during the earlier years of the Quaker immigration 
from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, which, during the period 
between 1750 and the Revolution, largely settled with people of 
that religious faith the counties of Guilford, Randolph, Alamance, 
Chatham, Iredell, Yadkin, Surry and Davie. 

With Simon Dixon came his brother-in-law, Hermon Hus- 
band, they ,having married sisters. Husband was afterward 
famous as a leader of the Regulators, and settled ten miles west- 
erly from him on Sandy Creek, in Randolph County. 

At the convention of the Regulators held on Rocky River on 


April 30, 1768, Simon Dixon, along with Hermon Husband and 
eleven others, were "appointed settlers" to try and settle and 
adjust the wrongs and grievances complained of at the hands of 
Governor Tryon and his appointed officials, especially Edmund 
Fanning, the clerk of the court at Hillsboro. 

During the latter phase of the Regulator troubles, culminating 
at the Battle of Alamance, Simon Dixon, on account of his 
Quaker scruples against war and violence, withdrew from active 
participation in the revolt. 

The community which he founded became a manufacturing 
one. His son, Thomas Dixon, died in 1827 and left two sons, 
Jesse and Joseph. The latter, who was the father of the subject 
of this sketch, established there about 1830 one of the first 
foundries for casting iron within the State. Practically all the 
castings for the earlier cotton mills in Alamance and Randolph 
counties and grist and saw mills of the counties of central and 
Piedmont North Carolina, as well as various kinds of farm ma- 
chinery up to 1875 being made at the old Snow Camp Foundry. 

Hugh Woody Dixon was born July 3, 1825, being the eldest 
son of Joseph Dixon and his wife, Mary Woody Dixon. For 
twelve years he experienced the joys and sorrows common to 
the average boy, brought up in the strict manner common to 
Quaker family discipline. 

In 1837, the Friends' Yearly Meeting of North Carolina, 
established near Greensboro New Garden Boarding School (now 
Guilford College), and the following year he entered school 
there. Here he associated with Addison Coffin, Darius H. Star- 
buck, Dougan Clark, Nathan H. Clark, Elihu Mendenhall, Alfred 
Lindley, and others — boys who combined elements of character 
in embryo, which have since developed, making their names a 
credit to the old institution. 

The year 1841 he again spent at New Garden Boarding School, 
and the next three years in teaching and surveying. He then 
entered the foundry of Unthank and Dixon as a partner, remain- 
ing there until 1857, with the exception of two years spent in 
the construction of the Gulf and Graham Plank Road. 


Of Quaker ancestry for several generations and brought up 
amid strong Quaker influences, he naturally fell into that way of 
thinking, and early forecasted his strong adherence to the spirit 
of the Quaker faith, especially regarding slavery and temperance. 
That he was no formalist has been often demonstrated. On No- 
vember 29, 1855, he was united in marriage to Flora Adaline 
Murchison, of Cape Fear Scotch blood and of a different religious 
faith, an alliance contrary to Friend's discipline, for which error 
(then so called) he was urged by the overseers to make public 
acknowledgment. Accordingly he expressed regrets — not for his 
choice, but that the rules of his church were such that he was 
compelled to disregard them in obedience to the dictates of his 

Early in 1857 ^'^^ sold his interest in the foundry and moved 
to Ore Hill, in Chatham County. He there erected two grist 
mills and a steam saw mill and was engaged in the milling and 
lumber business until 1866, except one year as secretary and 
treasurer of the Ore Hill Iron Foundry. 

The Civil War brought to him some trial. An anti-slavery 
man and a Unionist living in a slaveholding and disunion com- 
munity, he nevertheless never hesitated to express his own honest 
convictions in his own quiet way. A Whig in politics before the 
war, he voted the Constitutional Union ticket for Bell and 
Everett in i860. Holding the office of postmaster under the 
Federal Government at the beginning of the war he quietly 
accepted the inevitable course of events and qualified as post- 
master under the Confederate Government. When the con- 
script act was passed in 1863, he paid the five hundred dollar tax 
placed on Quakers, which exempted them from military service. 

In 1866, the educational needs of his family appealed to him 
so strongly that, at considerable financial sacrifice, he sold his 
business and returned to Snow Camp, where he was largely in- 
strumental in organizing Sylvan Academy, which for several 
years was the nucleus for liberal education in that part of the 

He immediately proceeded to engraft himself in the business, 


educational and religious interests of the community, with all of 
which he was prominently identified until his death. Indus- 
trially, he made mill-building and foundry work his specialty until 
1888, when, with his brother, Thomas C. Dixon, he organized 
the Snow Camp Woolen Mill. 

He had been since boyhood a staunch friend of education, giv- 
ing liberally of time and means for the advancement of the 
cause. When scarcely more than a boy he organized a class of 
young women employees of the Cane Creek cotton factory, who 
met each Sabbath, and instructed them not only in the Scriptures, 
but in geography and physiology, furnishing them with text- 
books, at his own expense. For twelve years he was a trustee 
of the New Garden Boarding School, and after its re-organiza- 
tion as Guilford College he served six ye^rs on the college 

But none have greater cause for thankfulness for his sacrifice 
in the line of education than his children, four of whom and an 
adopted son live to bear witness of his wisdom in fortifying them 
with knowledge instead of dollars ; Mary, wife of Professor Z. H. 
Dixon, of Yadkinville; Roxie, wife of Alpheus White, of Guil- 
ford College; Joseph M., forrperly congressman and United 
States senator from Montana; Nora K., who was the comfort 
of her parents in their declining years; and A. H. Hinson, of 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Most worthy of mention also was his work for temperance. 
In 1837 he joined the Pleasant Hill Temperance Society, which is 
still in active existence. For many years he was a leading mem- 
ber of the Sons of Temperance. 

He never held and never sought public office. In 1886, with- 
out his solicitation and over his protest, he was nominated by the 
Republican convention of Chatham for state senator. Under 
similar conditions he was afterward once named on the Prohibi- 
tion ticket for state treasurer. By life and by word he preached 
the gospel of sobriety and good will to men. Probably no mem- 
ber of the Quaker church in North Carolina sacrificed more for 
religion, education and temperance than did Hugh W. Dixon. 



He passed peacefully to his rest at his home near Snow Camp, 
May 6, 1901, on the same lands granted by Earl Granville to his 
great-grandfather, Simon Dixon, in 1751, his good wife having 
preceded him, April, 1900. , 

Memory has sealed upon many hearts the truth he so often 
voiced of the fate of him that knoweth to do good and doeth it 
not. And the mention of his name still calls to mind a character 
not faultless, to be sure, but virtuous beyond the common bound. 

Etda L. Dixon. 


'HE lines of the character of the subject of this 
sketch were clearly defined in the early days of 
his life, and through the responsibilities of an 
unusually active career have never swerved. 
Mr. Eller comes from German, Scotch and 
English ancestry. One of his paternal ances- 
tors, Christian Eller, came over from Germany along with the 
Palatinate migration of 1730-40, and settled in Pennsylvania. 
His sons, including George Eller, came south in the general move- 
ment from Pennsylvania in 1753 which brought Daniel Boone, 
and settled along the Yadkin River in Rowan and Wilkes coun- 
ties. The end of the eighteenth century found John Eller, son 
of George, in Ashe, and later in Wilkes County. He must have 
been a man of strong parts, as his children took prominent posi- 
tions in their community. His eldest son. Captain Simeon Eller, 
was a man highly favored in physical, intellectual and moral 
qualities and served his people in many positions of honor and 
trust. His youngest son, Colonel Peter Eller, was at one time a 
member of the Legislature and was a member of the Secession 
Convention of 1861. 

Captain Simeon Eller married Frances McNeill, daughter of 
James McNeill, the third son of Rev. George McNeill. This 
Rev. George McNeill was a man of great power and influence. 
He had been educated in Scotland for the Presbyterian ministry. 

jETi^ i,f£^ k^Utams i 3rG -VK' 



He came to North Carolina and settled in Moore County about 
the time of the French and Indian War. About 1771 he joined 
the Baptist Church, and, his denominational brethren having suf- 
fered much at the hands of the royalists, with them he went into 
the famous Regulator movement, which met its overthrow as an 
organization at the battle of Alamance. Fleeing for safety from 
Governor Tryon's revenge, he lived for a short time in western 
Virginia, finally, however, returning to North Carolina, where 
he settled in the Yadkin Valley above Wilkesboro, near New 
Hope Church. He was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1776 
and became the great pioneer Baptist preacher of northwestern 
North Carolina, organizing the Yadkin Association in 1786, 
which is the parent of associations now claiming a membership 
of 35,000. On June 7, 1805, after a long and useful life and a 
most remarkable and successful career in the ministry, he passed 
away. Upon the centennial of this event in 1905 his large num- 
ber of descendants and the Baptist hosts of northwestern North 
Carolina erected a monument to his memory. Rev. W. H. Eller, 
of Greensboro, a great-grandson, delivering the address. 

To Captain Simeon Eller and wife there were born eleven 
children, only one of whom is living, this being James Eller, the 
father of the subject of this sketch, who is now in his eighty- 
ninth year. At the first call to arms in 1861 four sons, James, 
David, Thomas and Jesse F., shouldered their muskets and went 
to the front. James was returned home, being in health too 
delicate for service in the field, and was assigned military duties 
in his county; David died in the line of duty; Thomas fell at 
Chancellorsville, and Jesse F. was promoted to the position of 
captain upon the fateful field of Gettysburg. 

James Eller, on October 24, 1849 was united in marriage to 
Mary Ann Carlton. Mrs. Eller must have been in early life of 
strong and vigorous intellect, of striking personality and of beau- 
tiful womanly traits of character, for even now, in extreme old 
age, not a silvery thread can be found upon her head ; her mind 
is strong and clear, and her conversation and daily life disclose 
a heart true and courageous. She was the daughter of Thomas 


Carlton, whose wife was Ruth Burch. Thomas Carlton was a 
soldier under Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812. He was a 
man of substance and a model citizen, living to the great age of 
eighty-seven years. His father before him, for whom he was 
named, was likewise a patriot. He served in the War of the 
Revolution, in which also his brother Lewis, who had emigrated 
with him from England, also served, with the rank of general. 
These brothers on coming to America had settled in Souh 
Carolina, probably at Beaver Creek. After the Revolution the 
family of Thomas moved to Wilkes County, N. C, on Beaver 
Creek, perhaps giving it the name of their former home in South 

In the fall of 1865 James EUer moved to Ashe County. There 
he built a comfortable home at Berlin, on the beautiful New 
River. Here for more than fifty years, in the purest domestic 
tranquillity, enjoying the respect and confidence of his fellow- 
countrymen, has lived this splendid citizen. During his more 
active years he held positions of responsibility and trust, both 
public and private. Nine children have blessed his home, the two 
oldest, Martha and Thomas, dying at the ages of ten and eight 
years. Ruth married Rev. D. S. Hubbell, a Baptist minister of 
Virginia, who now lives at Mountain Park, N. C. Augustus, 
Sidney and Cicero are men of sterling character and wide influ- 
ence in their community, having settled, with their families, near 
their father. Adolphus H., the subject of this sketch, resides in 
Winston-Salem. Franklin Plato and John Carlton sleep in 
untimely graves at the old home. These two promising young 
men were cut down in the very morning of life, when everything 
betokened good for them. One was president of the class of '92 
and the other of the class of '96 at the State University which 
they attended. That dread disease, typhoid fever, claimed each 
as a victim just as he was finishing his course there. Each had 
won college honors and each stood high with his fellows, and the 
death of the one and then the other sent a shock of grief to the 
student body and to the people of the section from which they 



Adolphus Hill Eller was born at New Hope, Wilkes County, 
April 9, 1861. His father moving to Ashe County in 1865, he 
grew up there a typical mountain farmer's boy, strong, active, in- 
dustrious. In his early days he showed a love for books, and 
after completing the ordinary common school branches was sent 
to Moravian Falls for preparation for college. He entered the 
University of North Carolina in 1881 and graduated in 1885, 
receiving the degree of A.B., besides various honors coveted by 
college boys. His interest in the University has not abated in 
after hfe, nor has his alma mater failed to recognize his worth. 
His graduating address on "Higher Education in North Carolina" 
made an impression upon the leaders of the renaissance of public 
education at that day. At the centennial of the opening of the 
University, in 1895, he was again chosen because of his known 
gifts, from the long roll of alumni since the war, to speak on 
"The New University." This oration established his reputation 
as an orator, which has been sustained by many other addresses 
on notable occasions. He has been a trustee of the University 
since 1905. 

In conformity with an ambition early cherished, upon leaving 
the University Mr. Eller began the study of law under that able 
and accurate lawyer, Colonel George N. Folk, of Caldwell 
County, at his lovely home. Riverside, in the Happy Valley, at 
the same time and as a quid pro quo preparing Colonel Folk's 
only son to enter college. Receiving his license in 1886, he 
located in Winston-Salem, going into the office of the late Judge 
D. H. Starbuck, father of his room-mate at the University, Henry 
R. Starbuck, with whom he later formed a partnership, which 
lasted until the latter's elevation to the superior court Bench in 
1894. Since that time he practiced alone until 191 3, when Mr. R. 
G. Stockton became his partner. He has gained the confidence of 
the people and of the Bench, as well as of his professional 
brethren as a lawyer of accurate learning, of diligence in the 
preparation of cases, and of wisdom as a counsellor. 

On November 19, 1896, he was married in Atlanta, Ga., to 
Miss Laura Winifred Newland, daughter of B. A. Newland and 


Mary Halliburton Newland, niece of former Lieutenant-governor 
W. C. Newland, of this State, and a descendant from distin- 
guished families from both North Carolina and Virginia. The 
only living children are John DeWalden and Adolphus Hill, Jr. 

The several ancestors of A. H. Eller having been prominently 
connected with the Baptist Church, naturally we find him walking 
in their footsteps. In the support of the religious and charitable 
enterprises of the people of his city, whether of his own or of 
other denominations, he has been active and liberal. Nothing 
appeals to him more than the altruistic life. 

He has been a success in business, largely because of his strong 
point as a practitioner of the law, his wise and conscientious 
counsel. This has thrown him into association with and gained 
the confidence of men of affairs and enabled him to lay the foun- 
dations of a fortune. When he came to Winston-Salem with that 
encouraging proverb ringing in his ear "there is room at the 
top," he possessed no property save The Code of North Carolina 
for a library, and less than a hundred dollars with which to 
plunge into the proverbial seven years of poverty that awaits the 
young members of his profession. Yet he had something more 
valuable than money, a resolution that he would not write home 
for help. In the weary hours waiting for practice he evolved 
many a business scheme. His first one was the exchange of his 
watch for a town lot. This netted him a profit of $500. Since 
that day, hand in hand with the practice of his profession, he has 
kept his business eye open until he has accumulated large inter- 
ests in real estate and various enterprises. His ability in handling 
large affairs has been demonstrated by his election to positions of 
trust. Omitting his other business relations, it may be stated that 
he is president of the Standard Building and Loan Association; 
has been director of the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway and 
the Elkin and Alleghany Railway, and secretary and treasurer of 
the North Carolina Railroad Company under Governor Glenn's 
and Governor Kitchin's administrations, and is now trust officer 
and secretary of Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, having 
estates under his control which run into the millions. 


But however successful Mr. Eller may have been in business 
and professional life, he has gained his greatest reputation in the 
field of politics. No man has ever before, in my knowledge, in 
North Carolina sprung from the ranks in so short a period to the 
chairmanship of the Democratic party. Writing as one who has 
been in a position to follow him closely, it appears that his suc- 
cesses have been due to his superior political wisdom, his energy 
and tactful and systematic methods, backed by a strong character 
and a model private life ; and, I should add, his devotion to Demo- 
ocratic principles and policies. 

Mr. Eller has never sought office or party honors of any kind. 
Like Cincinnatus, he has in every case been called into service, 
and each time against his will. His patriotism was set deep at an 
early age by the reading of Calvin H. Wiley's "North Carolina 
Reader." His party spirit was quickened when as a mere boy he 
listened to the political giants Vance and Settle, in 1876, in the 
county town of Jefferson. Though often in his early career 
urged for political honors, he was always content for the other 
fellow to be the candidate. Finally his personal friendship for 
Robert B. Glenn brought him squarely into the arena, since which 
time there has been none able to contest successfully against him 
or the cause he has espoused. In the memorable campaign for 
the Democratic nomination for governor in 1904 between Robert 
B. Glenn and Charles M. Stedman, just sixty days before the 
convention he assumed the conduct of Mr. Glenn's campaign. 
With one sweep of the eye he saw that proper organization and 
energetic action would win the fight. Against him were alligned 
three-fourths of the trained politicians of the State. It was a 
fight between the unorganized people and the organized party 
leaders, and he had little time in which to instruct his unorganized 
forces and marshal them for the fray. How successful he was is 
known only to those who followed his work closely and who saw 
its culmination at Greensboro. The farmers of the State stood 
in almost solid phalanx behind him, utterly impervious to every 
assault hitherto known to party generalship. His victory was 
complete. Perhaps nothing like it had been seen before. Re- 


turning to his home amid showers of congratulations, the nom- 
ination for the State senate was thrust upon him and he was 
elected. In the senate of 1905 Mr. Eller was an acknowledged 
leader. Besides being appointed chairman of the committee and 
master of ceremonies of the inauguration of the incoming state 
officers, he was chairman of the committees on Insurance and on 
Immigration, and was a member of most of the other prominent 
committees. He was the author of the revised divorce law passed 
at that session, of the law reforming the fee system of county 
officers, of the bill making an appropriation for the Jamestown 
Exposition, of a bill to provide a fireproof Hall of Records for 
the State, a bill chartering the Winston-Salem Southbound Rail- 
way Company, and of other bills of general and local importance. 

In the heated campaign for the Democratic nomination for 
governor between Messrs. Kitchin, Craig, and Home, in 1908, 
it would have been unnatural for him to have been inactive. 
Mr. Eller favored Mr. Kitchin, and was one of J. S. Manning's 
right-hand supporters in his management of Mr. Kitchin's cam- 
paign. A letter setting forth the reasons why he was for Mr. 
Kitchin was widely read and had a pronounced effect upon the 
situation. Mr. Kitchin was successful. The party then began 
looking around for a tactful man of wisdom to manage the 
State compaign. Party leaders were uneasy. The intense con- 
test for the gubernatorial nomination had left scars. The pro- 
hibition fight had torn the party asunder in a number of counties ; 
legislation affecting railroads had aroused hostility that threat- 
ened the party. When the State Executive Committee met it 
unanimously chose Mr. Eller as chairman. It made no mistake. 
Any other choice might have proven fatal. By his wonderful 
energy and unerring judgment he increased the Democratic 
gubernatorial vote by 17,000 over the vote of 1904, and the gen- 
eral party vote 22,000 over that of 1906. 

He was again unanimously chosen chairman and conducted the 
campaign in 1910, and voluntarily laid down the leadership of 
his party with fifty thousand majority in the State. 

I cap this little monument to his worth with the simple state- 



ment that he loves his God, his State and his f ellowman, and this 
love comprehends the rest. His choicest sentiment is one uttered 
by his brother, John Carlton, in his graduating address: "The 
golden rule shall yet reign supreme as the basal law of human 
life, the rich revelation that crowns the freedom of man." 

George P. Pell. 


BOUT 1 62 1 John Gaither, gentleman, and wife, 
Joan, came from England and settled at James- 
town, Va. I have no record of the date or 
place of his death, but his son, John, married 
Ruth Morely and lived in Anne Arundel 
County, Md. He died in 1703. Qne of John's 
sons, Benjamin Gaither, born 1681, married in 1709 Sarah 
Burgess, a daughter of Captain Edward Burgess and wife, whose 
maiden name w^as Sarah Chew, and died in 1741. Edward 
Gaither, fourth son of Benjamin, born 1714, married Eleanor 
Whittle, and died in 1787, leaving five children, including two 
sons, Basil Gaither and Burgess Gaither. These brothers re- 
moved in 1 781 to North Carolina. Burgess settled in what is 
now Iredell County ; Basil in that part of Rowan now known as 
Davie County. 

Basil Gaither was first lieutenant in Captain Briscoe's company 
in the Revolutionary War, commissioned August 30, 1777; and 
commissioned as captain September 12, 1777. He married, in 
Maryland, Margaret Watkins, and after moving to this State 
represented Rowan County in the Assembly continuously from 
1790 to 1802, the date of his death. His will is recorded in 
SaHsbury, and among his seven children was Gassaway Gaither, 
who married Mar}^ Smoot and had seven children. The eldest 
son was Ephraim Gaither, born December 13, iSo8, married 



Sarah Hall Johnston January 15, 1835, and died April 17, 1889. 
Ephraim Gaither never had the advantages of a collegiate edu- 
cation, but was a man of large and handsome frame, strong 
intellect, fine judgment and common sense, pleasant humor and 
ready wit. He represented Davie County in the Legislature of 
1858, was clerk of the county court for many years before that 
court was abolished in 1868, and was register of deeds from that 
time until a short time before his death. His wife, Sarah Hall 
Gaither, was kind, gentle, lovable in person, disposition and char- 
acter — a woman of firm convictions, strong faith, and abounding 
in good works. None knew her but to love and respect her, and 
whatever any of her children may have attained they owe much 
to the prayers, good advice, noble example and Christian influ- 
ence of their mother. 

Ephraim Lash Gaither, the subject of this sketch, -was the 
youngest son of Ephraim and Sarah Hall Gaither. He was born 
April 30, 1850 in Mocksville, N. C, and named for his father 
and his father's friend, Israel G. Lash, of Salem, N. C. In his 
youth he spent much of his time in the schools of his native town 
and upon the farm, his father being a court officer and his older 
unmarried brothers being in the army. His brother, William 
Henry Gaither, gave his life for the southern cause at Chancel- 
lorsville on the same day that Stonewall Jackson fell. 

Being prepared for college by that saintly man, Jacob Eaton, 
whose influence, teachings and precepts have ever abided as a 
sweet benediction, he entered Davidson College in September, 
1868. Beginning with the freshman class, he studied for three 
years, and was elected president of the Philanthropic Literary 
Society at commencement in June, 1871. During his junior vaca- 
tion he suffered a stroke of facial paralysis and lost one year. 
In the fall of 1872 he re-entered college, joined the senior class 
and graduated in June, 1873, delivering the philosophical oration 
in a class of twenty-six members. In the fall of 1873 he entered 
the law school of Chief Justice R. M. Pearson — that great law 
teacher, so well known and so much admired by the lawyers of 
North Carolina — and obtained his license to practice law at June 



term, 1875, of the Supreme Court. He settled in his native 
county and has been in the active practice ever since. Upon in- 
vitation he went back to his alma mater and delivered the annual 
literary address before the Philanthropic Society at the com- 
mencement in June, 1876. 

On December i, 1880, he married Florence Adelaide Clement, 
the eldest daughter of John Marshall Clement (q. v.), and thus 
formed not only the happiest partnership in life, but also formed 
a law co-partnership with her father, under the firm name of 
Clement & Gaither, which lasted until Mr. Clement's death, June 
4, 1886. To these partnerships the subject of this sketch attrib- 
utes in large measure whatever of success he may have attained. 
By the latter he had the benefit of the experince and learning of 
one of the great lawyers of the State; by the former he had the 
aid, counsel and love of one of the truest and most accomplished 
of the State's daughters, one who not only resembles very much 
in physical features but inherits in marked degree the talents 
and tastes, attributes and virtues of her father. 

By this marriage he has had four children ; Adelaide Marshall, 
who married Rufus Brown Sanford; Sarah Hall, Jane Haden 
and Dorothy Sophia Gaither — all four graduates of the old Salem 
Academy and College, where their mother and grandmother 
Clement, whose maiden name was Mary Jane Haden, had been 

When the inferior court was established for Davie County by 
act of Legislature, Mr. Gaither was elected solicitor, and in 1890 
Davie County unanimously instructed her delegates for him and 
presented his name for judge before the judicial convention at 
Wilkesboro, but another received the nomination, and if he had 
been named he would have been defeated, as the whole Demo- 
cratic ticket was defeated that year. 

He is a man of positive views and strong convictions, but has 
never sought political ofiice and only cared for preferment in the 
line of his legal profession. Still, in 1900, the Democratic party 
in his county nominated him for the house of representatives, 
but his health would not permit him to accept. 


His counsel and services in the law are sought, and there are 
not many cases of importance on the docket in which he does not 
appear. He loves the study of the law and delights in its prac- 
tice. Though he possesses a good mind and fine legal attain- 
ments, he trusts less to what is called genius than hard work and 
diligent preparation. 

Perhaps in all his practice, the effort that won him most repu- 
tation was the case where an old Confederate soldier was tried 
for his life on the charge of murder and was acquitted by the 
jury; but he never defended a case that gave him more satisfac- 
tion that the one where an old negro who had belonged to his 
father and grandfather was prosecuted for larceny by a white 
man who had never owned a slave ; this slave had been his mas- 
ter's trusted foreman and had always, during the trying days and 
years of the War between the States, been kind and loyal to his 
young master, and when in trouble he appealed to him for help, 
and not in vain. After a hard fight the ex-slave was vindicated 
by the jury, and when the verdict of not guilty was rendered, 
Chief Justice Furches, who well knew all the parties, immediately 
walked across the court room and heartily congratulated Mr. 
Gaither upon his effort, and commended him for his kindness 
and fidelity to an old and faithful slave. It might also be men- 
tioned, in this connection, for perhaps it is not known to any, 
that Mr. Gaither afterward bought a house and lot in Statesville 
and furnished this same old negro a home as long as he lived, 
in grateful recognition of his past services as an old family 

Mr. Gaither professed Christ after mature manhood and joined 
the Mocksville Presbyterian Church, and his only regret seems 
that he had lost those early years for his Master. His whole 
subsequent life seems to be a continuous effort to atone for this ; 
he feels a deep interest in his church and all its causes and insti- 
tutions and has been first a deacon, and for the last several years 
an honored elder in the Mocksville church. Concord Presbytery 
sent him as one of its delegates to the General Assembly, which 
met in Greenville, S. C, in May, 1906. 



He takes an active part in a modest way not only in the 
deliberations of his political party and religious denomination, but 
in all the enterprises that make for the good and upbuilding of 
his town, county and State. He is a member of the board of 
directors of the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company of Winston- 
Salem and president of the Bank of Davie, Mocksville, N. C. 

Mr. Gaither's home life is where his virtues shine brightest, 
and chivalrous to an unusual degree, unlike a great many men, 
this characteristic is shown most in plain, everyday life. 

5'. A. Ashe. 






MONG all the soldiers of North Carolina devel- 
oped by the stern hand of war, there was none 
more gallant than James B. Gordon, who was 
descended from a long line of Scotch ancestors. 
His great-grandfather was John George Gor- 
don, who emigrated from Scotland about 1724 
and first settled in Maryland. He remained there a few years 
and met Mary Chapman, the niece and prospective heir of Dr. 
James Chapman. They were married and removed to Spottsyl- 
vania County, Va., near Fredericksburg, where they reared a 
large family. George Gordon, a son of this couple, was the 
grandfather of our subject; while Charles Gordon, another son,, 
was the great-grandfather of General John Brown Gordon of 
Georgia. George and Charles Gordon left Virginia and settled 
at what was then known as Mulberry Fields, near the site of 
Wilkesboro, Wilkes County, N. C, and here members of the 
family of General John B. Gordon of Georgia, and General 
James B. Gordon of North Carolina were buried. 

George Gordon was an officer in the battle of King's Moun- 
tain. He had a son named Nathaniel who attained more than the 
usual distinction among his fellows. He represented Wilkes 
County in the General Assembly in 1819, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1825^ 
1826, 1827 and 1828. He married Sarah Lenoir Gwyn and died 


when his son James was about six years old. James B. Gordon 
was born in Wilkesboro, Wilkes County, N. C, November 22, 
1822. He was sent at the age of ten to the school of Peter Stuart 
Ney, at Hunting Creek, Iredell County, where he remained two 
years. Delicate health was overcome by farm life, and at eighteen 
he entered Emory and Henry College, Va. He remained there 
some two or three years, taking an irregular course, and at the 
end of that time returned to Wilkesboro and entered business life 
as a merchant. He continued in this business and that of a 
farmer, with various excursions into the domain of politics, for 
he represented Wilkes County in the General Assembly at the 
session of 1850. 

At the first call to arms Gordon enlisted as a volunteer in the 
Wilkes Valley Guards on May 9, 1861. When the company was 
organized Montfort S. Stokes was chosen captain and Gordon 
became first lieutenant. The company was accepted by Governor 
Elhs, went into camp at Warrenton, N. C, and on the organiza- 
tion of the First North Carolina regiment became Company B. 
Stokes was then appointed colonel of the regiment and Gordon 
became captain of Company B. While the First regiment was 
encamped at Warrenton the First North Carolina Cavalry was 
ordered to rendezvous at Ridgeway; upon its organization Gor- 
don was commissioned as its major on August 9, 1861, and thus 
was transferred from the infantry to the cavalry arm of the 
service. It was thus with the First North Carolina Cavalry 
(Ninth North Carolina regiment) that Gordon's military career 
began. The regiment was a cosmopolitan one, Ashe, Northamp- 
ton, Mecklenburg, Watauga, Warren, Cabarrus, Buncombe, 
Wayne, Duplin, and Macon counties being each represented by a 
company. When the organization was complete, the regiment 
was sent to Richmond, and from that time remained a part of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, participating in its engagements, 
and when not thus employed was kept on the outposts and so 
nearest the enemy. It is estimated that the First Cavalry was 
itself engaged in nearly fifty actions. These were often far to 
the front, on the flank or in the rear, covering a retreat. They 


were usually fought without support and often no formal report 
was made. It afterward became the first regiment of the First 
Brigade of North Carolina Cavalry, and its superior officer^ 
J. E. B. Stuart, said to Lee on the occasion of a formal review 
in 1863, that no better regiment existed in either army. This 
efficiency in soldierly qualities was due in no small measure to 
the activity and work of Gordon. Although a civiHan and not a 
soldier in preliminary training, he soon learned the details of 
military knowledge, required the full performance of duty from 
his soldiers, but kept himself in the front, participated in all the 
dangers to which his men were subjected, and where he led every 
man in the regiment was willing to follow. 

After the organization of the First Cavalry, it was ordered to 
Richmond, and from there went into camp near Centreville. Its 
first engagement was at Vienna, not far from Alexandria, 
November 26, 1861. It participated in the campaigns of the 
Army of Northern Virginia till March, 1862, when it was 
ordered to North Carolina to meet Burnside, went into camp near 
Kinston and remained there, but was not actively employed till 
June, 1862, when it was ordered back to Virginia in time to take 
part in that bloody campaign. Gordon was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel April 3, 1862, and on June 29 his regiment was ordered to 
make a reconnaissance around McClellan's army, and struck the 
Federal line at Willis's Church. It was here that Major Thomas 
Newton Grumpier, another gallant son of Wilkes County, lost 
his life. Then followed the battles of Frazier's Farm, Malvern 
Hill, Second Manassas, the Maryland Campaign of 1862, Stuart's 
horse raid into Pennsylvania, the Fredericksburg compaign, and 
that of Chancellor sville, with much work for the cavalry in the 
interim of the more serious battles. At Brandy Station, on June 
9, 1863, the First bore a very conspicuous and heroic part, and 
the biographer of Stuart speaks of the "splendid work done by 
the First North Carolina Cavalry." Then followed the invasion 
of Pennsylvania, when the First North Carolina, still with Stuart, 
engaged in the ride around Meade's army, which in the opinion 
of some critics cost the Confederacy the victory at Gettysburg. 



Here, after the wounding of Hampton, Gordon succeeded to the 
temporary command of the regiment. 

When the Second North CaroHna Cavalry (Nineteenth North 
CaroHna regiment) was organized, after the retreat from Gettys- 
burg, Gordon was commissioned its colonel (August ii, 1863), 
succeeding the lamented Colonel Sol Williams, who was killed 
at Brandy Station. Gordon remained with the Second until 
September 28, 1863, when he was commissioned a brigadier- 
general and assigned to the First Brigade of North Carolina 
Cavalry, which was composed of the First (Ninth North 
Carolina regiment). Second (Nineteenth), Third (Forty-first), 
and Fifth (Sixty-third) regiments of North Carolina Cavalry. 
This was no small compliment to the military capacity of Gor- 
don, who, reared as a civilian and without any preliminary 
military training, had risen from the ranks to be the head of 
the whole body of North Carolina Cavalry, and had won the 
professional respect and personal esteem of J. E. B. Stuart, one 
of the greatest of the cavalry leaders developed on either side 
during the struggle. Gordon was soon to have his strength put 
to trial in his new rank, for he was in charge of the attacking 
party at Auburn on October 13, 1863, when Stuart, caught be- 
tween the parallel lines of moving columns of the enemy, lay still 
all night, but with the coming of day found himself compelled to 
risk the chance of cutting his way through one of the enemy's 
lines. This was successfully accomplished, but there Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thomas Ruffin of the First Cavalry was killed and Gor- 
don was slightly wounded ; he was not unfitted for duty, however, 
and a month later was a participant on the winning side in what 
came to be known as the Buckland Races. In March, 1864, he 
helped to defeat Kilpatrick at Atlee's Station in his raid on Rich- 

The Wilderness campaign was the beginning of the end for 
the Confederacy and for Gordon. It opened May 4, 1864; on 
May 9 Sheridan started on his raid on Richmond, the Con- 
federate cavalry, under Stuart, in pursuit. There were but three 
Confederate brigades to meet the 12,000 Federals. Stuart, with 


the brigades of Lomax and Wickham undertook to get ahead 
of Sheridan by forced marches, while Gordon with his North 
Carohna brigade was left to harass the rear. Stuart accom- 
plished his purpose; he got ahead of Sheridan and confronted 
him at Yellow Tavern on May 11. In a lull in the battle he was 
heard to murmur, rather to himself than to those around him, 
"1 wish Gordon were here." Stuart fell, but the enemy was 
turned back. The next day. May 12, at Brook Church, Gordon 
sustained the brunt of the Federal attack. The enemy knew as 
well as Gordon that he was all there was between them and Rich- 
mond. If they succeeded in passing over him the city would 
fall into their hands, and as Stuart had done on the day before, 
Gordon resolved to die rather than let them pass. His biographer 
may be allowed to tell the rest of the story : 

"He adroitly kept his little command so disposed as completely to 
deceive the enemy with regard to his real strength, or we would have 
been overwhelmed by superior numbers and Richmond would have fallen. 
In the hottest of the fight, though his command was dismounted, except 
that portion held in reserve, he remained mounted and upon the front 
line, and when urged to dismount by one of his officers, that he might be 
less exposed, he replied, *No, we must set the men an example of gallantry 
to-day.' This was a short time before his wound, which occurred just 
before we were relieved by our infantry late in the evening. His wound 
was by a minie ball, which struck him in the arm, ranging out at the 
elbow, and at first was thought not mortal, but he lived only a few days, 
dying at the officers' hospital in Richmond, on May 18, 1864. 

"His remains were carried home and interred at the Episcopal Church 
in Wilkesboro, overlooking the fertile and beautiful valley of the Yadkin, 
miles of which he and his family had owned for nearly a century, and 
on a part of which the growing town of North Wilkesboro is now 
located. His death filled the entire command with grief and consternation, 
and though the brigade sustained its reputation to the last, it never recov- 
ered from his loss. We fought like well-trained machines, but the esprit 
de corps was gone, and the croaking of the raven became louder." 

After the death of his father General Gordon's mother mar- 
ried again, and a son by her second marriage, Captain Hugh 
Thomas Brown, was killed at Oak Hill, near Springfield, Mo. 
Another half brother was Colonel Hamilton Allen Brown, later 


of Tennessee, who succeeded Montfort S. Stokes as colonel of 
the First regiment and gallantly led it through all the days of its 
trying but gallant career. His mother spent a long life in Wilkes- 
boro, and died on January 6, 1889, when over ninety years of 
age. Colonel H. A. Brown died in April, 191 7. 

With the death of General Gordon the name of the family 
became extinct in North Carolina. Two of his sisters married 
Finleys, and one married a Hackett. Their heirs are his only 
near relatives in his native State. 

Those who knew General Gordon personally regarded his 
mental and physical development as superlatively efficient and 
attractive and that his career added new luster to a long line of 
distinguished Scotch ancestry. 

This sketch is made up of the Memorial Address on the life of 
General Gordon delivered in Raleigh in 1887 by Hon. William 
H. H. Cowles, who was the lieutenant-colonel of the First Cav- 
alry; from the history of the First regiment by Colonel H. A. 
Brown; from the history of the First Cavalry by General Bar- 
ringer; from that of the Second Cavalry by General Roberts, all 
of which are to be found in the "Regimental Histories" edited by 
Hon. Walter Clark in 1901-02. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 



'ROM March 4, 1791 to March 3, 1803, William 
Barry Grove v^as the member of Congress from 
the Fayetteville district. He served for six 
consecutive terms, and was a contemporary of 
Willie Jones, Nathaniel Macon, General Ruth- 
erford, and stern old Matthew Locke. He was 
not only a contemporary, but their strong political opponent, for 
Grove was a staunch Federalist, while the other four were com- 
moners, uncompromising Democrats of the Jeffersonian school. 
One of the many herculean labors of Nathaniel Macon's pub- 
lic career was to oust William Barry Grove from his place in 
Congress, but it was many years before he succeeded ; term after 
term the Fayetteville member would be found in his seat at the 
opening of the house, bland and imperturbable. Nothing that we 
know of him leads us to believe that Grove distinguished himself 
in the council halls of the Nation either as a speaker or debater ; 
but he must have been a politician of no little ability, tact and 
adroitness, and especially shrewd in gauging public sentiment, to 
have been able for so many years successfully to contest the 
ground with such a man as Macon. Mr. Grove was born on 
January 15, 1764, and died in Fayetteville on March 30, 1818. 
Professor Dodd, in his "Life of Nathaniel Macon," says: 

"Only two members of the Second Congress from North Carolina 
were returned in 1793, one of which was Barry Grove, a good Federalist 


from Cumberland County, who had once been a protege of Maclaine 
and the Hoopers. . . . Grove alone was able, by virtue of the staunch 
Federalism which grew out of the Moore's Creek battle, to retain his 
place. He remained a member of Congress from his district, Cumberland 
and flie neighboring counties, for ten years to come." 

Again Dodd writes: 

"The newspaper plans of Duncan Cameron and others; the 'hue and 
cry,' as Macon says, raised in defense of the Constitution, which was so 
'endangered'; the retirement of General John Steele from even the tacit 
support of Jefferson; the violent campaign in favor of so prominent 
a man as General Davie — all came to naught in 1803. Every man in 
Congress from North Carolina who voted against the judiciary act in 1802 
was defeated in the election of the following year. Henderson, Stanly, 
Hill, even Grove of Fayetteville, were all superseded." 

Grove was the only member of Congress from North Carolina 
who voted for the Jay treaty; he voted also in the house of 
representatives for Aaron Burr against Jefferson. The touch of 
pride and exultation is natural and pardonable, then, in Macon's 
letter to Thomas Jefferson : 

"It is with real pleasure that I inform you that the Republican cause 
is daily gaining strength with us. This gain is clearly the effect of obser- 
vation by the people on the difference between past and present times; 
and it is worthy of notice that the Fayetteville district, which sends only 
Federalists to Congress, gave a majority of votes to a Republican can- 

For what we even dimly know of the home and social life and 
personal characteristics of William Barry Grove, we are, of 
course, almost wholly indebted to local tradition. We have 
reason to believe that he had a rather handsome face, refined 
and intellectual, but not a very strong one; that his hair was 
brown and gray-sprinkled; that he was of medium height and 
dignified in bearing. His mode of life, as it has come down to us, 
would not lead one to believe that he was a *'man of the people," 
though he was far too shrewd a politician to offend a possible 
supporter at the polls by haughtiness. Such a man as Grove 
simply could not understand the intense North Carolinianism of 
Nathaniel Macon; the sensitive conscience which quibbled over 


$60,000 to the widow of General Greene, and $4,000 to the chil- 
dren of Count de Grasse; the "boorishness" which protested 
against a flattering message to the President; and the narrow 
political creed which took alarm at the measures of so great a 
man as he considered Alexander Hamilton to be. 

Mr. Grove was the step-son of Colonel Robert Rowan who 
married Mrs. Grove, his mother. Young John Hay, who came 
to North Carolina after the Revolution began, married a daughter 
of Colonel Rowan in 1786. Among his children was David Hay. 
Later, about the end of the century, this David Hay and WilHam 
Barry Grove married daughters of Colonel William Shepperd 
of Hawfields ; as did also Sam Porter Ashe and Colonel Samuel 
Ashe of Rocky Point. Chief Justice Taylor married Miss 
Rowan, and Judge Gaston's first wife was Miss Hay. These 
gentlemen were all Federalists. 

Mr. Grove's first appearance in public life was in 1784 as regis- 
ter of the county of Fayette, as Cumberland was called that 
year, and he was elected to the house of commons in 1786, 1787, 
1788 and 1789. He was likewise a delegate to the convention that 
rejected the Federal Constitution, and to the convention which 
accepted it. He was earnestly in favor of its ratification from 
the first. Through his influence, Fayetteville in 1788 was con- 
stituted one of the towns in which superior courts were to be 
held, and in 1789 he succeeded in having it declared a borough 
entitled to a member in the house of commons. Mr. Grove's 
popularity was very great and he was elected to the Congress of 
the United States at the first election held in North CaroHna; 
on the rise of parties some years later he continued to hold his 
district until 1803.. He was in accord and sympathy with Wash- 
ington and Adams, but on questions of peculiar interest to the 
South, he voted with his section. He opposed giving bounties 
to the New England fishermen, and favored the law^ for the resto- 
ration of fugitive slaves. He opposed duties on tobacco and 
sugar, and also the increase of our navy for the Algerine War. 
But he gave his vote for the direct tax and for appropriating 
money to finish the frigates Constellation^ United States and 


Constitution. He favored the non-intercourse measures with 
Great Britain ; but sustained the Jay treaty when made. He 
voted for protecting our commerce and establishing a naval de- 
partment. In view of war with France he favored raising an 
army. He was the only member from North Carolina to vote 
for the Alien and Sedition Law, but he subsequently voted to 
repeal it. He voted to suspend intercourse with France ; to pro- 
hibit the slave trade, and to erect a mausoleum to Washington. 
He opposed the admission of Ohio as a state, and also opposed 
the repeal of the act authorizing the appointment of additional 
judges, usually called the "midnight judges," one of whom was 
his colleague, Mr. Hill of Wilmington. 

In 1796 parties were well formed, and North Carolina gave 
eleven votes to Mr. Jefferson and one vote to John Adams. That 
vote was secured in Mr. Grove's district. In 1800, through the 
influence of himself and friends, three additional districts were 
secured for Mr. Adams. That was a great campaign; but Jef- 
ferson, by securing the vote of New York, received the greater 
number of votes than Adams. He was, however, tied by Burr, 
his running mate, and the election was thrown into the House. 
Mr. Grove voted for Aaron Burr. The balloting continued a 
week, but finally on the thirty-sixth ballot Jefferson received the 
votes of ten States and was declared elected. With wise policy 
Jefferson proceeded to disarm opposition and to draw to himself 
such Federal leaders as had antagonized him, declaring, "We are 
now all Federalists, all Republicans." He failed to win over 
Steele or Davie or Grove ; but so successful was his policy that at 
the succeeding election he received every vote from North 

Mr. Grove's political career was now closed, but he continued 
to be useful as a private citizen and particularly as a trustee of 
the University until his death in 1818. He was one of those, 
the most eminent citizens of the State, who in 1789 had been 
named as trustees of the University, and was much interested in 
the growth and development of the institution. Indeed President 
Caldwell was in the habit of consulting him about the appoint- 


ment of professors, and the purchase of books and apparatus for 
instruction. Some of his letters have been preserved and pub- 
lished by the University in the Sprunt Monographs. 

Mr. Grove lived in a fine mansion, which had been the resi- 
dence of Colonel Rowan — the colonial mansion at the corner of 
Rowan and Chatham streets, in Fayetteville. It was a notable 
structure for that day, its situation on a hill, with a basement of 
brick, giving it a striking appearance. It was so superior to the 
other houses of the neighborhood as to remind one of an old 
baronial castle. There Mr. Grove lived in the style of old-time 
hospitality, and there he profusely and elegantly entertained the 
southern congressmen and other public men, who regarded his 
house as the half-way Mecca between their homes and the Fed- 
eral capital, to which they traveled in those days by private con- 
veyance. Among those whom he had entertained on several oc- 
casions, as a matter of course, was Aaron Burr, whose daughter 
had married a grandson of General Ashe and a nephew of Mrs. 
Hill, his associate and friend, and connection by marriage. 
Colonel Burr on his last trip through Fayetteville, after his wild 
schemes to the Southwest, was not entertained by Mr. Grove, 
who even refrained from calling on him, and Colonel Burr made 
a painful reference of the fact in the ''Journal" which he kept 
of his journey, communicating it to his daughter. 

There is a tradition that gives us a good story of the suave 
and supple Federalist: A prominent South Carolinian intensely 
hated William Barry Grove for his Federahsm, though he had 
never met him personally or even seen him. He wrote philippics 
against him in the press, and excoriated him on the stump. 

One night this South Carolinian, on his way to Washington 
City, drove into the western suburbs of Fayetteville, and asked 
a passing negro to direct him to a house where he could pass the 
night. The man silently pointed to a large, well-lighted house a 
hundred yards away — the residence of Barry Grove. At the 
front door the traveler was received by the head of the house 
himself, made his request for shelter, at the same time introduc- 
ing himself by name, though Grove recognized him as soon as 


he opened the door. The host omitted to exchange names, but a 
warm welcome was tendered to the stranger and he was soon 
made to feel at home. In a little while he was ushered into the 
supper room, the table "decored," as old Caleb Balderstone in 
Scott's "Bride of Lammermoor" would say, with fine napery, 
cut-glass, china and silver. The viands were exquisitely served 
and superbly cooked. During the evening. Grove, with ready 
tact, kept the conversation away from politics, but charmed his 
guest with his versatility and conversational gifts. A jorum of 
hot Scotch whiskey capped the long talk and the traveler retired 
to an old-fashioned high bedstead in a well-furnished room and 
to a sound sleep. 

The next morning, at the moment of taking his departure, the 
South Carolinian said : "And now, my dear sir, let me know the 
name of him who has so delightfully entertained me." "I," re- 
plied the other, while the flicker of a smile played about the 
corners of his mouth, "am William Barry Grove, member of 
Congress for this district." 

"Good God!" cried the South Carolinian, thrown off his bal- 
ance by the shock; "William Barry Grove, whom I have de- 
nounced in every paper in the country and on every hustings in 
South Carolina!" Then, after a pause, his face working with 
emotion, he extended his hand as he exclaimed : "Mr. Grove, the 
man who has entertained me as you have done, who has conceived 
the beautiful ideas which you have expressed in talk, cannot be 
the man whom I have pictured. I beg, I implore you, let all that 
I have said and written be blotted out of the remembrance of 
both of us, and let us be friends." And so they were always 

Many years ago the Groves and Hays of Fayetteville, after 
whom Haymount was named, with many of their connections, re- 
moved to Brownsville, Tenn., where some of their descendants 
still live, while others have settled in Texas and in other southern 
states. Fayetteville perpetuates his name in one of the streets 
of the city. 

James H. Myrover. 


DWARD JONES HALE, son and youngest 
child of Joseph and Dorothy Herndon Hale, 
was born on his father's plantation in Chatham 
County, September 9, 1802. He was but seven 
years of age when his mother died, and but nine 
at the death of his father. Left doubly an or- 
phan, he became the ward of Colonel Edward Jones of Rock 
Rest, Chatham County, his father's friend and for whom he was 
named. Colonel Jones was the first solicitor general of the 
State, and well fulfilled his duty of guardian. Tutors were em- 
ployed to conduct the boy's education. Some years before, John- 
ston Blakeley, afterwards the celebrated captain of the United 
States man-of-war Wasp, who brought so much honor to his 
State in the War of 1812, was another ward of Colonel Jones; 
but even Blakeley's glorious career could have afforded Colonel 
Jones no greater satisfaction than the admirable life of Mr. Hale. 
Young Hale, developing decided literary talent, was placed 
with Joseph Gales of the Raleigh Register to learn the editorial 
profession. Mr. Gales had been formerly editor of the Shef- 
field Register, in England, and was thoroughly imbued with the 
idea of the elevated mission of the editor and the responsibility 
of the calling. Mrs. Gales, his wife, was a remarkably intelli- 
gent woman of brilliant intellect, and a fit helpmate for her hus- 


band, and from her instruction, in conjunction with that of 
Mr. Gales, the youth imbibed those high ideas of the dig- 
nity and duty of the vocation to which he aspired, which colored 
his whole life. Major Edward J. Hale, his son, speaking of his 
father's attitude in this regard, said: 

''My father, who might have held any office within the gift of the people 
of North Carolina, and was often urged to that end, held fast to the 
doctrine that the editor was the attorney for the people, holding a brief 
from them, if need be, against executive, legislative and judiciary. It 
necessarily followed that the editor sacrificed his position as such attor- 
ney and lost his influence the moment the people discovered that he en- 
tertained the thought of office-holding." 

From Raleigh, Mr. Hale was sent to the city of Washington, 
where the son of Mr. Gales and Colonel W. W. Seaton, his son- 
in-law, were editors and proprietors of the renowned National 
Intelligencer, the elegant literature of the editorial columns of 
which is even now well worth perusal. It was upon the staff of 
that journal that young Hale became thoroughly prepared for his 
career of forty years in journalism. It was at this time that he 
made the acquaintance of Webster, Calhoun and Clay; and his 
friendship for the "great commoner" was deep and lasting, as 
appears from Colton's "Life of Clay." 

Mr. Gales was a Republican, as were also his son and son-in- 
law, the editors of the National Intelligencer, for the Federal 
party had virtually passed away after the War of 1812, then 
called the second war of Independence, which the Federal lead- 
ers had opposed. In North Carolina all of the public men were 
then Republicans; but in 1834, on the formation of the Whig 
party, Mr. Hale, Geo. E. Badger, Edward B. Dudley, Willie P. 
Mangum, and other strong men adhered to the fortunes of Mr. 

In 1825, receiving his inheritance from his father's estate, he 
bought the Carolina Observer, originally established in 1817, and 
continued its publication under the name of the Fayetteville Ob- 
server until it was destroyed by the Federals, March 12, 1865. 

On May 24, 1828, he was married to Sarah Jane Walker, 


daughter of Carleton and Caroline (Mallett) Walker, a mem- 
ber of the distinguished families of Walker and Mallett, of the 
Cape Fear. His home on Haymount was for many years the 
center of refined society from many quarters. Splendid enter- 
tainments were given there, and his large income enabled him 
to spend three or four months each year in travel, taking with 
him all his family. 

Recognizing his ability, two tempting offers were made to 
Mr. Hale, one in 1857, and another in 1858. One was the man- 
agement of the great publishing house of A. S. Barnes & Com- 
pany, and the other the editorship-in-chief of the New York 
World, which was the greatest newspaper enterprise of that day, 
just launched with an immense plant and a sinking fund of $200,- 
000. In either case acceptance, while most alluring from a finan- 
cial point of view, would require a change of residence to New 
York, and the establishment there, perhaps, of permanent busi- 
ness relations, away from his own state and his own people. He 
saw the gathering clouds, heard the ominous mutterings, foresaw 
that war between the states was simply a question of time and 
his loyalty to his own section bade him refuse both offers. 

As the sectional issues and animosities that marked the rise of 
the Republican party at the North swayed the feelings of men 
at the South, many old line Whigs abandoned that party and 
joined the Democrats ; but Badger, Graham, Hale and others, 
who did not despair of the Union, held closely together in the 
Constitutional Union Party, with Bell and Everett as their presi- 
dential candidates. They deplored the election of Mr. Lincoln, 
but could not find it a sufficient cause for dissolving the Union. 
They warmly and effectively opposed the secession of the State, 
which many Democrats ardently desired. 

During all that terrific agitation, Mr. Hale was calm. He 
wisely urged moderation, and his voice was not unheeded. More 
than any other editor, he was then the leader of the conservative 
people. Notwithstanding all the pressure from the cotton states 
which had seceded, the voters of North Carolina decided by a 
small majority to adhere to the Union. 


Thus matters stood when President Lincoln called on North 
Carolina to send troops to make war on the cotton states, and 
the alternatives presented admitting of no choice decided the 
Whig leaders of the State. Fondly loving the Union of their 
fathers, they reluctantly seized their arms to defend the South 
from invasion. In his editorial of April i8, 1861, Mr. Hale 
wrote : 

"It is needless to remind our readers how earnestly and honestly we 
have labored to preserve our once great and glorious and beneficent Union. 
In its existence we have believed were involved that inappreciable blessing, 
peace ; that sound form of liberty and law inaugurated by the Constitu- 
tion of the United States ; and the security, nay, even the existence, of 
*^hat domestic institution out of which have arisen all our national troubles. 
In the new aspect of affairs, we see no reason to change any opinion that 
we have expressed, that the difficulty ought to have been peaceably set- 
tled, and would have been if good men had been influential. We believe 
now, as heretofore, that by the exercise of that patience which the im- 
mense issues at stake demanded, there would have been a peaceful settle- 
ment. We believe now, as heretofore, that a fratricidal war for such a 
cause is a wrong of which we would not be guilty for a thousand worlds. 
But with all these opinions unchanged, there is a change in the condition 
of affairs — a change with which neither we nor the people of North Caro- 
lina have had aught to do — over which they have had no control, but 
which of necessity will shape their action. The President's proclamation 
is 'the last feather that breaks the camel's back.' It shows that the pro- 
fessions of peace were a delusion and a cheat, or, if ever really entertained, 
that peaceful intentions have been abandoned. War is to be prosecuted 
against the South by means of the seventy-five thousand men called for; 
and North Carolina has been officially required to furnish a quota of the 
seventy-five thousand. Will she do it? Ought she to do it? No, no! 
Not a man can leave her borders upon such an errand who has not made 
up his mind to war upon his own home and all that he holds dear in that 
home. For ourselves, we are southern men and North Carolinians, and 
at war with those who are at war with the South and North Carolina." 

Mr. Hale's clear penetrating vision, his ability to judge of the 
character and caliber of men gave him an influence such as is 
seldom attained by any man. At the banquet given by the citi- 
zens of Fayetteville, August, 1913, upon the appointment of 
Major E. J. Hale as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo- 


tentiary to Costa Rica, Chief Justice Clark, in his speech refer- 
ring to the Hales, father and sons, said : 

"For nearly an hundred years, throughout North Carolina, whenever 
Fayetteville has been named our people have thought of Hale, father and 
sons. And whenever Hale has been mentioned the thought has been of 
Fayetteville. As Webster said of the Constitution and of the Union, 
'They are one and inseparable.' Nearly an hundred years ago E. J. Hale 
took charge of the Observer in this city. By his sterling integrity, his 
public spirit, his thorough identification with the best interests of your 
town and State he built up a paper which at the breaking out of the war 
was probably the greatest single influence in North Carolina. I well re- 
member that the late Chief Justice Merrimon, one of the great Whig 
leaders, told me that in 1862, when it was necessary to select the very 
best man for the nomination for Governor to oppose the growing dis- 
content among our people, he came by stage coach to Fayetteville to con- 
sult Mr. Hale as the wisest head of the greatest influence in the party, 
having been selected by a conference of the leaders for that purpose. By 
the advice of Mr. Hale, Zebulon B. Vance was chosen, though Vance was 
little over thirty years of age. The Observer came out for him and Vance 
was nominated and elected. You will well agree that a wiser choice could 
not have been made. Throughout the South and Southwest, as well as 
in North Carolina, the Observer was a tower of strength to the Con- 
federate cause. This was so well known that when Sherman's troops 
reached Fayetteville the chief object of their hostility was the Observer-'" 

The last issue of the paper was printed while the Confed- 
erates were retreating through the town and copies were handed 
to the soldiers as they passed by. Meantime the files of the of- 
fice and other valuable records had been hurried off to Colonel 
Thomas Hill's place in Chatham County, and buried there to save 
them from destruction. A few years since Major Hale presented 
these invaluable papers to the North Carolina State Historical 

The ruins of the old office remain a monument to the loyalty 
of its proprietor who, from an income of twenty thousand dol- 
lars a year, beggared himself in purchasing Confederate bonds 
for the sake of example, and was left with only his honor 
and his loyalty, richer assets than all the wealth of the 


Some years after the destruction of the plant of the Observer, 
General Slocum, who had applied the torch with his own hand, 
sent a message of regret for his action to Mr. Hale, excusing 
himself as having been ''under orders." General Kingsbury was 
his messenger. Mr. Hale replied that General Slocum need give 
himself no concern, that no greater compliment could have been 
paid him by General Sherman and himself. 

Mr. Hale, in 1866, yielding to the desire of a number of 
Southerners headed by Colonel Brem of Charlotte and Alexander 
H. Stephens (vice-president of the Confederacy) among others, 
established the publishing house in New York of E. J. Hale and 
Sons, from which many important publications were issued. 

Mr. Hale was an Episcopalian, and, from 1835 to 1866, was a 
vestryman of St. John's Church, at Fayetteville. He died in 
New York January i, 1883, and was buried in Greenwood Cem- 
etery, Brooklyn, where in 1889 his widow, also passing away, 
was buried by his side. General Roger A. Pryor, in his eulogy 
at the meeting held in New York to commemorate the life of 
this noble man, pronounced him the ablest editor of the South 
in his time, and declared that no man in the Union surpassed 
him as a writer on political subjects, and especially as an ex- 
pounder of the Constitution. 

The portrait of Mr. Hale published with this sketch is from 
an oil painting made in 1855 ^y James Bogle, N. A. 

5'. A. Ashe. 




ETER MALLETT HALE was born in Fay- 
etteville, November lo, 1829, and was the 
oldest child of Edward Jones Hale, the founder 
and for many years the editor of the old Fay- 
etteville Observer. His mother was Sarah 
Jane Walker, daughter of Major Carleton and 
Caroline Mallett Walker. His mother's father, Major Carleton 
Walker, of Rocky Point, near Wilmington, was an English 
gentleman, a younger son of a noble family, who deserves more 
than passing mention. He came to Carolina just after the Revo- 
lution and signalized his devotion to his adopted country by 
serving in the War of 1812 against Great Britain, when he be- 
came an officer on the staff of General Gaines. Through the 
Malletts Mr. Hale was of close blood kin to the Pearsons, Mum- 
fords, Coits, Christophers and the Saltonstalls of New Eng- 
land — this line of descent tracing directly to Elder Brewster of 
the Pilgrims. 

At the opening of the Civil War, at the age of thirty-two 
years, Mr. Hale had accumulated a comfortable fortune. 
In these constructive days of his life and ever afterward he 
took an active interest in all civic improvements — his heart and 
his purse being open to the call for the betterment of his fellow- 
man. His love for the Cape Fear section, and especially for 


Fayetteville, was an ever-present and cherished deHght to him. 
The place where his childhood and youth were lived and where 
those earliest friendships were formed was home to him always. 
He was a North Carolinian of North Carolinians, and was as 
much a part of his State as were its pines and its sandhills. 
He loved these sandhills, and the soughing of the pines was 
music to his ears. 

Peter M. Hale was a of unmistakable appearance. Six 
feet tall, he impressed you as being taller. His walk was marked 
< — he walked with a swinging gait. His hair was chestnut in 
■color, his complexion singularly clear and his eyes were brown 
and luminous. He was always clean-shaven except for a close- 
cropped mustache. He was a noticeable figure in any company 
of men. 

He got his education in the schools of his native town, where 
he developed the habit of concentrating and the consequent capac- 
ity of acquiring and retaining knowledge. This enabled him to 
enter the sophomore class at the University, in June, 1846, at 
sixteen years of age. 

In June, 1849, he graduated, attaining, along with Hon. Kemp 
P. Battle, Sr., and Thomas J. Robinson, his lifelong friends, the 
highest honors for scholarship awarded in his class. So equal in 
scholarship were they that they drew straws for the valedic- 
torian's medal. Mr. Battle won it, and to Mr. Hale fell the salu- 
tatory, the next highest honor. 

The recollections of his college days brought unalloyed pleas- 
ure, and the warm friendships made there continued through life. 
Thomas Jefferson Robinson, Peter E. Hines, Edward Mallett, 
Kemp P. Battle, Rufus Patterson, Alfred Alston, Matt W. Ran- 
som, Johnston Pettigrew and Thomas Devereux Haigh were 
in his household familiar names and personalities. 

After his graduation he studied law, under Judge Badger, at 
Raleigh; but chose journalism for his life's work. The value 
of his activities in the management of the Observer can be 
measured by the fact that he trebled its subscription and business 
and greatly enlarged its sphere of influence. In a private letter 


from him, written September 20, 1863, he says, ''Work increases 
upon us every day. Our subscription list is becoming awful to 
think of." 

He continued this association with his father without inter- 
mission until the beginning of the war, when, as a private soldier 
in the Fayetteville Light Infantry Company, he joined the Bethel' 
Regiment, under Colonel D. H. Hill, and served through the 
Peninsular campaign. After the return of his company from 
Yorktown, at the conclusion of its term of enlistment, he took 
up again his newspaper work, but an attack upon Fort , Fisher 
being imminent, the command in which he had been elected major 
re-entered the army and went to the front. On completing this 
service he again resumed his work in, and maintained his con- 
nection with, the Fayetteville Observer until Sherman destroyed 
by fire the office and property of the newspaper in 1865. In the 
winter of 1866-67 ^^^ father and he removed to New York and 
established the pubHshing house of E. J. Hale & Son. 

The segment of the life of Major Peter Mallett Hale least 
known to North Carolina was this period of his residence in New 
York, from 1866 to 1876. It was probably the decade of his 
hardest work and happiest home life. He educated himself 
thoroughly in the arts of publishing and printing and developed 
a rare taste, that left its signet on all his work. It would be hard 
to find a slovenly page in anything that ever came from his hands. 
He was offered the presidency of the New York Publishers' As- 
sociation, but with characteristic habit of self-effacement he de- 
clined it. The Appletons tendered to him the highest salaried 
place in their great house, but he preferred to own his own paper 
in his own State. It was a fatal choice, measured by the stand- 
ards used in portioning out success. His home in Brooklyn was 
the home of North Carolinians whom the need for working for 
others had sent to the great maw of our country, and almost every 
southern merchant who went there to buy or to sell thought his 
visit incomplete unless he shook hands with Mr. Hale in his pub- 
lishing house or in his home on Grand Avenue or in St. James 


In 1876 Mr. Hale returned to North Carolina, and in conjunc- 
tion with Colonel William L. Saunders began the publication of 
the Observer at Raleigh, at once putting it on a higher plane of 
journalism than had ever before been attained by any North 
Carolina paper. The work performed by Mr. Hale in this new 
field redounded to his reputation and received the discriminating 
recognition of his fellow-citizens. No other instrument had ever 
been so potent in awakening interest in developing the resources 
of the State and furthering the systematic advancement of those 
works of internal improvement which have in more recent years 
worked out its prosperity. Particularly may it be said that his 
firm espousal of the measures for the completion of the West- 
ern North Carolina Railroad created a patriotic state sentiment, 
bound it together once and for all time, and won for him the last- 
ing gratitude of those sections of the State whose development 
depended upon it. The marvelous results justified the soundness 
of his judgment, ine great prosperity and advancement and 
progress to-day witnessed across the mountams are largely due 
to the untiring efforts of Mr. Hale to secure for the people of 
that section railway connection with the East, which the execu- 
tive genius of Colonel A. B. Andrew^s made the basis of their 
more recent activities. 

As a political writer he was no less broad, sound and energetic 
than when seeking the development of the State's material re- 
sources. He was always true to convention and to principle, and 
his leadership was largely acknowledged by the press of the 
State. His style was easy, clear and forcible; an omnivorous 
reader, he was classical in his tastes and a fine belle-lettres 
scholar. So well equipped and early trained to journalism under 
the eye of one of the best editors of the older generation, he 
never failed to clear up every subject he discussed, and in his 
terse arguments he brought to bear the full force of his unusual 
powers. It is no disparagement to the work of his associates to 
say that on occasion Mr. Hale could do their work better than 
any one of them could do it. He was a prodigious worker. 
After seeing if he could not aid in doing some one else's work 


he would delve into his own — and he could do more of it and of 
a higher quality than anybody. In addition to the exacting and 
routine work of editing every part of his papers, Hale's Weekly 
and the Register, he edited and published with popular supple- 
ments Doctor Curtis's famous botanical work and Commodore 
Wilkes's report on the ''Coal and Iron Deposits of the Deep 
River Section," under the titles of "The Forestry of North Caro- 
lina" and "In the Coal and Iron Counties." These works be- 
came handbooks for those investors who have so largely developed 
the mining and lumbering resources of the State. He also wrote 
what may be fairly regarded as one of its best political hand- 
books. Mr. Hale was twice elected printer to the State, and 
with Colonel W. L. Saunders collaborated on the first volumes 
of "The Colonial Records of North Carolina." It is a modest 
statement that the delineation of the work and its extraordinary 
mechanical beauty and excellence were his ideas and contribution. 

The great event of his life after beginning his editorial career 
and prior to the war was his marriage to Mary Rebecca, daughter 
of Hon. George E. and Delia Haywood Badger, which took place 
October i, 1855, ^^^ ended at her untimely death in 1884. In 
natural gifts and by education and training she was in every way 
fitted to be his companion and helpmeet. 

Mr. Hale died at Fayetteville on June 2, 1887. There survived 
him a son and four daughters. The following are some of the 
estimates of his co-workers printed at that time : 

The venerable John D. Cameron in the Asheville Citizen 
frankly said: 

"Mr. Hale had a very lofty idea of journalism and he was at no pains 
to conceal his opinions or his feelings as excited by its shortcomings. 
But all readily recognized his ability and profited by his labors. No 
man performed more valuable service to the Democratic party in the 
campaigns of 1882-84 than Peter Hale; and the fruits of his intelligent 
labors were a mine from which politicians, speakers, and editors drew 
as from an exhaustless and infallible source." 

Says the Wilmington Messenger, T. B. Kingsbury editor: 

"We believe that he was the best furnished editor that North Carolina 
has produced." 


Captain Ashe, then editor of the Raleigh News and Observer, 
who regarded Major Hale as the best editor ever produced in the 
South, recorded this pleasant impression of his character : 

"Mr. Hale was a man of great good nature, amiable with his friends, 
very impulsive, and remarkably tenacious of his opinions. He was a 
thorough gentleman with a high tone and chivalry in his nature and a 
keen detection of improper motive, which was always abhorrent to his 

From the State Chronicle, Josephus Daniels editor : 

''It was the best paper published in North Carolina in the recollection 
of the writer. Measuring our words, we may say it was a great paper 
and met the needs of the people of the State." 

Again in the summer of 1904 Mr. Daniels, editor of the Nezvs 
and Observer, writes: 

"The career of Mr. Peter Hale lacks the dramatic interest that throws 
a glamour over the career of 'Bill Saunders' and 'Joe Turner,' but it is 
full of interest to the historian, the journalist, the man who loves his 
State. It is not invidious to say that he was, take him all in all, the 
best equipped journalist the State has known. He graduated with the high- 
est honors of the University and was always a student and master of 
the most virile and purest English. He was a worker — he reveled in 
work. It was his delight to work half the night at his desk and then 
stand half bent over the forms until the breaking of the day, helping 
the foreman to make up the paper just right. But he did not succeed — 
well, that depends upon what success is. He did not succeed in making 
money and his paper did not pay. But is that all there is in success? 
Read the columns of his journal. Study the spirit of the man that 
shone in every line and see the influence that his paper exerted for the 
uplift of all good things in North Carolina, and then success will be 
written upon his journalistic career. More than that, look into the lives 
of younger men who have followed in the paths which he blazed out 
fn an almost unbroken forest, and it will be found that in the inspiration 
his best endeavor gives to them, 'Though dead he yet speaketh.' " 

On his tomb at Fayetteville, Major Edward J. Hale has 
caused to be carved this inscription: 

"A man of imperial intellect and the noblest impulses, who used his 
great gifts for the good of his country." 

Ellen Hale Wilson. 


f_ (7 ^/c. 


envoy extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary from the United States to the repubHc of 
Costa Rica, was born at Haymount, near Fay- 
etteville, December 25, 1839, the son of Ed- 
ward Jones and Sarah Jane (Walker) Hale. 
He was prepared for college under Rev. Daniel Johnson at the 
Donaldson Academy in Fayetteville, who at his graduation stated 
that Hale was the best scholar that the academy had turned out. 
He was ready to enter the sophomore class at the University in 
1856, but ill-health prevented, and he spent a year chiefly in 

He entered the sophomore class at the University of North 
Carolina in 1857, graduated with first distinction in 1860, and 
was valedictorian of his class. Dr. James Phillips and Professor 
Charles Phillips declared that he was the best mathematician 
turned out by the University, with the exception of Pettigrew. 
Being designed by his father for a political career, he took the 
University special course in constitutional and international law 
and also the elective courses in French, German and Spanish. In 
October, i860, he was taken into the firm of E. J. Hale & Sons 
as one of the editors and proprietors of the Fayetteville Ob- 
server, the leading Whig paper of the South, and was carried 


on its roll as such until the destruction of its office and plant 
by General Sherman, in 1865. 

He was married January 15, 1861, to Maria Rhett, eldest 
daughter of Thomas and Eliza Yeamans Hill, of Hailbron, 
Chatham County. On returning from his wedding trip, and on 
the day after Lincoln's call for troops, he volunteered as a pri- 
vate soldier in the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry 
(which became Company H, First North Carolina Volunteers), 
though offered a commission by the military secretary of North 
Carolina. He served throughout the war from Bethel to Appo- 
mattox, and was one of the twelve North Carolinians who were 
at both. As a private in D. H. Hill's First North Carolina regi- 
ment he first saw service at Bethel, June 10, 1861. On this oc- 
casion he left the hospital at Yorktown in order to be with his 
regiment at the front. 

On the disbandment of that regiment, he was appointed by 
Governor Clark second Heutenant North Carolina Troops, De- 
cember 2, 1861 ; he became adjutant and first lieutenant Fifty- 
sixth North Carolina regiment, Ransom's Brigade, August i, 
1862; assistant adjutant and inspector-general on the general staff 
of the army with the rank of captain October 24, 1863, and was 
assigned as adjutant-general to Lane's Brigade; was later as- 
signed as adjutant-general to Taliaferro's Division, June 5, 1863, 
but was reassigned to Lane's Brigade, with the practical com- 
mand of it, upon petition of all the officers of the brigade. Lane 
and subsequently Barry being wounded ; and was appointed major 
and assistant adjutant and inspector-general of the general staff 
of the army, just before the retreat from Petersburg, for conspic- 
uous gallantry and merit. He was wounded at second Gum 
Swamp, May 22, 1862; and at the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. He 
was judge advocate of a department court martial, by appointment 
of General Longstreet, January-March, 1863. He commanded 
Lane's Brigade at the battles of Fuzzell's Mills, August 16, and at 
Reams' Station, August 25, 1864. He was recommended by 
Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill for promotion to the rank of 
brigadier to command Lane's Brigade after the wounding of Lane 


and Barry, but Lane's return to duty after the appointment was 
made out rendered it unnecessary. In the presence of the army 
he was thanked by General Stevens, chief engineer, for the vic- 
tory of Fuzzell's Mills and for his discovery of the new principle 
of field fortification, required by the introduction of long-range 
small arms, and applying the remedy. 

General Lane in his history of his brigade in Clark's "Regi- 
mental Histories," iv, 471, pays a splendid tribute to Adjutant- 
General Hale, from which the foregoing details are abbreviated. 
He recites many instances of the latter's extraordinary coolness 
and genius for war. Among these is the declaration that his 
conduct at Battery 45, on April 2, 1865, was more courageous and 
more important than that which made Jasper famous. 

He was offered the position of private secretary to Governor 
Vance upon the latter's election in 1862, upon the nomination of 
President Swain of the University. At the same time he was 
ofifered the position of commissary (with rank of major) on the 
staff of General Pender, and that of assistant adjutant-general 
at the conscript post at Raleigh, but declined all these positions 
on the ground that his duty was with the fighting part of the 

His fortune gone as the result of the war, he engaged in busi- 
ness in New York (1866), and soon became partner in a large 
wholesale house. Failing health sent him to the mountains of 
North Carolina, where he resided until able to re-establish the 

He was author of the tariff plank of the North Carolina Demo- 
cratic platform of 1884; was a delegate to the national conven- 
tion of that year ; and was appointed consul to Manchester, 
April, 1885, where he served until September, 1889. He was 
(1885) the unanimous choice (by formal resolution) of the 
North Carolina delegation to Congress, headed by Vance and 
Ransom, for a diplomatic post. 

After leaving office he was requested by the North of Eng- 
land Trust Company, the wealthiest corporation in the United 
Kingdom, to visit India on a mission affecting the value of the 


indigo crop ($150,000,000 annually). He was entrusted with 
extraordinary powers and was accorded there distinguished hon- 
ors by the Viceroy (Marquis of Lansdowne), the Prince Feroh- 
kshah (heir of the Moguls), the Maharajah of Dharbhanga, and 
others. Against powerful opposition, he demonstrated the 
inutility of the invention of Count Schrotky, some time professor 
of chemistry in the University of Calcutta, and received the thanks 
and other testimonials of the company for his work. He was also 
offered the position of barrister for the company (at something 
over £5000 per annum), but declined it upon learning that he 
would be obliged to surrender his American citizenship upon 
being called to the English Bar. 

He traveled extensively in India, penetrating to the Himala- 
yas, and in Egypt. Upon his return to England, he was informed 
that he had been named as a vice-president of the International 
Congress on Internal Navigation, a body consisting chiefly of the 
leading engineers of the European nations, which sits in one or 
the other country every three years. At the request of this 
body he presented the American case of the Nicaragua Canal, 
overthrowing the efforts of the holders of Panama stocks, and 
received a vote of thanks by the Congress for his speech. 

He was commissioner of the Manchester Ship Canal in North 
America, with headquarters in New York in 1890-91. 

He returned to the conduct of the Observer in 1892, and 
edited a poHtical weekly edition of that paper for four years, 
which President Winston of the University pronounced the best 
edited paper in America. He also received therefor the volun- 
tary commendation of Mr. Cleveland and Mr. W. L. Wilson, in 
a highly eulogistic letter. Referring to this work, the Wilming- 
ton Messenger (Dr. Kingsbury) said that he was, with perhaps 
one exception, the ablest editor North Carolina had produced. 

In 1893 he was offered by President Cleveland the mission to 
Turkey, but declined it. In the same year he was chairman of 
the committee which recovered the charter for Fayetteville 
against the powerful opposition of those who had surrendered it 
to escape payment of the city's debt. This act also involved the 


construction of the water works, which were at once undertaken 
and completed. 

In 1895 he was chairman of the committee which secured the 
defeat by the State senate, after the bill had passed the house, of 
the Police bill, which turned over the whole taxing power of 
Fayetteville to an irresponsible board. 

In 1896 he was chairman of the platform committee of the 
Democratic state convention, and drew the platform submitted 
by the committee and unanimously adopted by that great con- 

In 1898 he was chairman of the committee which won the elec- 
tion for paving the streets of Fayetteville. 

In 1899 h^ published his scheme for the canalization of the 
Upper Cape Fear, in accordance with the engineering suggestion 
made to him in 1890 by Herr Franzius, the imperial German 
engineer, and in accordance with the commercial suggestion made 
to him by Baron (now Earl) Egerton of Tatton, chairman of the 
Manchester Ship Canal Company, in 1886. After ten years of 
contention with the powerful opposition interests, he secured 
the adoption of this project by Congress. Based on the estimates 
of the North Carolina ^corporation Commision, the saving to the 
people of North Carolina in freight rates effected by this im- 
provement will reach over $10,000,000 a year. The demon- 
strations by Major Hale upon which Congress was induced to 
adopt this project have been described as a work of genius. The 
Raleigh News and Observer said in a leading editorial : *Tt is a 
work of constructive statesmanship, to be reckoned in value with 
the building by the State of the North Carolina Railroad in the 
days before the war." 

The Cumberland County Democratic convention, 1894, during 
his absence on public duty in Wilmington, unanimously adopted 
a resolution urging his election as United States senator to suc- 
ceed General Ransom. In 1902 the same convention offered him 
its support for the nomination for Congress, in order that he 
might the more speedily secure the adoption of the Upper Cape 
Fear project. This he accepted, and for the reason stated; but 


the interests opposed to the project defeated him in the Con- 
gressional convention. 

He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention of 
1884, and a delegate at large to the national conventions of 1896, 
1900 (receiving the largest vote ever cast up to the time in a 
North Carolina Democratic convention), 1904, 1908 and 1912. 
At the first named (1896) he was a member of the Committee on 
Platform, and was one of the seven who made the first draft of 
it. At the second he was chairman of the delegation. At the 
third he was vice president for North Carolina of the convention. 
At the fourth he was chosen one of the committee to notify the 
presidential nominee. 

He was long president of the Fayetteville Observer Com- 
pany and editor and manager thereof; president of the Fayette- 
ville Chamber of Commerce, and of the Upper Cape Fear Im- 
provement Association; a trustee of the State University, and a 
member of the executive committee thereof ; a director and one 
of the founders of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress 
and on one occasion pro tempore presiding officer of its con- 

He is a member of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science; and in 1886 was elected an honorary life mem- 
ber of the Cobden Club, a distinction accorded to no other Caro- 
linian except the late Senator Vance, and to no other southerners 
except Bayard, Morgan, Beck, Vest and Lamar. 

He attracted the attention of the British heir presumptive (His 
Royal Highness the Prince Albert Victor) and received his 
friendship, a relation recognized by the Prince of Wales (later 
Edward VII) in a letter to Major Hale upon Prince Albert 
Victor's death in 1892. By request Major Hale sat with Mr. 
Gladstone on the occasion of his opening the Home Rule cam- 
paign. He enjoyed the acquaintance and friendship of many 
British men of letters and of vocations related to literature. This 
list included the Marquis of Ripon, Harcourt, Earl of Denbigh 
(Fielding), Gower, Earl of Dundonald, Cardinal Vaughn, Bishop 
Eraser, Morley, the Earl of Rosebery, Howorth, Houldsworth, 


Professor Munro, and Justin McCarthy, besides Yves Guyot, 
Voisin Bey and others on the continent. 

In 1884 he deHvered a memorial day address, which is said to 
have stimulated the movement in this country, now so wide- 
spread, for the teaching of history by monuments. In 1888 he 
delivered an address on the Constitution of the United States, 
which was published by the Manchester Statistical Society and 
pronounced by the leading English papers the best compendium 
on the subject extant. In 1888 he was chosen by the British 
Iron and Steel Institute to deliver the address of congratulation 
to Sir Henry Bessemer on the occasion of the celebration at Lon- 
don in that year of his great invention. 

Among many addresses by him may be mentioned : A notable 
one delivered in 1890 before the International Congress on in- 
ternal navigation at the request of the New York Chamber of 
Commerce; in March, 1891, an address before that body on Brit- 
ish Commerce ; on Columbus Day, 1892, at the University on "The 
Anglo-Saxon as a State Builder.'^ In 1897 he inaugurated at the 
North Carolina Teachers* Assembly, the agitation for negro dis- 
franchisement, by an address on "An Educated Electorate.'' In 
January, 1902, he delivered an address before the Rivers and 
Harbors Committee on "The Improvement of the Upper Cape 
Fear," which formally launched that project before the National 
Legislature. His report to the United States Government on 
Emigration to the United States from the United Kingdom, and 
on the Manchester Ship Canal and allied subjects and to the 
North of England Trust on the Indigo Industry of India, are 
authority on those subjects, as are also his "History of the Bethel 
Regiment," 1900, and the Bethel part of "Five Points in the 
North Carolina Record," 1904. 

Before leaving England, an "Illuminated Address" was pre- 
sented to Major Hale by bankers, merchants, and others, headed 
by Lord Egerton of Tatton ; Sir J. C. Lee (negotiator of the last 
treaty between England and France) ; Sir W. H. Houlds worth, 
Bart, (the British representative at the Brussels Monetary Con- 
ference) ; Sir Henry Roscoe, president of the British Association 


for the Advancement of Science; the Bishop of Salford (Cardi- 
nal Vaughn); the Earl of Derby; the mayors of Manchester, 
Salford, Stockport, etc. ; and a list of the world's most eminent 
merchants, including Sassoon & Company, Stavert. Zigomala & 
Company and Ralli & Company, whose holdings were said at the 
time to represent more than a thousand miUion pounds. Upon his 
return to America, the secretary of state (Mr. Blaine), stated that 
the records of the department exhibited him as the ablest and 
most efficient officer, diplomatic or consular, sent abroad by Mr. 
Cleveland, 1885-89. 

In 1910 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on Major Hale by 
his alma mater, the University of North Carolina. 

In May, 1913, Major Hale*s name was presented to President 
Wilson for appointment as ambassador to France by a delegation 
headed by Senator Bacon, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee; Senator Ransdell, president of the National Rivers and 
Harbors Congress ; Senator Overman and others, accompanied by 
the secretary of state and secretary of the navy. In June, 1913^ 
the Washington Post, in an article announcing his appointment 
as minister to Costa Rica, said: "His appointment has been ap- 
proved by the public men of the country generally." His ad- 
ministration of the affairs of this government in that important 
post has been admirable and has received the approval of the 
administration in the highest degree. In the spring of 191 7 he^ 
was on leave from his post visiting the United States. 

Major Hale's first wife died, leaving four sons, Edward J. 
Hale, Jr., now the editor of the Fayetteville Observer (being the 
third of that name at the head of that influential journal) ; Fred- 
erick T. Hale, now associate editor; Louis B. Hale, since 
deceased, and Thomas H. Hale. On December 5, 1905, Major 
Hale married Miss Caroline Green Mallett, daughter of the late 
Charles B. Mallett, who was long president of the Cape Fear and 
Yadkin Valley Railroad. Her family has been for one hundred 
and fifty years one of the most notable of those in the Cape Fear 
section. She is a lady of unusual gifts and has made valuable 
contributions to the history of the Confederacy. Both she and 


her distinguished husband are descendants of Colonel Peter Mal- 
lett, of Revolutionary fame. 

The father of the subject of this sketch, Edward J. Hale, Sr., 
was probably the most distinguished and influential editor this 
State has known. His brother, Peter M. Hale, was also a suc- 
cessful editor. The sketches of both of them appear in this 
volume. Himself distinguished as a soldier, as an editor and a 
diplomat, a patriot of broad and progressive views, he has served 
his State and country with fidelity and ability, and deserves well 
that his memory shall be handed down to posterity. 

Walter Clark. 


jMONG those who followed Maurice Moore to 
the Cape Fear, says Mr. Davis, were "the dis- 
tinguished lawyer Samuel Swann and his 
brother John, Edward Moseley, president of 
the council, and his kinsman, young Alexander 
Lillington, John Baptista Ashe, and Cornelius 
Harnett the elder." Thus the name of Cornelius Harnett ap- 
pears for the first time in the history of the Cape Fear. How 
long he had been in North Carolina we do not know, nor do we 
know anything of his antecedents beyond the fact that he was 
"bred a merchant in Dublin." But when he came to America, 
or why, we have not enough data even to hazard a guess. So 
far as we know, his first home in the New World was in Chowan 
County, where he seems to have prospered, popular rumor esti- 
mating his fortune at six or seven thousand pounds sterling. He 
appears for the first time in the records of the province as a 
grand juror at the court of oyer and terminer, held at Edenton, 
April 2, 1723. It was not long, however, before his name became 
a familiar one in the records of the court. Allying himself with 
George Burrington, he soon gained an unenviable prominence 
by becoming involved in Burrington's silly quarrel with Governor 
Everard, upon whom they made an outrageous assault. The 
grand jury presented a bill of indictment against them for riot 


and assault, but Burrington's influence was strong enough to 
prevent the humiliation of trial and conviction, and after several 
continuances an entry of nolle prosequi put an end to the case. 
In the meantime, probably because of this incident, Harnett had 
left Chowan and removed to Brunswick, about 1726. 

At Brunswick he opened an inn and tavern, and in April, 1727, 
applied to the court for permission to establish a ferry over 
Cape Fear River. The records of the court which met at Eden- 
ton, April 5, 1727, contain the following entry: 

"It being represented to this court that it is highly necessary that a ferry 
should be settled over Cape Fear River, and that part of the province 
not being laid out in precincts, therefore it is by this court ordered 
that a ferry be kept for that river by Cornelius Harnett from the place 
designed for a town on the west side of the river to a place called Hatile- 
over, and that he receive the sum of five shillings for a man and horse 
and half a crown for each person and that no person to keep any ferry 
within ten miles of the said places." 

As this ferry connected the town of Brunswick and South 
Carolina with the only road then leading to the northern part of 
the colony and into Virginia, this order of the court practically 
granted a monopoly to Harnett and assured him of a lucrative 
source of income. 

But Harnett was not merely an innkeeper and ferryman. He 
entered upon large tracts of land and was one of the leaders in 
the industrial development of the Cape Fear section. In 1732, 
together with Hugh Blanning, in behalf of themselves and others, 
he petitioned the council for grants of larger tracts of pine land 
than were authorized by the King's instructions for the purpose 
of erecting saw mills and cutting the timber into lumber. The 
council decided they had no authority to disobey the King's in- 
structions, "but as they think the prayer is in itself reasonable 
and would be at great service to promote the trade of the coun- 
try," they requested the governor to recommend the petition to 
the King. In the meantime they ordered that no lands within 
two miles of any saw mills should be granted or surveyed, and 
if the King's answer should be favorable, the petitioners should 


have the refusal of all such lands. During the next few years 
Harnett entered upon tracts aggregating two thousand one hun- 
dred and five acres, and Mary Harnett, his wife, took up grants 
aggregating two thousand seven hundred and eighty acres, in 
Bladen and New Hanover counties. By the terms of these 
grants they were required to cultivate the lands, but most of them, 
being pine barren, were incapable of cultivation. Harnett there- 
fore petitioned the council that instead of cultivation he might 
be permitted to erect saw mills "from whence so great advantage 
accrues to this settlement." The council granted the petition 
and declared that in the future the erection of saw mills on 
lands in the' Cape Fear section should be deemed sufficient to save 
the grant without further cultivation. 

Two years after Harnett's removal to the Cape Fear, North 
Carolina became a royal province, and George Burrington became 
the first royal governor. These two events appeared to estab- 
lish Harnett's fortunes on a firm foundation, for upon Burring- 
ton's recommendation the King appointed him a member of the 
governor's council. But George Burrington's favor proved, to 
the grief of more than one of his followers, a pretty shaky foun- 
dation on which to build expectations. The Everard faction, 
who violently opposed his appointment, hit the nail on the head 
when they charged that in the selection of his councillors Bur- 
rington's whole aim was "to get a set of persons that will go into 
any measure he shall propose ;" but they were evidently stretching 
the truth when they said that his appointees were men "of so 
mean circumstances that put them all together their estates in 
that country won't amount to £1500;" and we must attribute to 
political rancor their statement that they were men "of vile char- 
acters and poor understandings." After vigorous assaults on the 
other councillors they contemptuously dispose of Harnet in ten 
words: "Cornelius Hart [Harnett] is another; he keeps a little 
punch house." The Everard faction were doubtless correct in 
their statement of Burrington's motives; but both they and the 
governor were wrong in their estimate of the men selected for 
the council. Burrington soon found that they were not men 


who would "go into any measure" he might propose. In 1731 
he recommended Harnett for re-appointment, but within less than 
six months they were quarreling furiously. Burrington seems to 
have been right so far as his position on the disputed question is 
concerned, but, as usual, he ruined his cause by the violence of 
his conduct. To Harnett he wrote that he was no longer his 
friend, charging him with baseness and ingratitude; and in an 
interview at Harnett's own house the governor paid his respects 
to his host by calling him "fool, blockhead, puppy, Ashe's tool, 
and this without any provocation or anything then said by Mr. 
Harnett." To the Board of Trade Burrington wrote: 

"Mr. Cornelius Harnett, another of the council, was bred a merchant 
in Dublin and settled at Cape Fear in this colony. I was assured t>y a 
letter I received in England Harnett was worth £6,000 sterling, which 
induced me to place his name in the list of persons to be councillors. 
When I came into this country he was reputed by many to be worth 
i7,ooo, but is now known to have traded with other men's goods, nor 
worth anj'thing, and reduced to keep a public house. ... I am humbly 
of opinion Harnett's sitting in council is a disgrace to it." 

But the governor's statements must be accepted cautiously, for 
the truth is that he expected to find a wiUing tool and was dis- 
appointed and angry at his mistake. However, his attacks had 
the desired effect, for Harnett became weary of the fight and sub- 
mitted his resignation. 

Harnett's resignation from the council was not the end of his 
political career. In 1732 he had been appointed a justice of the 
peace and was continuously re-appointed until as late as 1740. 
In 1738, by an act of the Assembly, the provost marshals of the 
counties were displaced by sheriffs, and on March 6, 1739, Gov- 
ernor Johnston appointed Cornelius Harnett the first sheriff of 
New Hanover County. He was still in office as late as June 5, 
1740, but after that date his name disappears from our records 
until a second and more celebrated Cornelius Harnett began his 
long career of public service. 

R. D. W. Connor. 


jINTON ROWAN HELPER, agitator, aboli- 
tionist and advocate of a white America, author 
and pubHcist, ideaHst and promoter of the 
Three Americas Railway, who died by his own 
hand in Washington City on March 8, 1909, 
had been fifty years before the best hated man 
in the Union. How Juvenal would have moralized on old age 
had he known of the fortunes of the author of "The Impending 
Crisis," in which, as always and everywhere, he made an appeal 
for white men, the non-slaveholding white men of the South, for 
them and to them "in behalf of a free and white America." 

The life of Helper was pre-eminently full of storm and stress ; 
of romance and shadow; of struggle without reward save the 
prophet's reward — neglect and misunderstanding. He was born 
in Davie County, N. C, December 27, 1829, the youngest of the 
five sons and two daughters of Daniel Helper, a small farmer 
who died in 1830, leaving little besides a farm of two hundred 
acres on Bear Creek, and four negroes. His paternal grand- 
father (the name being originally Heifer) came to North Caro- 
lina in 1752 from the vicinity of Heidelberg, Germany. His 
mother was Sarah (or Sally) Brown, daughter of Cannon Brown 
of Virginia, and of English ancestry. He was reared in Davie 
County; he received an academic education under Peter S. Ney 


and Baxter Clegg, and graduated at the Mocksville Academy in 
1848. Although a slave-holder his father was opposed to slavery 
and liberated his slaves by will, and it was therefore from domes- 
tic sources that young Helper imbibed those abolition ideas which 
he soon began to develop on his own account. They appeared in 
his first book, "The Land of Gold," but were cut out, so he says, 
at the behest of a slave-advocating publisher. He was therefore 
the more anxious for a hearing. Of his growth in the develop- 
ment toward free labor he says in "Noonday Emergencies," pub- 
lished in 1871 : 

"In the process of my conversion from the pro-slavery opinions and pre- 
judgments in which, if I may sq speak, I was born and bred, nothing 
influenced me so much, nothing so whetted my desire for closer scrutiny 
into the two conflicting systems of society, nothing so hastened my 
espousal of the cause of white free labor, and certainly nothing so 
strengthened and confirmed me in my utter detestation of negro slavery, 
as the thorough perusal of a certain public document, which was pub- 
lished by the government of the United States, and popularly known as 
the report of the Seventh Census. That document, all the better authority 
for anti-slavery men, because it is the work of pro-slavery officials, con- 
tains a serial mass of facts — undeniable, literal, absolute facts — which, if 
presented in their true light, would inevitably bring to the mind of every 
honest inquirer after truth, indisputable evidence of the revolting imbe- 
cility and worthlessness of both slavery and negroes." 

After reaching manhood Helper clerked for awhile in Salis- 
bury, but in 1850 went to New York City, and early in 1851 sailed 
for California, by way of Cape Horn, visiting Valparaiso on the 
voyage out, and then taking part in the rush for gold that char- 
acterized the days of the Argonauts. He met, however, with no 
material success, and in 1854 returned to the East and published 
"The Land of Gold" (Baltimore, 1855), a descriptive volume 
dealing with the golden West and its people, and which is said 
to have had, originally, decidedly abolitionist tendencies. After 
the pubHcation of this book Helper returned to North Carolina, 
and from that time his biography is the history of his books. 
In North Carolina Helper was a close observer of the seething 
turmoil and ferment that characterized the defense of the pe- 


culiar institution. He gave careful study to the subject, and in 
June, 1856, just after the nomination of Fremont for the Presi- 
dency, went to New York with the manuscript of a book that 
was to become world famous. This was "The Impending Crisis 
of the South : How to Meet it." In this book Helper shows him- 
self a past master in the art of vituperation ; not content to con- 
fine himself to reason, he seeks to arouse all the hostile passions 
of those he opposes ; not satisfied with argument, much of which 
was unanswerable, he descends to abuse and irritates by such 
terms as ''lords of the lash," "oligarchs," "terror engenderers of 
the South," "slavocrats," "tyrants" ; "knights of the lash," "cava- 
liers of shackles and handcuffs ;" and as a consequence as soon as 
the book's characteristics were known it was pronounced incen- 
diary, and it was difficult for him to find a publisher, even in the 
North. It was finally undertaken by A. B. Burdick, and when 
published created a greater furore than "Uncle Tom's Cabin." In 
the North the author was hailed as a new Moses who had arisen 
to lead the Nation out of the wilderness of slavery and as the har- 
binger of freedom of thought in the South. With the first men- 
tion of the book on the floor of Congress it set that body aflame. 
Senators Burlingame and Potter tried to get authority to print 
250,000 copies at the public expense for general distribution. 
They failed, but got instead challenges to fight duels from some 
of their colleagues. Biggs of North Carolina repudiated it as ex- 
pressing the sentiment in his State and attempted to blacken 
Helper's personal character by showing that he had, while em- 
ployed in Salisbury, embezzled $300. It later appeared that it had 
been done while he was a mere boy ; that there were extenuating 
circumstances, and that he had voluntarily made restitution of 
the entire amount. Discussion increased the reputation of the 
book, and in 1859, Charles W. Eliot, R. H. McCurdy, David 
Dudley Field, C. A. Peabody, Cassius M. Clay, F. P. Blair, Wil- 
liam H. Anthony and others organized themselves into a com- 
mittee for the purpose of raising money to print 100,000 copies 
of the book for use as a campaign document. This was done 
and the book was distributed broadcast. Sixty-eight Republican 


members of the house of representatives, including John Sher- 
man, endorsed the book and the plan. 

When the Thirty-sixth Congress assembled in December, 1859, 
John Brown's raid had taken place and hostile feeling between 
the sections was at fever heat. A resolution was at once offered, 
declaring any member who had signed the endorsement unfit for 
Speaker. An angry debate followed, lasting from December 5th 
to February ist. His endorsement of the book alone prevented 
Sherman's election, and this in spite of the fact that he declared 
that he had signed without knowing the character of the work. 
Helper always said that he had read it and heartily approved of 
the contents. 

It became the text-book of the Republican party in i860; a 
"''Compendium," consisting of most of the original book with much 
new matter, was published (i860) and the total sales between 
1857 and 1861 amounted to 140,000 copies. 

As was to have been expected, the reception to the book in 
the South was just the opposite. Helper was denounced as a 
liar and a traitor. No words of abuse were too severe, no curses 
too deep ; his work was condemned, and as the laws were inter- 
preted it became a criminal offense to read, to circulate or have 
it in possession. Leading public men like John A. Gilmer, who 
had been an old line Whig, and John W. Ellis, a fire-eating Demo- 
crat, took pains to explain that the copies sent them had been sent 
without their permission, and the latter with that abandon of 
insolence which marked the advanced secessionist used its pages 
to Hght his pipe. In view of possible slave insurrections the 
Revised Code had made it a felony to bring into the State, with 
the intent to circulate or to publish, any pamphlet or paper that 
was calculated to cause discontent among the slaves. The first 
offense was a felony with imprisonment for a year, the pillory 
and the whipping post, while the second offense meant death. As 
it was even dangerous to have the book in possession, there could 
be no answer from the South. The fact that it had, along with 
much unanswerable argument, much of weakness, because of the 
incompleteness of the statistics and the particular use to which 


the facts were put, was not made known and fanaticism forged 
a weapon which intelHgence did not undertake to dispute. In- 
stead of reason it was met with the law. Nereus Mendenhall 
was one of those who narrowly escaped punishment for having 
a copy in his possession, and when Rev. Daniel Worth, a Wes- 
leyan minister of Indiana, although a native of Guilford County, 
came into the State in 1858, planted a church in Randolph and 
began to sell copies of the book, he was indicted in that county 
under sections 16 and 17 of chapter 34, Revised Code. The in- 
dictment quoted extracts from "The Impending Crisis," show- 
ing its incendiary character. 

"Rev. Daniel Worth, my first cousin, was tried yesterday for circu- 
lating Helper's book and convicted," writes Jonathan Worth from Ashe- 
boro on March 31, i860, to Rev. G. W. Bainum of East Orange, N. J. 
"Judgment of the court, one year's imprisonment. The judge had no 
discretion as to the imprisonment. The court was authorized, in its 
discretion, to have sentenced him to the pillory and whipping also. He 
appealed to the Supreme Court and was remanded to prison. His zeal 
has had the better of his discretion. Nobody here will countenance the 
circulation of a book denouncing slaveholders as worse than thieves, 
murderers, etc. . . . He was most ably defended by Hon. James T. 
Morehead, who owns a very large number of slaves. He speaks in the 
warmest terms of approbation of the efforts of Mr. Morehead." 

On May 26. Governor Worth writes again to the same corre- 
spondent : 

"Rev, Daniel Worth was again convicted at Guilford last week. Same 
judgment as here. Appealed to the Supreme Court. Has given bail in 
$3,000 and left the State, to return and abridge the judgments, or make 
up the money and indemnify his securities." 

The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the lower court 
(see 7th Jones, 488) and Worth, being released on bail, with the 
connivance of his sureties, left the State. 

There can be no doubt that this book, by inflaming the pas- 
sions of both sides, hastened the conflict. But as a matter of 
fact the character of the book was misunderstood in the North, 
either purposely or otherwise. Helper always denied that he 


was an abolitionist from love of the negro, for whom he had only 
contempt and disgust. He claimed that his mission was to white 
men. He prints in this book a most powerful brief for the non- 
slaveholding white men of the South. He appealed to a class 
who knew not their own strength, who were unorganized, who 
as a rule never saw, nor were allowed to see, his appeal, who 
within a decade were fighting the battles of the Confederacy and 
since its fall have composed the rank and file of the Democracy 
of the South. 

Says Helper in his preface: 

"In writing this book it has been no part of my purpose to cast un- 
merited opprobrium upon slaveholders or to display any especial friend- 
liness for the blacks. I have considered my subject more particularly 
with reference to its economic aspects as regards the whites — not with 
reference, except in a very slight degree, to its humanitarian or religious 
aspects. To the latter side of the question, Northern writers have already 
done full and timely justice. The genius of the North has also most ably 
and eloquently discussed the subject in the form of novels. Yankee wives 
have written the most popular anti-slavery literature of the day. Against 
this I have nothing to say; it is all well enough for women to give the 
fictions of slavery; men should give the facts. . . . 

"An irrepressibly active desire to do something to elevate the South to 
an honorable and powerful position among the enlightened quarters of the 
globe has been the great leading principle that has actuated me in the 
preparation of the present volume." 

Taking as his thesis that slavery was an economic curse to the 
whole country, especially to the South, most of all to the non- 
slaveholding whites of that section, he presented facts and figures 
from the census report to show that the slave States, though con- 
siderably larger than the free States in superficial area, were far 
behind in population, industry and wealth, and that they were 
continually getting farther behind. Slavery was given as the 
sole cause of this, for it was claimed that the natural resources 
of the South surpassed those of the North. 

Contrasting Virginia and New York, he found that the popu- 
lation of the former was 748,308 in 1790, of the latter 340,120; in 
1850 New York had 3,097,394, but Virginia only 1,431,661. In 


1791 the exports of Virginia amounted to $3,130,865; those of 
New York to $2,505,465; in 1852 they stood $2,724,657 and 
$87,484,456, respectively. There was a time when Norfolk owned 
more than a hundred trading vessels and her foreign trade ex- 
ceeded that of New York City, but all that was changed now. 

The contrast between Pennsylvania and South Carolina made 
no better showing for the latter. There was a time when Phila- 
delphia merchants bought goods in Charleston for their most 
exacting customers. In 1760 the imports at Charleston amounted 
to $2,662,000; in 1855 they were only $1,750,000, while those of 
Philadelphia amounted to $21,963,021. In the value of her farms, 
agricultural products and manufactures. South Carolina had 
fallen far behind Pennsylvania. The latter had the advantage in 
square miles, but the same was not true of New York contrasted 
with Virginia, nor of Massachusetts and North Carolina. Start- 
ing in 1790 with a superficial area six times greater than that of 
Massachusetts and a population greater by 15,000, North Caro- 
lina had now fallen behind in population, wealth and industry. 

Figures were then given to show that the South as a whole had 
fallen far behind the North in practically every industry. Even 
in agriculture, the chief industry of the South, she was behind. 
In manufacturing she was far behind both in the totals and the 
per capita valuation. The North had more than twice as much 
bank capital as the South. In the matter of literature, public 
schools and libraries there was no comparison. While there was 
one illiterate in every six males twenty-one years of age in the 
North, the ratio was a little less than one to three in the South. 
And it is noticeable how often the fortunes of his native State 
are used for illustrations. 

This falling behind on the part of the South in the economic 
race and becoming tributary to the North presented, in the esti- 
mation of the author, a grave crisis. The sole cause of this, he 
declared, was slavery. The way to meet it was to abolish slavery, 
without compensation to the owners. To accomplish this end no 
outside help was necessary. It must be done by the non-slave- 
holders in each State through political action. They must organ- 


ise, capture the State governments and act in accord with the 
following platform : 

"i. Thorough organization and independent poHtical action on the part 
of the non-slaveholding whites of the South. 

"2. IneligibiHty of slaveholders — never another vote to the trafficker in 
human flesh. 

"3. No co-operation with slaveholders in politics — no fellowship with 
them in religion ; no affiliation with them in society. 

"4. No patronage to slaveholding merchants; no guestship in slave- 
waiting hotels ; no fees to slaveholding lawyers ; no employment of slave- 
holding physicians ; no audience to slaveholding parsons. 

"5. No recognition of pro-slavery men, except as ruffians, outlaws and 

"6. Abrupt discontinuance of subscription to pro-slavery newspapers. 

"7. The greatest possible encouragement to free white labor. 

"8. No more hiring of slaves by non-slaveholders. 

"9. Immediate death to slavery, or if not immediate, unqualified pro- 
scription of its advocates during the period of its existence. 

"10. A tax of $60 on every slaveholder for each and every negro in his 
possession at the present time, or at any intermediate time between now 
and the 4th of July, 1863, said money to be applied to the transportation 
of the blacks to Liberia, to their colonization in Central or South America, 
or to their comfortable settlement within the boundaries of the United 

"11. An additional tax of $40 per annum to be levied annually on every 
slaveholder for each and every negro found in his possession after the 
4th of July, 1863, said money to be paid into the hands of the negroes 
so held in slavery, or, in case of death, to their next of kin, and to be 
used by them at their own option." 

On November 13, 1861, Lincoln appointed Helper United 
States Consul at Buenos Ayres, and he married there in 1863^ 
Seiiorita Maria Luisa Rodriguez, who survived him. He re- 
signed his post October 20, 1866, started on his return to the 
United States November 20, 1866, and thereafter divided his 
time between New York City and North Carolina. He published 
in 1867 (New York) "Nojoque; a Question for a Continent," 
which is often cited as being inconsistent with "The Impending 
Crisis." Helper himself claimed that there was no inconsistency. 
He had opposed slavery because of its harmfulness to the white 
man, and the most casual reading of "The Impending Crisis" 


will show that this was his purpose; he now opposes the negro 
for the same reason. He says in the preface to "Nojoque" : 

"Were I to state here, frankly and categorically, that the primary object 
of this work is to write the negro out of America, and that the secondary 
object is to write him (and manifold millions of other black and bi- 
colored caitiffs, little better than himself) out of existence, God's simple 
truth would be told. 

"As for the author's paramount and ultimate object, as herein already 
referred to, that will be accomplished only when, from Spitzbergen to 
Cape Horn, and from the extreme East to the extreme West, the whole 
habitable globe shall be peopled exclusively by those naturally and super- 
latively superior races — the pure white races — to whom we are indebted 
for all human achievements which may be fitly esteemed and described 
as at once wise and good, brilliant and powerful, splendid and imper- 

The chapter headings will show that the author has done his 
utmost to accomplish this end: 

I. The Negro, Anthropologically Considered; An Inferior Fellow Done 
For. 2. Black: A Thing of Ugliness, Disease and Death. 3. White: A 
Thing of Life, Health and Beauty. 4, The Servile Baseness and Beggary 
of the Blacks. 5. Removals; Banishments; Expulsions; Exterminations. 

6. A Score of Bible Lessons in the Arts of Annihilating Effete Races. 

7. The United States of America: A White Man Power. 8. Thirteen 
Kindred Pages from "The Impending Crisis of the South." 9. White 
Celebrities and Black Nobodies. 10. Spanish and Portuguese America. 
II. The Future of Nations. 

In 1868 appeared "The Negroes in Negroland ; the Negroes in 
America; and Negroes Generally" (New York). This book is 
made up almost entirely of extracts from travelers and other 
authorities on the subject of the negro in his native land. The 
compiler is no less emphatic and dogmatic than in earlier utter- 
ances and with a very decided political leaning away from the 
black republicans then in power, for he never advocated equal 
rights for the negro. Hear him in the preface: 

"The compiler of this volume deems it proper to protest here, at the 
very outset of his undertaking, against the unjust and ill-boding practice of 
indiscriminately stigmatizing as a traitor almost every man, whether in 
the North or in the South, in the East or in the West, who in the exercise 


of his constitutional rights and honest convictions, raises his voice in 
opposition to the revolutionary and destructive measures of the party now 
dominant in our National Legislature. . . . 

"Now, once for all, in conscious deference to truth, let it be distinctly 
made known and acknowledged that, in addition to the black and baleful 
color of the negro, there are numerous other defects, physical, mental 
and moral, which clearly mark him, when compared with the white man, 
as a very different and inferior creature. . . . Take cognizance of his low 
and compressed forehead ; his hard, thick skull ; his small, backward-thrown 
brain; his short, crisp hair; his flat nose; his thick lips; his projecting, 
snout-like mouth ; his strange, eunuch-toned voice ; the scantiness of beard 
on his face; the toughness and unsensitiveness of his skin; the thinness 
and shrunkenness of his thighs ; his curved knees ; his calfless legs ; his low, 
short ankles ; his long, flat heels ; his glut-shaped feet ; the general angu- 
larity and oddity of his frame ; the malodorous exhalations from his 
person; his puerility of mind; his inertia and sleepy-headedness ; his 
proverbial dishonesty ; his predisposition to fabricate falsehoods, and his 
apathetic indifference to all propositions and enterprises of solid merit. 

It is a curious and interesting fact that ''Negroes in Negroland" 
was used as a text-book by the Democratic Executive Commit- 
tee in 1868 just as "The Impending Crisis" had been used by the 
Republicans in i860. The contrast in the circulation of the two 
volumes is no less striking. "The Impending Crisis" reached 
140,000 copies; the other apparently attained only 1,000. In 
1871 appeared his fourth and last book on the negro, "Noonday 
Exigencies in America," a work written, as all the earlier ones 
had been, "in behalf of a freer, whiter and higher civilization in 
the New World." 

Helper's government service in South America gave him great 
interest in that continent. He visited it six times, was on both 
coasts and produced one book dealing with phases of its life, 
"Oddments of Andean Diplomacy." He crossed Central Amer- 
ica by both the Nicaragua and Panama routes, and travel im- 
pressed him greatly with the importance of an all-rail route from 
some point in the north central states through Mexico and Cen- 
tral America, across the highlands on the east of the Andes and 
thence across the plains to Buenos Ayres, the ultimate destination 
of the line being from the Behring Sea to the Straits of Magellan, 


thus linking the three Americas into a single dependent whole. 
He published in St. Louis in 1881 "The Three Americas Rail- 
way," in which this idea is exploited. He became obsessed with 
it, and to promoting this scheme he devoted his last years. He 
was no less enthusiastic in this matter than he had been in earlier 
days on slavery and abolition. To it he gave his time and such 
means as he possessed or could command, spending, it is said, 
$50,000 of his own money on the enterprise. From time to time 
different corps of surveyors were in the field seeking the most 
feasible route, and many miles of the proposed line have been 
built, although in independent hands. His last years were spent 
mainly in New York and Washington City, where he brought the 
project to the attention of the leading financiers of the day, but 
from them he received no encouragement, and this depressed him. 
Age and poverty were weighing upon him and he died, as we 
have seen, by his own hand. He was a man of unquestioned 
ability, of great quickness of perception, of dauntless courage, 
and counted among his friends many of the leading thinkers of 
the century. 

Mr. Helper had two brothers who attained some distinction — 
Pinckney and Hardie Hogan, the latter of whom was in 1868 pub- 
lisher and editor of a conservative Republican newspaper in 
Raleigh, the Holden Record, which opposed Holden, and the 
Standard. There were also two other brothers. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 

^^^^^^%%^^^ ^^7-!7 .vy^ 


AGE 59 

c.''i^f.^.Z^^yViy7/:'a-t, J^aJ/,i/v.' . 


An Autobiography 

^HIS world is so old, and its actors, since the rec- 
ords began, have evolved so much that is great 
and wonderful, that I hesitate to record such 
occurrences as I know or have heard of myself 
and my ancestors. If I were the historian of 
the age I would not; but we are attempting to 
preserve some Facts, not only to please our publisher, and tickle 
the fancies of our friends and relatives, but also for inspection 
and comparison by the future interpreter of this time. And he 
shall have the opportunity of examining me and my settings as 
I see them. Whether ordinary or unique, he will decide. I shall 
tell him the truth of things I profess to know. As to others, 
they were given to me. 

On March 5, 1749, Earl Granville granted 525 acres on Tabb's 
Creek, in Granville County, to William Hicks. We yet have 
the original deed. William held that land fifty years, devising 
it by his will, in 1799, to his youngest son, Abner. Abner held it 
until 1855, and conveyed it to his youngest son, Benjamin Willis 
Hicks, who held and owned it till December 30, 1899, then leaving 
it to his children. Two of Benjamin's grandchildren still own 
and occupy it. None of William's descendants have I known 


except Abner's ; of those and of my maternal grandfather, James 
Crews, I have known a multitude. 

The bodies of William and Abner and Benjamin, a blessed 
trinity to me, repose side by side in that sacred soil which they 
in life held free from lien or levy in peace and in war one 
hundred and fifty years. Many a drouth — many wet years — 
many blighting frosts, afflictions and troubles unnumbered; poor 
land, hard to cultivate; with none of the appurtenances of this 
age and time, they lived on long and well and won the battles 
of life, bearing the burdens of "taxation without representation," 
with and without "free trade and sailor's rights," with "Old 
Hickory" and the United States Bank, slavery extension, John 
Brown, secession, reconstruction! 

William Hicks came from Westbury, on Long Island, where 
men of his name still live. I have the facts, and could go on 
and connect with Robert Hicks, who came over on the good ship 
Fortune next after the Mayflozver, landing November ii, 1621 ; 
and on back to where Edward, the Black Prince, knighted our 
ancestor Ellis Hicks on the field of Poictiers, September 19, 
1355, for taking a set of colors from the French. With this 
record, my brother Hewitt and I, rejecting a proffered heredi- 
tary privilege, refused in 1902 and since to call in aid the achieve- 
ments of grandfather Abner, and were, in so far as I know, the 
only men in the country who insisted on being subjected to the 
educational test for the right of suffrage. 

William's son Abner married Elizabeth Harris, whose mother 
was closely related to Isaac Watts, the hymnologist. Benjamin, 
their youngest son, married Isabella, daughter of James and 
Sarah Earl Crews. William and Benjamin lived to be more than 
seventy; Abner, Isabella and Elizabeth more than eighty; and 
James Crews more than ninety years of age. 

I am the second child and oldest son of Benjamin and Isabella, 
and was born October 14, 1857. 

My wife's father was Thomas Jefferson Horner, teacher and 
preacher; born November 21, 1823, while his great protonym was 
yet in the flesh; died July 11, 1900. Her mother was Isabella, 


daughter of Joseph Norwood of Person County. T. J. Horner's 
parents were WilHam Horner and his wife, nee Parker, a cousin 
of Senator WilHe P. Mangum. 

Belle, named for her two grandmothers, Edison Thurston, and 
Benjamin Horner Hicks are our three children. 

Grandfather Abner was a Methodist, and gave the land for 
one of the first Methodist churches in Granville. Later he 
adopted the then popular idea that a church could exist without 
a bishop, if the State could exist without a king. He was one of 
the organizing members of the Methodist Protestant Church. 
My father was born that year, 1828, and was loyal to it all his 
days. So have all his seven children been. 

I remember seeing my mother weep when my father started 
to the war, and seeing and hearing him and her shout for joy 
when he returned from Point Lookout military prison in June, 
1865, long after we supposed him dead. 

I remember the patrolers who rode at night and whipped 
negroes during the war; and that the slaves all quit work the 
day Sherman's army passed ; and how they marched afterward to 
the music of fife and drum on their way to the Union League 
meetings; and how afraid they were later of the Ku-Klux-Klan 
when the marvelous stories of its deeds were told. There never 
was any disorder or racial trouble on our farm, some of the 
slaves remaining with us and in our family many years after the 

I know well how we toiled for necessaries, sometimes having 
biscuits on Sunday mornings only, wearing homespun clothes 
and shoes made by our parents. During the war we wore 
wooden-bottom shoes, had potato coffee, picked the seeds from 
the cotton with our fingers, spun and wove cotton and wool into 
cloth, dyed it with walnut root, and boiled the dirt of the smoke- 
house floor for salt. 

There was no kind of farm work in those days that my 
father's sons did not do. I mention besides the ordinary labors 
the ; year round the breaking of flax, beating out oats with a 
flail, making split baskets and hickory mauls, prizing tobacco 


in hogsheads for the Richmond market, carrying fodder and 
pea hulls half a mile in the snow to the sheep, soaking wheat in 
bluestone water on frosty mornings and getting cockle burs out 
of the horses' manes and tails. A younger brother had a long 
sickness when two years old, and pneumonia when he was nine- 
teen. These sicknesses and a slight illness of a sister were lit- 
erally the only occasions of a physician visiting my father's home 
from his marriage till the youngest of his children was twenty- 
one. With the exception of some Baltimore meat one summer, 
I never knew anything purchased for our home that could be 
raised on the farm. 

The changes that have occurred in the time I have lived have 
interested me. My earliest recollections of creeds were of the 
plenary inspiration and literal inerrancy of the Bible. Miracles, 
vicarious atonement and the virgin birth were not questioned. 
But there were then lively disputes about church government, 
water baptism and predestination. 

I attended private and public schools in winter from my fifth 
to my sixteenth year. I had a fine memory, and could learn 
easily; but in those years I was more interested in other things 
than lessons, and the most that I learned was by hearing others 
studying or reciting. I recall how my older sister labored over 
Parley's "History," Watts' "On the Mind," "Wells's "Science of 
Common Things" and Stoddard's "Mental Arithmetic." What 
of these I received was by hearing her or at a glance. I had no 
time or patience for study. My father and mother educated 
seven children on one slate, two or three slate pencils, one lead 
pencil, and fewer books than my boy Benjamin has had in his 
seventh and eighth grades. We borrowed some old books and 
got along somehow. Father had little money, and he would not 
go in debt. 

When seventeen, I attended an academy one five months' term. 
From eighteen to twenty-one I attended a high school three full 
ten month terms, making valuable use of my time. Then I 
taught a year, reading effectually at the same time Blackstone, 
Hume's "History of England," Chitty's "Pleadings," Adams's 


"Equity" and Battle's "Revisal." On January 5, 1881, I ob- 
tained license to practice law. I have been studying law ever 
since. Though my literary and scholastic attainments were good, 
I am satisfied that I was no better taught as a lawyer than many 
others (see the list in 84 North Carolina) who were with me. 
We were very happy on receipt of parchments signed by William 
N. H. Smith, John H. Dillard and Thomas S. Ashe. That was 
a great day to me. My first year at the Bar, 1881, "the dry 
year," was spent in Oxford in watchful waiting. Vance County 
was formed May 24, 188 1. I removed to Henderson January 
9, 1882. Here I have since resided — in the same house since 
April 26, 1886. 

There were no bounds to my ambition until about six months 
before my admission to the Bar. I thought I had the same right 
and the same opportunity as anybody else to be President or 
anything else. From then until I had been five years at the Bar, 
my estimate of myself kept shrinking all the time. I had no 
money, few friends, and fewer elements of popularity. During 
that period it required twenty-two months partly to convince 
Miss Mary Horner to risk starvation by becoming my life part- 
ner. She assumed her part of the hazard on December 6, 1883, 
and we finally won out against that peril some years later. I 
was always possessed of determination, self-confidence and en- 
thusiasm for whatever I undertook. I borrowed the money to 
pay my expenses the last two years at school. The reader might 
doubt me if I should state how little I used. I made it and repaid 
it, and provided for my family, and bought some law books, and 
learned some law, and had some practice in those first five years. 

In 1887 I went over with my brother Archibald the law course 
required for admission to the Bar. My legal field grew under 
that cultivation. Trimble vs. Hunter, 104 North Carolina, 129 
and Heggie vs. B. & L. Asso., 107 North Carolina, 581, were 
but little points in two long lawsuits I fought and won. They 
interested me till something else came. Two actions that I 
brought and won were important. One, Burgwyn vs. Hall, 108 
North Carolina, 489, in which it was held that defendant under 


arrest in a civil action might take the insolvent debtor's oath 
before judgment and be released. That nearly disposed of what 
was left by the Constitution of 1868 of imprisonment for debt, 
even in cases of fraud. The other case held, 126 North Carolina, 
689, that all fines imposed by mayors or other police courts should 
be paid to the school fund and not to the town treasuries. This 
has already put many hundred thousands of dollars into the 
school funds. The longest and best fight I ever made when I 
was not leader was Gattis vs. Kilgo. In that I had choice of 
sides and chose defendant. It was a seven years' war, and of 
acute public interest all the time; four times in the Supreme 
Court, and five times fiercely fought before Judges Bryan, Hoke, 
Shaw, W. R. Allen and Fred. Moore. 

The biggest victory I ever won was a second-degree verdict 
for a negro for killing a white woman when nearly every man 
in the county, except the very intelligent jury and myself, thought 
he ought to be hanged. The Rowland and Barbee murder cases 
each occupied the center of the stage a brief time. The results 
were what I wished. These are some of the most notable cases 
in which I have appeared. 

I have been associated pleasantly in legal matters for many 
years with my brother Archibald in Granville, Tasker Polk, Esq., 
in Warren, and Mr. W. M. Person in Franklin. I have enjoyed 
vacations and travel in summer, but all my diversions and avoca- 
tions have not interfered at all with my professional duties. 
"This one thing I do," has been my motto. 

In 1878 I heard General A. M. Scales and A. W. Tourgee 
speak in a contest for a seat in Congress. My mind was wide 
open. I had never heard any political speeches except those of 
Vance and Settle, just two years before. Tourgee convinced me 
I ought to vote for him. My father said no. I voted for Scales. 
In 1889 and 1890 I was elected mayor of Henderson. In 1892 
I was persuaded to be a candidate for the Legislature against a 
Populist and a negro. I beat the Populist, and the negro beat 
me. That fall I promised my Populist friends (nearly all the 
country people were PopuHsts then) that if the Democrats at- 


tained power and did not give relief I would quit them. In 
August, 1894, Mr. Cleveland published that ''the deadly blight 
of treason had blasted the counsels of the brave in their hour of 
might." And yet 'T do remember my faults this day" for in 1896 
I followed the ''cross of gold and crown of thorns" to an open 
grave, on which, when filled, I never planted a flower. In 1900 
the Democratic party of North Carohna jumped the fences of 
Constitution and the law and put itself at large. I refer to its 
legislative, electoral and amnesty acts of 1899, 1900 and 1901, 
and the election returns of August, 1900, as compared with the 
census returns of that year, as proximate and just causes for 
my final severing relations with that party. Since that time I 
have been a Republican in politics. I like its principles and 
policies, and am sure the change has made me a better man. 
Many a time since then I have thought of the incongruousness of 
North Carolina Democrats calling themselves by that name. 
Often in business, in my opinions of men, in the law and in other 
matters, have I enjoyed greatly the discovery that I have been 
mistaken and the privilege of moving to stations of better vision. 
Courage is required to make these changes of mental base; but 
the results are worth the efforts. I believe living under the false 
pretense of believing something one does not believe damages 
the mind and character. 

In May, 1909 the President, upon the recommendation of law- 
yers and others who knew me best, stated that he would nominate 
me to the Senate for judge of the United States Court for the 
Eastern District of North Carolina. The Constitution, for the 
love of which I had left the Democratic party, required the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate. That advice and consent the 
then North Carolina locum tenens declined to give; for had he 
not led the party where the Constitution forbade me to follow? 
The result did not at all reduce my stock of happiness and pros- 
perity. In 1910 the Republicans tried to make me chief justice 
of the State, 91,000 of them; and all without a word from me. 
For this honor, ever, thanks. 

I have never held public office except the two terms as mayor. 


treasurer of a large bond issue road fund and steward of my 
church ; not even tiler of my Masonic lodge. But I will com- 
pare the number of private trusts I have executed with those 
of anyone of my age. Many of them have lasted more than 
twenty-five years. 

Reading has been to me a continual pleasure. Poetry was the 
delight of my youth, fiction and humour of my young manhood, 
biography and the philosophy of religion of my later years. 
The thought of Dr. Holmes when viewing the chambered nau- 
tilus "comes to me o'er and o'er." 

I acknowledge with gratitude the benefits received from my 
teacher, S. Simpson; and several admiring clients of my youth, 
now long dead, whose confidence gave me a start in life; above 
all to my father who, among many other helps, said over to 
me times without number : "What doth the Lord thy God require 
of thee, but to do justly, love mercy and walk humbly with thy 
God ?" Long since he died, I was pleased to read of this, by T. 
H. Huxley in his "Genesis vs. Nature": 

"This conception of religion appears to me as wonderful an inspira- 
tion of genius as the art of Phidias or the science of Aristotle. If any 
so-called religion takes away from this great saying of Micah, I think it 
wantonly mutilates. If it adds thereto, it obscures the perfect ideal of 
religion. . . . And surely the prophet's staff would have made swift 
acquaintance with the head of the scholar who had asked him whether 
the Lord further required of him an implicit belief in the accuracy of 
the cosmogony of Genesis." 

I am glad I have lived to see slavery and the sale of alcoholic 
liquors abolished by law in North CaroHna. I long to see the 
same freedom of thought and action in this State as exists in any 
other part of the American Union. And life has been such a 
joy to me that I want to live on forever. 

Thurston Titus Hicks. 


)HN SPRUNT HILL, the "Father of Rural 
Credits in North CaroHna," is a splendid type 
of the triumphant democracy of the new South. 
A study of his character and of his career re- 
veals in a marked degree many of the elements 
so characteristic of the old aristocracy of the 
old South and of the new democracy of the new South. Into 
this harmonious whole are happily combined capacity for leader- 
ship, intelligence, imagination, courage and independence on the 
one hand, with industry, adaptability, resourcefulness, sympathy 
and enterprise on the other. 

He was born on a farm near the village of Faison, Duplin 
County, N. C, on March 17, 1869. His father, William E. Hill, 
a prominent lawyer and landowner of Duplin County, was the 
son of General WilHam Lanier Hill, a native of Brunswick 
County, Va., and Anne Dudley, sister of Governor Edward B. 
Dudley, and daughter of Colonel Christopher Dudley, of Onslow 
County, a prominent shipbuilder and large landed proprietor, 
whose record of service in Revolutionary times is frequently 
mentioned in the "Colonial Records of North Carolina." John 
Sprunt Hill's mother was Frances Diana Faison, daughter of 
Isham Faison and Sallie Thompson, both of whom were lineally 
•descended from Henrick Fayson van Doverack, of York County, 


Va., the original ancestor of the Faison family in this country, 
who was of French Huguenot and Dutch descent and who was 
naturalized by action of the Assembly of Virginia, September 
24, 1672. A few years prior to the Revolutionary War, James 
and Elias and Henry Faison, great-great-grandsons of the first 
Faison ancestor, removed from Northampton County, N. C, to 
Duplin County, and took out patents on large tracts of land near 
the present village of Faison. James Faison served with distinc- 
tion as captain in the patriot army, and Henry Faison, grand- 
father of Frances Faison, served as a private. 

As a boy Mr. Hill showed great aptitude for study and for 
work, and at the early age of twelve had completed the entire 
course of study provided by the Faison High School. Being too 
young to enter college, he secured a position as clerk in a large 
country store, where he was employed for nearly four years, 
during which time he acquired a knowledge of business that in 
after years proved of immense value to him. During these four 
years of service as a country clerk he devoted his leisure hours 
to study and to the reading of all kinds of books. Upon this 
preparation, as meager as it was unusual, he entered the fresh- 
man class of the University in the fall of 1885. 

As a student, he was exceedingly active in all phases of college 
life, and rapidly rose to a position of leadership in college ac- 
tivities. His meager preparation for college seriously handi- 
capped him during the first two years of his college career, but 
by close application and tireless energy, step by step, he overcame 
all the difficulties that lay in his pathway to college honors. At 
the end of his four years' course, he succeeded in sharing with 
another classmate the highest honors of his class. 

During the succeeding two years he taught private and public 
school at his old home in Duplin County, and quickly attracted 
the attention of prominent educators by reason of his original 
methods of teaching and by virtue of his strong advocacy of edu- 
cational progress. His deep interest in education dates from his 
early experience as a teacher. 

He re-entered the University for the study of law at the fall 


term of 1891. After completing the year's work in the law 
school, he determined to leave the home of his birth and seek his 
fortune in New York City, where he was soon tendered a 
scholarship in law at Columbia University. He was graduated 
from this great institution, with degree of LL.B., in June, 1894. 
One month previous to his graduation he was admitted to the Bar 
of the State of New York, and soon thereafter began the practice 
of law on his own account, and established the well-known met- 
ropolitan law firm of Hill, Sturcke & Andrews, that enjoyed a 
large and lucrative practice. During his practice of law in the 
city of New York, he became a member of the New York Bar 
Association, Brick Presbyterian Church, National Democratic 
Club, Reform Club, Colonial Club, and many other social and 
military organizations. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Spain he volun- 
teered as a private in Troop "A" of New York Cavalry, and 
served with distinction as a cavalryman throughout the Porto 
Rican campaign. 

On November 29, 1899, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Annie Louise Watts, daughter of George W. Watts, of Durham, 
N. C. A sketch of the career of Mr. Watts is published in 
Volume I of this work. Mr. and Mrs. Hill established their 
home on W. Seventy-second Street, New York City, where 
they resided for four years until their removal to North Caro- 
lina. They have three children — George Watts Hill, born Sep- 
tember 2.^, 1901 ; Laura Valinda Hill, born January 12, 1905, 
and Frances Faison Hill, born October 14, 1908. 

During the early years of his career in New York City Mr. 
Hill took no active part in politics, but in the fall of 1900 the 
Democratic organization was looking for an active young Demo- 
crat to make a fight for Congress in the Fourteenth Congressional 
District. The district was heavily Republican, and the nomina- 
tion was generally regarded by the Democrats as a good chance 
for a young man to acquire nothing more than some valuable 
political experience. He accepted the Democratic nomination, 
however, on condition that he would run his own campaign 


in accordance with his own ideas and stand upon his own plat- 
form, assuming full responsibility for all of his acts. He con- 
ducted a very vigorous personal campaign which attracted a 
great deal of attention in New York City. "The Constitution 
and an Honest Dollar" was the inscription on the large banner 
over his headquarters. Every newspaper in New York, save 
two, in the course of a few weeks was attracted by his platform 
and his political methods and gave him its endorsement. His 
candidacy was publicly commended by such great Democrats as 
Carl Schurz, William B. Hornblower, Horace White, Nathan 
Strauss, John G. Carlisle, William L. Trenholm, Judge Roger A. 
Pryor, and hundreds of independent Democrats of like standing 
in the great metropolitan city. With a fifteen thousand Republi- 
can majority to be overcome, it was a foregone conclusion that 
Hill would be defeated, but he succeeded in running many thou- 
sand votes ahead of his ticket and came near to winning the 
election. As a result of this brilliant political effort, he soon 
became a factor in Democratic politics in New York City, and 
subsequently rendered conspicuous service as manager of political 
campaigns of other well-known Democrats, some of whom have 
become national characters. 

At the commencement of June, 1903, Mr. Hill dehvered the 
alumni address at the University of North Carolina on the 
''Needs of the University." Several thousand copies of this ad- 
dress were printed and distributed in our State. It created a 
splendid impression. Dr. Kemp P. Battle, in a letter to a friend 
eight years after its delivery, says, "In exploring material for 
my second volume of the 'History of the University of North 
Carolina,' I am struck with admiration for this great address. 
It is elegant, comprehensive and true." It is quite significant 
that this address was the first great public plea for the splendid 
library and for the Y. M. C. A. building that now adorns the 
campus of the University of North Carolina, and it was also the 
first great plea for a post-graduate department, which is now 
so thoroughly organized and has reflected so much credit upon 
the University during the last ten years. 


In September, 1903, Mr. Hill removed to Durham, N. C, and 
began his career of business and political activity in his native 
State. He proceeded at once to organize a large trust company, 
of which he is now president, and a savings bank, of which he 
is vice-president and general manager. As a banker, he pro- 
ceeded along original lines. Service was his watchword. Usury 
was not only a crime, but its practice was not good business. His 
aim as a banker was to be an upbuilder of the community, not a 
loan shark and a parasite. He put his ideas into execution, and 
all of his great banking business in Durham was built up on these 
principles. He beheved also in the democratization of credit. 
His savings bank has always cultivated the business of people 
of small means, and has kept the deposits of these people at 
work building homes for and lending credit to thousands of 
people of small means in his community. 

Avowedly vv^ithout any political ambition, Mr. Hill has entered 
actively into every political campaign in his adopted home, and 
has played an important part in practically every election, espe- 
cially those involving great moral issues, educational advance- 
ment and public improvements. He has proved himself to be 
an ardent advocate of prohibition, an untiring worker for educa- 
tion, a fearless champion of the rights of the people of small 
means of his county and State. He dearly loves a fight — and 
he is always found on the firing line. He thrives best on oppo- 
sition. He unfurls his flag to the breeze and boldly defies his 
adversaries. Any campaign that he conducts soon becomes a 
crusade. Easy to approach, fearless in manner and direct in 
speech, he is a strong partisan, but full of sympathy and always 
genuinely democratic. He is a large stockholder and an officer 
in many corporations, a trustee of the University, and an active 
supporter of many other educational institutions and public 

He has been a life-long student of literature and history, and 
has done valuable work in genealogical and historical research. 
In planning the construction of the library building at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, it was largely due to his influence 


that a special room was set aside for the collection of all kinds 
of historical information pertaining to North Carolina, and the 
preservation and continued growth of the North Caroliniana 
was made sure by him through a liberal endowment. 

His talent for constructive work has shown itself in numer- 
ous buildings and landscape developments, plans for which were, 
in most cases, the creation of his own mind and hand. "Hill 
House," his beautiful suburban residence at Durham, with all 
its extensive gardens and grounds, is an excellent monument to 
his ability as an architect and a builder. 

He is a deep lover of nature, and to him 

"She has the voice of gladness, 
A smile, an eloquence of beauty." 

Every kind of plant life claims his deepest interest, especially 
the plants and trees in the forests. He is a Fellow of the Ameri- 
can Geographical Society, a member of the Geological Board of 
North Carolina, a member of the American Forestry Association 
and of the North Carolina Forestry Association. He helped to 
represent our country as a delegate to the last International Con- 
gress of Foresters at Paris. 

But it is incidental to his interest in banking and farming 
that his greatest service to his State and to his country has been 
rendered. Having for years been an enthusiastic advocate of 
the economic principle of co-operation, he volunteered to repre- 
sent his State as a member of the American Commission that 
visited the European countries in the spring of 1913, to examine 
the systems of co-operative finance, co-operative production and 
co-operative marketing that have so completely revolutionized 
agricultural conditions in these countries. This commission was 
composed of about one hundred representative persons from 
thirty-six States of the American Union and from six provinces 
of Canada, to all of whom Mr. Hill was a stranger. But a 
few days on shipboard, spent in conference and discussion, was 
sufficient to force this young son of the Old North State to the 
front ranks of this great body of leading men and women, and 


he became their unanimous choice for chairman of their Com- 
mittee on Rural Credits, the investigation of which subject was 
to be the chief work of the commission in Europe. For months 
and months his splendid capacity for leadership, his tireless 
energy, and his strong mental powers were all subjected to the 
greatest possible tension. At the end of this great work, that 
secured, for the benefit of the whole world, a tremendous 
amount of first-hand information of incalculable value, it was 
the opinion, publicly expressed by many members of the com- 
mission, that no one circumstance contributed more to the success 
of the commission than its choice for chairman of its Commit- 
tee on Rural Credits. 

Having thoroughly examined with his own eyes the workings 
of the co-operative institutions of Europe, Mr. Hill returned to 
his home with a clear understanding of these great institutions, 
and with a burning zeal to plant similar enterprises in his own 
State and in his own country. He promptly laid his plans for an 
active propaganda in behalf of the principle of organized self- 
help as applied to agricultural finance, production and distribu- 
tion. His first public address on the subject of "Co-operation 
and the Work of the American Commission in Europe" was de- 
livered before the State Convention of Farmers assembled at 
Raleigh, in August, 1913. Many thousand copies of this address 
were printed and widely distributed over our State and through- 
out the country. It attracted a great deal of attention at home 
and abroad because of its clear, clean-cut enunciation of the 
fundamental principles underlying successful co-operative work 
in agriculture. 

This address was followed by an address before the Southern 
Educational Association at Louisville, Ky., in April, 19 14, on 
"Land Mortgage Credit Associations," which, for the first time 
in our great Southland, set forth a full and complete plan for 
bringing long-term credit, repayable on the installment plan at 
low rates of interest, to the door of the southern farmer, by 
means of the formation of local co-operative land mortgage asso- 
ciations federated into great central land mortgage banks. This 


address was widely distributed and received muchj favorable 
comment from students of agricultural economics, and persons 
interested in this great subject, many of whom were members 
of Congress. 

In August, 191 5, before the State Convention of Farmers, at 
Raleigh, N. C, Mr. Hill delivered his address on "Rural Credits," 
which covered not only the subject of land mortgage credit for 
southern farmers, but also set forth a constructive plan for the 
formation of farmers' co-operative credit unions to provide 
short-term credit to small farmers, for raising crops, at six per 
cent, interest, and proposed to abolish in North Carolina the 
iniquitous crop lien system, which has proved such a curse to the 
small farmers of the South. 

Probably no person in our country contributed more first- 
hand information pertaining to the land mortgage business of a 
practical and adaptable kind than did Mr. Hill during these 
few months of his work. His testimony before the Joint Sub- 
Committee on Banking and Currency of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, on the land mortgage business, and his long 
series of printed addresses upon this subject, and upon the 
problems of short-term credit, soon qualified him as an expert 
upon the subject of rural credits, not only in his own State, but 
throughout the country. 

Largely through his efforts the Legislature of North Carolina, 
in 191 5, unanimously passed the credit union act, which was 
drafted almost entirely by him, and which sets forth a complete 
and workable plan for bringing the great blessings of short-term 
credit, at low rates of interest, to the doors of the small farmers 
of North Carolina. The wisdom of the legislative act, which 
has been pronounced "one of the greatest pieces of constructive 
legislation ever enacted in North Carolina," has already been 
fully demonstrated. Just a few months after the passage of 
the act, the first Credit Union, under the personal direction of 
Mr. Hill, was established at Lowe's Grove, Durham County. 
Although several states had previously passed rural credits legis- 
lation, they proved dead letters and no real credit unions, for 


the benefit of the farmers of a neighborhood, were estabHshed in 
this country under legislative act until the organization of the 
Lowe's Grove Credit Union under the credit union law of North 
Carolina. In rapid succession other credit unions have been 
established in other parts of the State, all of which have demon- 
strated their tremendous usefulness. It is the credit union which 
opens wide the door of hope for the triumphant march of agri- 
culture, and for the thorough amelioration of the condition of 
the small farmers of North Carolina. 

The inspiration that brought about the establishment of these 
credit unions, and a great deal of the actual work of organizing 
and starting them off for business can be traced directly to the 
great unselfish work of Mr. Hill, who has already been justly 
named the "Father of Rural Credits in North Carolina." 

E. C. Branson. 


[HE simple narrative of this man's life, of his 
toil in his boyhood, of the aspirations and dis- 
appointments of his youth, of his struggles, 
alternate successes and failures, his grim de- 
termination to succeed in the face of bad 
fortune, adversity and calamities, his persever- 
ance, his final triumph, his prosperity, his popularity, all make an 
interesting, instructive story and should be an inspiration to a 
boy of real worth. 

It is the same old story of the man who wooed, who compelled 
success with iron will and dogged insistency. If to these there 
be added intelligence and common sense some measure of success 
is sure to be attained. 

Lovit Hines is the son of James Madison Hines and Nancy 
Thompson Hines, daughter of Waitman Thompson, and was 
born in Wayne County, N. C, on January 2^, 1852. The fol- 
lowing year the family moved to Lenoir County, near Institute. 
The father was a successful farmer, a man who had a will 
of his own, but withal a reasonable and agreeable neighbor. 
He was respected in the neighborhood and county, having been 
several times a magistrate and afterward county trustee (same 
as treasurer). Lovit was rather undersized, but strong and 
active, and always a quiet, undemonstrative boy, more given to 
reflection than to talking. 

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He was only thirteen when the war ended. During the bitter 
years that followed he worked on the farm in crop time, and 
went to school in the fall and winter, rather irregularly, because 
oftentimes his labor could not be dispensed with. 

In 1870, when he was eighteen, his father operated a sawmill, 
and Lovit acted as superintendent, cutting logs and delivering 
orders for lumber. He was quick at figures, and was a great 
help to his father in all business transactions. It was here that 
he got his first experience and his liking for the lumber business. 
W. S. Wilson, a practical sawyer, and partner with his father in 
the sawmill, taught him how to cut logs and to fill orders. 

He went to Wake Forest in the fall of 1871, remaining one 
session in the preparatory department. He then went back home 
and worked until 1873, when he began farming. The first year 
he farmed his expenses were $600 above earnings. He farmed 
on till about 1883, getting deeper in debt each year. 

In the fall of 1883 Mr. Hines went into the sawmill business, 
which has occupied his attention practically ever since. For 
the first ten years luck was running against him. It was his 
misfortune to experience several disastrous fires, and at the end 
of that time had little to show for his ten years of labor except 
a reputation for devotion to business, unshakable determination, 
which no disaster could overcome, and the most unquestioned 
honesty. These qualities at last began to make themselves felt 
to his advantage. 

In the spring of 1893 he, with S. C. Hamilton and P. H. 
Pelletier, formed a stock company and bought the Greenville 
Land and Improvement Company's property, consisting of saw- 
mill, dry kiln, planing mill and forty acres of land in Greenville. 
The amount of cash paid in was $3,000, and Mr. Hines owned 
three-fifths of the stock. About this time he became acquainted 
with the commission house of Charles S. Riley & Company, of 
Philadelphia, who handled the biggest part of the new company's 
output of lumber. In thirty days after the company began work 
their planing mill burned down without insurance. This neces- 
sitated their calling on the Rileys for funds to rebuild. 


That firm loaned $6,000 to them (the Greenville Lumber Com- 
pany), taking a second mortgage on the property and product, 
and in about one year the company, of which Mr. Hines was 
secretary and treasurer, had paid back the loan. At the request 
of the Philadelphia firm and in order to increase the output 
of its mills, the Greenville Lumber Company discarded the old 
circular sawmill and installed a new band sawmill and built 
a third dry kiln. The Rileys furnished the funds for this im- 
provement and for buying standing timber on same conditions 
as the first loan, which were that the Greenville Lumber Com- 
pany should pay them $1 on every thousand feet of timber cut 
and shipped. 

Everything was running on nicely until May, 1896. While 
the mill was shut down for dinner, fire broke out in the new 
dry kiln and burned the entire plant, with only partial insurance. 
The Greenville Lumber Company owed on machinery and open 
accounts unsecured a total of $14,000. 

Under the circumstances, the three men constituting the 
Greenville Lumber Company felt that it was useless to attempt 
to rebuild, and the corporation was dissolved. Mr. Hines was 
appointed receiver to sell off the lands in lots to best advantage 
for the benefit of the creditors. To the surprise of everybody, 
he succeeded in disposing of the property in such a way as to pay 
off the last cent of the company's indebtedness, receiving $400 
commissions, and paying the other two stockholders $100 each. 

It was then that Henry Riley, of the firm of Charles S. Riley 
& Company, the largest creditor, seeing how well his company 
had been provided for in such a complete loss, proposed to 
Mr. Hines that if he would find a suitable location, his firm 
would build a mill, supply the funds to buy standing timber, form 
a stock company, and take Mr. Hines's note for one-half of the 
stock secured by the stock, with the understanding that they 
would retain $2.25 for every thousand feet of timber cut in 
payment of his note. Mr. Hines accepted the proposition, and 
suggested that his brother, W. T. Hines, be taken in on equal 
terms with himself. 


The Hines brothers didn't have any money, but they still had 
the little mill at Dover, and they furnished all the lumber to build 
the plant at the small price of $7.50 per thousand feet delivered 
in Kinston, which point they selected as the site for the new 
mill. The mill at Dover was moved to Kinston, and is now a 
part of the plant. The lumber they furnished and the small 
mill together made up $6,000, which was their part of the capital 
stock paid in. Charles S. Riley & Company paid in $6,000, making 
$12,000 capital stock, which has never been increased, except by 
stock dividends. The company was styled the Hines Brothers 
Lumber Company. The company has prospered and made 
money. With only $12,000 capital stock, they have built and 
equipped a splendid plant, whose property and holdings to-day 
is easily worth one-half a million dollars. The plant contains 
five brick dry kilns, four new "^ high pressure 150 horse-power 
boilers, which are served by an iron smokestack one hundred 
feet high and seventy-two inches in diameter. This operates the 
band mill, which has a capacity of forty thousand feet per day. 
In addition to this there is a circular sawmill, already men- 
tioned, having a capacity of fifteen thousand feet a day. This 
is operated by a 40 and a 100 horse-power boiler. Besides, they 
have recently installed a band re-saw, which gives the mill a total 
capacity of sixty-five thousand feet a day. The plant cost in 
construction and equipment $86,000. They hold extensive stand- 
ing timber interests throughout a large territory in this section. 
Besides the tram roads necessary to reach their timber and get 
it to the railroads, they have just completed a standard gauge 
railroad from Kinston to Snow Hill, over which two trains run 
daily, to the delight of the people of Greene and Lenoir counties, 
which are thus more strongly bound together than ever, 

Mr. Hines has never sought office. He was road overseer 
when a young man, and was on the committee to build the first 
stock law fence in Lenoir County. He has, however, always 
been interested in the proper conduct of public affairs. In 
politics he is a Democrat. He is a man of strong convictions 
and is tenacious in holding to and courageous in pronouncing 


them. He is a sober-minded business man, with keen insight 
and good judgment. In this community, on all public questions, 
in municipal affairs, in politics, in all business ventures of a co- 
operative kind, his opinion is sought and highly respected. His 
friendship is a valuable asset because it is sincere and straight- 
forward. For his friends, for principle, for conviction, he would 
fight single-handed and without a weapon a whole regiment if 
need be. 

Mr. Hines was happily married on December 23, 1879, to 
Miss Mary Jane Murphy, a most estimable lady, who was a 
valuable assistant in all his labors. To them have been born 
eleven children, of whom seven are now living. His residence, 
on the corner of Caswell and McLewean streets, stands on the 
spot where Richard Caswell once lived. 

Mr. Hines's mother died in 1874, when he was twenty-two 
years of age. The influence of her Christian character made a 
profound impression on him, which time has not effaced. His 
wife died early in 1908, and in September, 1908, Mr. Hines mar- 
ried Miss Polly Jones, daughter of William Patrick Jones, for- 
merly of Greene County, and well connected there. This union 
has been blessed with five children. 

Mr. Hines has in recent years acquired very extensive and 
valuable farming lands in Lenoir and Jones counties, and is 
developing a number of model farms. He also owns very valu- 
able real estate in Kinston, and, despite his sixty-four years, is 
one of the most active and enterprising men of this section of the 

Plato Collins. 

zh^^^^ a: K^^^^^s ^^^^ A/'y 





I'Q--'- /\&f^a>-^ ^ZtS.^^s^^^j- 


jHE subject of this sketch, Mary HilHard Hin- 
ton, was born at Midway Plantation, in Wake 
County, eight miles from Raleigh. She is the 
third daughter and youngest child of the late 
David Hinton, a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina, major of militia, and of Mary 
Boddie Carr, his wife. Her father, not liking the distractions of 
public life, managed ably his large plantations in Wake, Edge- 
combe and Nash, kindly careful of his many slaves, charitable 
and hospitable. Her mother, sister of Governor Elias Carr, great- 
granddaughter of Jonas Johnston, a gallant colonel in the Revo- 
lutionary War, one of the victors at Moore's Creek Bridge, 
mortally wounded at Stono Ferry, was a daughter of Jonas 
Johnston Carr and Elizabeth Hilliard, his wife, their residence 
being Bracebridge Hall, in the county of Edgecombe. Mrs. 
Hinton, still living at the age of eighty-three, is of strong char- 
acter, intellectually and morally, and endowed with all Christian 

The father of David Hinton, Charles Lewis Hinton, was also 
a major of militia. He was a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina, and soon after reaching home became a leader 
of his people. He volunteered to fight against the British in the 
War of 1812, and was ordered to the coast to repel attempted 
invasion. He was often a senator and also representative in the 


General Assembly, and after the state capitol was accidentally 
burned, in 1831, was one of the commissioners to replace it with 
the present granite structure. For many years he was a trustee 
of his alma mater and member of the executive committee en- 
trusted with its management. He was one of the committee for 
building the Hospital for the Insane on Dix Hill, near Raleigh. 
He was a commissioner for selling the vast western lands pur- 
chased of the Cherokee Indians. For eleven years he was by 
repeated elections of the General Assembly treasurer of the 
State. As a public man, as well as in private life, he had the 
unlimited confidence of his neighborhood, his county and State. 
His charity and hospitality knew no bounds. He was a true 
Christian in name, in heart, in practice. He, as well as his son, 
was especially liberal to the Confederate cause. 

The first settler of the family in North Carolina was John 
Hinton, traditionally called "colonel," father of the Colonel John 
Hinton who removed from Chowan and located in Wake County, 
and of whom a sketch appears in Volume II of this work. 

Mary Hilliard Hinton at the age of four began to evince a 
fondness for history, taking little interest in fairy tales because 
they were not true. Her mother, of similar tastes, stimulated 
this bias by reading to her dramatic historical incidents. Her 
father delighted her by the gift of a book with numerous illus- 
trations of notable events and persons. It was her vade mecum. 
Learning to read at the age of nine, she not only devoured his- 
torical books, but, haying a strong memory, did not allow the 
facts to fade away. She was particularly interested in genealogy, 
at ten years of age being able to repeat accurately the genealog- 
ical table of English kings from William the Conqueror. Her 
favorite hero was Alfred the Great. She was under the charge 
of a private governess until her entry into the excellent St. 
Mary's School, Raleigh, then under charge of Rev. Dr. Bennet 
Smedes. She was especially guided by two of the teachers, Miss 
Czarnomska and Miss Stubbert. She studied with diligence and 
won marked success. 

Roaming in the beautiful country around Midway Plantation 


with her governess, of congenial tastes, Miss Hinton early de- 
veloped love of nature, especially of birds, flowers, trees and 
beautiful scenery. Her wise mother kept her from works of 
fiction until, at the age of fifteen, she was allowed to begin with 
Scott's '"Redgauntlet." Although she has since dipped deep into 
the best novels, particularly those of Thackeray, and into poetry, 
her favorite author being Tennyson, she prefers works of travel 
and history, especially biography. Her grandfather's excellent 
library was destroyed by Federal soldiers, and there were in 
those days a want of up-to-date public libraries within reach, but 
her Devereux cousins, living in the suburbs of Raleigh, had 
been so fortunate as to save their fine collection of valuable books 
and were liberal in loaning to those less fortunate. 

The first triumph of Miss Hinton in the literary line was a 
school composition admitted into the columns of the St. Mary's 
Muse, entitled 'Tish in General and Shad in particular." The 
editor of the leading Raleigh daily thought it of sufficient ex- 
cellence to be copied — a great encouragement to the ambitious 
young girl. She has since contributed numerous articles to news- 
papers and magazines. Among them one in Skyland Magazine, 
entitled "A Type of the Old South," describing truthfully, in 
negro dialect, the intelligent, affectionate, faithful southern slave, 
her father's old body servant. Another paper was a tribute to 
the noble dames of the Confederacy, including her mother as a 
fair exemplar. It was entitled "The Uncrowned Queen." She 
has also published several papers on the early history of Wake 
County, including "Clay Hill-on-the-Neuse," "Colonel John Hin- 
ton," "Ingleside, the Home of Colonel John Ingle." After 
considerable research she published an article on "Heraldry and 
its Usage in the Province of North Carolina." A series of 
articles under her name appeared in the News and Observer on 
"Famous Women of Modern History," showing their influence 
on the great nations engaged in the present gigantic wars. 

Miss Hinton is fond of the study of heraldic art, and for 
several years has studied and practiced portraiture under Mrs. 
Ruth Huntington Moore, an artist of ability in the faculty of 


Peace Institute, at Raleigh. She has presented to the State of 
North CaroHna a faithful portrait of her grandfather, Major 
Charles Lewis Hinton, now hanging in the treasurer's office, 
and another to the State University, for the hall of the Dialectic 
Society. Another work of hers is a painting of the Patterson 
Cup, awarded to the writer of the ablest work published during 
the year past by a citizen of North Carolina. It hangs in the 
hall of the donor, Mrs. Lindsay Patterson. She has also filled 
orders for coats of arms, and holds the office of heraldic artist 
for the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution. 
She is now at work on two books, one on "Heraldry" and an- 
other on "Historic Southern Homes." 

The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution hap- 
pily resolved to issue a periodical devoted to the publication of 
incidents of North Carolina history, little known to this genera- 
tion. The moving spirit was Miss Martha Haywood, ably assisted 
by Mrs. Hubert (Emily Benbury) Haywood. The enterprise was 
successful. After two years they resigned the charge and Miss 
Hinton was elected chief manager, assisted by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, 
daughter of the late Governor Worth. The magazine is entitled 
The North Carolina Booklet. Supported altogether by subscrip- 
tions by her most intelligent energy, securing the co-operation of 
many of our most enthusiastic historical students, it has attained 
a very high position. In addition to the valuable articles pub- 
lished it has quickened the interest of our people, formerly too 
sluggish, in the creditable part our State has attained in the 
development of the great republic of the world. 

Miss Hinton, with Mrs. Lindsay Patterson, chairman, and 
Miss Rebecca Schenck, served on the Jamestown Historical Com- 
mission. With a meager appropriation of $2,000, they succeeded 
in gathering numerous historical relics from the settlement at 
Roanoke Island down to the War between the States, and had 
the honor of winning the silver medal. For her sphere of work 
was assigned the eastern section of the State. The associates at 
large in the history building at the Jamestown Exposition were 
among the most enlightened men and women of the Union. 


She is a Daughter of the Confederacy, a member of the Asso- 
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, and an 
active member of the State Literary and Historical Association; 
and in 1907 was a vice-president. She is vice-chairman of the art 
department of the Woman's Club of Raleigh, and for two years 
was chairman, securing exhibits of paintings and other works 
of art, and lecturers before the club and the public. 

She entered the society of the Daughters of the Revolution 
through the services of Colonel John Hinton. She has held the 
office of registrar and state regent since 1910. For two years 
she was historian-general of the General Society, finding the 
position agreeable, but being forced to resign on account of more 
pressing duties. She is also a member of the national Society of 
Colonial Dames, entering through the services of an ancestor on 
the female side. Colonel George Reade, a great-grandfather of 
General Washington, from whom the illustrious general derived 
his Christian name. Thrice has she had the honor of sitting 
as a delegate to the council in our national capital. She has 
been chairman of the committee of historical research of the 
North Carolina branch, and of the same committee of the Na- 
tional Society. Her report as chairman of the latter was vol- 
uminous and comprehensive, and was received with applause and 
published. She was toast-mistress at the annual banquet of 
the General Society of the Daughters of the Revolution given 
in Boston in 1909, a handsome compliment to a southern woman. 
The press was particularly complimentary, saying that she made 
the hit of the evening. 

Warmly interested in birds, she joined the Audubon Society, 
and regrets that its activity has ceased. Its moral effect has, 
however, been good. The slaughter of these beautiful and inno- 
cent creatures has greatly diminished. 

According to authentic genealogies. Miss Hinton, a descendant 
of George Reade, heretofore mentioned, was of the family of 
the Dymokes of Scrivelsby Court in Lincolnshire, England, the 
head of which was hereditary champion of the sovereigns of 
England for centuries. Their ancestors were related by blood 


ties with the great nobility of England and of Normandy. She 
is thus entitled to membership in the Order of the Crown of 
America, in which organization she holds the office of registrar- 
general. She is also related by consanguinity to the Willises,. 
Washingtons, Lewises, Warners, Swanns, Craw fords. Carters 
and others of Virginia, and the Van Cortlandts and Van Rens- 
selaers of New York. 

Although in favor of progress in all right directions, interested 
deeply in all measures tending to the betterment of our country,, 
she is thoroughly conservative. She thinks that all conditions 
should be thoroughly considered before inaugurating changes. 
She is therefore a member of the Anti-Suffrage League. She 
believes that educated women could be safely trusted with the 
vote, but that it would be dangerous to confer it on all indis- 
criminately, especially in the South, where we have a race which 
has given us trouble in the past and may give us political annoy- 
ance in the future. "In North Carolina," she says, "we have 
men who endeavor to pass just laws and will make such changes, 
as women may reasonably ask. It is a reflection on the fathers, 
husbands, brothers and sons to charge injustice and oppression 
of the fair sex, and if these so-called 'rights' are granted the 
old-time charm of deference and consideration will be lessened, 
in some cases must vanish." 

Miss Hinton is a communicant of Christ (Episcopal) Churchy 
Raleigh, and takes an active part in church work, being a mem- 
ber of the various parish societies, among them the Woman's 
Auxiliary and St. Agnes's Guild. 

She is a firm believer in the necessity and joy of work, of 
concentrated effort. She manages her own affairs and looks 
after her plantation with careful interest, while in the studio 
which she has fitted up in a detached building in the front yard 
at Midway Plantation, or enjoying her mother's companionship, 
she pursues the labors of her choice, more contented and happy 
in the quiet of rural life than when called away by public duties. 
Being fond of flowers, her favorites are violets, which she has 
cultivated with success. She has attempted to inspire others of 



her sex with her own preferences. She has published articles, 
showing the wives and daughters of farmers especially how to 
beautify their surroundings and even to aid in the struggle for 
means of livelihood. She sustains her health by systematic 
physical culture, and has enlarged her views by travel in this 
country and in Europe. Having a vigorous frame, mountaineer- 
ing is to her delightful and invigorating. 

It is evident from the foregoing sketch that Miss Hinton 
attained her eminence among her sisters in the "Old North 
State" by unusual intellectual powers, energy above the common, 
gracious, friendly manners, and the personal attractions which 
make the superior members of her sex universally lovable. Hav- 
ing a robust constitution, we may look forward to many years 
of a beneficent life. 

Kemp P. Battle. 


"Honest, intelligent labor is the greatest character builder discovered 
up to the present time for any people." 

^HIS prefatory sentiment is in the words of 
Robert C. Hood, and expresses, in part at least, 
his philosophy of life. His life, of varied in- 
terest and experience, divides itself into three 
well-defined periods — the period of testing, the 
period of stress, the period of service. 
The period of testing. From the date of his birth in Pitt County, 
N. C, on July 5, 1864, until September i, 1882, when, at the 
age of eighteen, he went to Baltimore, Md., to enter the employ 
of J. A. Horner & Company, constitutes his period of testing and 
preparation. These early struggling years were to him what 
the waiting years are to the untried staff or the unbent bow — 
they were strengthening, toughening the fiber for the stress and 
strain that were to be his in later years. He attended a village 
school for one session in the winter of 1869-70 at Bentonsville, 
whither the family had moved in 1866. Those few months of 
school were all that he ever had, for his father died in August, 
1 87 1, and left his mother with a large family and heavy re- 
sponsibilities, which Robert must help to carry. That early 
sense of responsibility for a good and wise mother, whom he 
honored and loved, was a piece of rare good fortune and of 

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incalculable value in the making of the man. In spite of the 
fact that he had only a few months of school, he developed into 
one of the best-educated men of his community. He could not 
get his education out of schools, so he got it out of men and 
things, out of his work, out of the reading of books, out of 
nature, out of everything that he touched. Without any school- 
ing, he acquired a broad and deep culture, consisting of accurate 
knowledge of many subjects and a habit of high thinking, and 
a taste for the true and beautiful in books and nature and art. 
He was self-made in the highest sense of that term, a splendid 
product of his own building. It is well-nigh certain that all 
the colleges and universities could not have done for him what 
that school of life did, and into which he put so much perception 
and appreciation and ambition. His life of difficulty and achieve- 
ment is a glorious challenge to the ambitions of any young man 
who is early thrown upon his own resources and who, un- 
schooled, must depend for his development upon himself and 
upon what he can learn from the world of men and things in 
which he lives. Every circumstance in his boyhood and youth 
made its contribution to the character and education of this 
architect of his own fortunes. 

The two years 1872 and 1873, when not yet ten years old, 
spent with his mother and family on the Bridgers farm in Wayne 
County ; the years in Raleigh, to which place the family moved in 
1873; whether as printer's devil in the office of the Era, or as 
newsboy for the Spy, or as clerk in the store of A. Creech for 
the three years 1876, 1877 and 1878, or as page at the State 
capitol during the session of the Legislature of 1879, or as 
printer in the employ of the Raleigh Christian Advocate, or as 
publisher of the "Josh Billings Book," or as clerk in Sells's 
store, or as publisher of the Bulletin in 1880, or as clerk again 
for another year, or as foreman of the Christian Herald in 
1882 — each and every one of these experiences was testing him, 
seasoning him, preparing him for the years of stress which were 
to follow. 

Notice how large a proportion of this period was spent by him 


in or about a printing or newspaper office. This was his uni- 
versity- course of study, so to speak. Here he laid the sure 
foundation for that broad culture upon which he continued to 
build the rest of his life. Notice also how he turned from the 
print shop to the store-room and from the store-room back to 
the print shop, seemingly unable to decide which should be his 
career — printing things or selling things. There is some evi- 
dence that his tastes were in the direction of the printing house, 
for after he removed to Baltimore and entered the employ of the 
wholesale dry-goods firm, and had been with them five or six 
years, the call of the printing press drew him for a brief period 
to Shelby, N. C, where he held a position on the staff of the 
New Era. After a few months at Shelby he returned to his 
dry-goods firm in Baltimore. It is probable that he wanted to 
be an editor or publisher, and those who know how clearly and 
forcefully and correctly he wrote know how successful he would 
have been as a writer of editorials or as a publisher of books ; 
but he was conscious of his abihty as a salesman also, and he 
must needs consider the financial returns of his labors, and the 
die was cast for a merchant's career. 

The period of stress. Mr. Hood had proved his abihty as a 
merchant salesman at an early age. The evidence of this is that 
the merchant for whom he first worked in Raleigh, at the age of 
twelve, recognized him as an asset in his business by assigning 
to the alert little chap a small section of his store as his special 
domain, and had printed advertising cards containing the fol- 
lowing legend : 






Therefore, when he went to Baltimore, at eighteen, to enter the 
employ of a wholesale dry-goods firm, he carried with him an 


earlier rich experience as a retail dry-goods salesman, which 
doubtless determined the direction of this, his ultimate business 
career. In the Baltimore enterprise he began at the bottom, 
with the modest salary of $4 per week. His quickness and native 
ability won for him rapid promotion, and after spending three 
years in the dry-goods house, in January, 1885, at the age of 
twenty-one, he went on the road for his firm as a traveling sales- 
man. Both in the house and on the road he was a veritable 
dynamo of energy and work, giving himself zealously and un- 
sparingly to whatever was entrusted to him to do. He continued 
as traveling salesman for about three years and a half, and in 
the fall of 1888 was recalled to the house by his Baltimore firm, 
where he remained for the next fifteen years, or until December, 
1903. It was after his return to his Baltimore dry-goods house, 
April 24, 1894, that he was married to Anne Shackelford Gar- 
rett, from which happy union two daughters, Dorothy May and 
Helen Adelaide, were born. His business associates recognized 
his ability and fidelity by admitting him to membership of the 
firm, and later he was made the manager of the business. These 
twenty-one years in Baltimore were years of tremendous stress, 
untiring years of severe nervous strain. He achieved success in 
a few short years, but at great cost, for he was only forty years 
of age when the overworked physical man demanded a let-up, 
rest, recuperation. He sold out his Baltimore interests and went 
abroad for a short time, and then resided temporarily at South- 
port, a quiet seaport town of North Carolina. 

The period of service. While building up his crippled health 
in the quiet seaside atmosphere of Southport, he began his career 
of public service, which embraced the rest of his days, and which 
constitutes the best years of his life. He remained in Southport 
less than two years. In that brief span of time he revolutionized 
the ancient village by the sea. He started a good roads move- 
ment, organized a chamber of commerce, established an express 
office there, organized a bank, and became its president and estab- 
lished the leading mercantile business of the town, which he 
later left in charge of his brothers. All these things he did 


during the twenty months that he was resting and recuperating at 

He moved to Greensboro, N. C, on September 5, 1905, to 
accept a responsible position with the Southern Life & Trust 
Company, and from that time until his death occupied a com- 
manding place in the business and community life of the city of 
his adoption. While successful in business during these latter 
years, as indicated by the responsible positions which he held, 
being a director of the American Exchange National Bank, the 
Southern Life & Trust Company, the Gate City Building & 
Loan Association, and manager of the North Carolina Trust 
Company and the Irving Park Company, and while he brought 
to the management of these enterprises progressive policies and 
a safe judgment, which contributed much to their development 
and success, public service was his passion now. His thinking 
and planning were now largely in the terms of civic beauty and 
well-being, and the sphere of his public spirit was his city, his 
country, his State. 

He threw himself with unsparing eagerness and enthusiasm 
into every community enterprise which his judgment approved. 
He was one of the moving spirits in the establishment of the 
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations in 
Greensboro; he was the life of the civic league; he reorganized 
the chamber of commerce and became its president; he was 
responsible more than any other man for the commission form 
of government for his city; he was in the forefront of every 
contest for school or road or street bonds and of every under- 
taking for city or county improvement and progress. If any 
public measure was worthy, he got behind it with his influence, 
with convincing word, with his pen, and dedicated his time and 
himself to the cause as no other man did. He was in very truth 
a public servant. Nor did he confine his interest to the welfare 
of his own city. Wherever he went, he carried this spirit of 
public service with him. When the campaign for the erection of 
a Y. M. C. A. building was inaugurated in Raleigh, he went 
down from Greensboro and lent a helping hand, and by his 


enthusiastic optimism made material contribution to the success 
of the undertaking. It was characteristic of the man that on 
the occasion of a business visit to Wilmington he pointed out 
the advantages which Wilmington offered as a winter resort, and 
was as interested apparently as if it had been his own city. His 
zeal for community progress was confined to no one section. It 
was state-wide, and wherever men were gathered in convention 
to counsel on good roads, freight-rate reduction, tax reform, 
and such large subjects of the public economy, there he was 
surely to be found working on the side of progress. 

This passion of his for community service and its constant 
manifestation were but an expression in the large of the spirit 
of service and helpfulness which ruled his daily life in its rela- 
tion to friends, neighbors, associates and to all who came in 
touch with him. No one could live near him long without be- 
coming his debtor for unlooked for helpfulness and kindness. 
This was his daily habit. Just as his public life was made ud 
of unselfish public service, his private life was largely made up 
of acts of consideration and thoughtfulness for those around 

Broken pitchers at the fountain: When the summons to his 
long home came to Robert C. Hood, on that fateful October 
23, 191 5 ; when, at the setting of the sun, the accidental discharge 
of his gun transferred his spirit in a flash of time from a day 
in the woods hunting with his friends to the eternal woodlands 
of the far country, there were growing in his mind and heart 
two enterprises which were taking precedence of all others. 
One of these unfulfilled broken plans was for his city, his un- 
realized dream of "a city plan," a plan based upon expert study 
of Greensboro's resources, setting and surroundings, in accord 
with which his city might spread out and develop and grow for 
generations to come. At every opportunity he pointed out the 
logical necessity of a city plan, if there was to be harmonious 
and intelligent growth. He left this broken pitcher at the foun- 
tain, but he had not labored in vain, for the men of Greensboro 
had caught from him a vision of a city plan which must remain 


with them until it has become an accomphshed fact. There 
was another enterprise which he had to leave unfinished — one 
which he had settled down to as his life work with singular de- 
votion — one which appealed to his artistic sense of the beautiful 
in architecture, landscape and nature. This was the development 
of Irving Park, consisting of a large suburban tract of land sur- 
rounding the golf course and grounds of the Greensboro Country 
Club. Here was a field for all his energies and for all his 
artistes skill for the rest of his life. His aesthetic soul reveled 
in the unfolding beauty and promise of this project. His un- 
timely death was a tragedy, and especially was it a tragedy in 
the breaking of these fond hopes for him at the fountain of ful- 

Light and shadows: None save those who knew Robert C. 
Hood intimately suspected that severe physical pain very fre- 
quently held him in its grip behind that radiant smile which was 
his perennial halo. The stress of those years in Baltimore had 
given his nerves a shock, of which he carried with him an almost 
constant reminder, but he did not talk about his ailments or 
troubles. There was a noble stoicism in that unchanging, unfor- 
gettable sunshine of his face. 

While he possessed a genius for thoughtful, tactful helpful- 
ness, and while his daily life was an ever-flowing fountain of 
considerate service, and while children and every other class of 
human kind appealed to his love and sympathy, there were two 
classes of people to whom his heart went out with peculiar 
warmth and readiness. These were unshielded women and 
young men. Such was his zeal to be helpful to the woman alone 
in the world, the woman whose husband had gone before her, 
the lonely woman away from friends and family, that he must 
have found in every such woman a memory of his mother, who 
had bravely struggled with him in the years of her difficulty and 
loneliness. A pathetic incident which occurred several months 
after his death was a visit to what had been his office by a widow 
from the country, for whom he had been business adviser and 
friend. She had not heard of his death and had brought her 


little boy with her that he might see and know the man who in 
business had also been thoughtful and kind. He had become 
a hero to the little lad, and the mother's tears and broken words 
told the story of chivalrous kindness to a lonely woman. 

He was a friend to every young man at work, and there were 
few young men with whom he was thrown who had not profited 
by the association and who had not received from him in some 
form definite encouragement. He doubtless saw in every am- 
bitious, struggling young man his own young manhood of danger 
and difficulty, and remembered what a little thoughtfulness from 
older men had meant to him. The writer on one occasion stepped 
into a store with him, and while waiting at the counter he spoke 
to a young man, also waiting to be served, in a most genial and 
friendly manner. A few minutes later, in answer to the inquiry 
as to who his friend was, he confessed that he had never seen 
him before. This was all the more reason to him for showing 
himself friendly to the younger man, even though he was a 
stranger. One of his best possessions was these numerous 
friendships of young men. 

He was also the friend of the unfortunate, and enjoyed their 
friendship in return. He possessed no more loyal friend than 
the negro who was caught in a minor infraction of the law 
and who was released through the generosity of his unknown 
friend. It was no doubt the weakness and loneliness of the un- 
guided negro race that appealed to his sympathy and made him 
one of the best friends that the negro had. He was invited on 
one occasion to address the negroes of Greensboro on social serv- 
ice. The address which he prepared for them on that subject 
was a statesmanlike utterance, and one of the best pieces of work 
that he ever did with his virile pen. 

A few weeks or months before his death the following, which 
sheds a mellow light upon our picture of him, appeared over his 
nom de plume in one of the daily papers : 

"May I have a small space in the secular press to speak of a religious 
matter? I want to tell the folks about Mr. W. C. Smith's Men's Bible Qass. 
I am not a regular attendant of any church, but I go to this class, and 


get more satisfaction from his intelligent common-sense talks than I 
have received from any other source which I now recall. He is a deep 
scholar, but at the same time a plain, human man. He is earnest and 
believes in the teachings of Jesus and can interest any man who will 
permit himself to listen. Men who have gotten somewhat out of touch 
with Qirist and His vitalizing, sensible philosophy feel better if they 
spend thirty minutes each Sunday morning listening to Mr. Smith's 
reading and remarks, and they depart in a glow of spiritual and mental 
satisfaction. If you want to think a little better, to be somewhat more 
gentle and forgiving in your nature and yet be a real man, you can be 
assisted by hearing this amiable but powerful teacher. Denomination or 
no denomination, creed or no creed, is of no consequence there. 

"The Least of These." 

No truer sketch of Robert C. Hood has been drawn than in 
these few words, from a business associate and loving friend : 

"Robert Hood in the prime and vigor of life is dead. On October 23,. 
1915, with the setting sun, his soul went forth to God. On no day of his 
life had his energies been more abounding, his joy in living so apparent, 
his spirit more buoyant, his smile brighter, his optimism greater, or his 
noble soul steadier or more sure than on this fateful day. In the 
twinkling of an eye the book of his life was closed — a book teeming with 
the record of forgetfulness of self, of hardships surmounted, of success 
achieved, of loving deeds, of burning, eager zeal for the improvement 
of his city and State, of inspiring cheerfulness. He was a true idealist, 
yet with a practical type of mind that insured the stamp of success upor^ 
every enterprise." 

A, W. McAlister. 

ChaS. Z . l^n Na/7i7en, Pc 


[ROBABLY no educated people on the globe 
furnished to the profession of teaching so 
small a percentage of native talent as did North 
CaroHna up to the close of the Civil War. 
Under these circumstances, it is all the more 
remarkable that the three most gifted, success- 
ful and eminent teachers in North Carolina should have been 
native and to the manner born, and educated entirely v^ithin the 
borders of the State — William J. Bingham, David L. Sv^^ain and 
James H. Horner, the youngest of the three. 

In July, 1862, at the age of ten, I entered the Horner School. 
Nothing could better illustrate the difference between that day 
and this — that day of individualism, of strong personality and 
isolated power, and this day of organization, combination, co- 
operation and completely submerged personality — than the Hor- 
ner School as I then saw it and as it is to-day. The Horner 
School to-day consists of a faculty of teachers in charge of 
separate departments, along with the hundred details of a com- 
plex organization. 

When fifty-five years ago I descended from my rumbling stage- 
coach and walked up the steps to present my letter of introduc- 
tion, the entire Horner School stood before me in the single 
person of James Hunter Horner. He was tall, large and power- 
ful, six feet four and one-half inches, weighing two hundred 


and forty pounds, large-boned, muscular and sinewy. It was 
helpful and inspiring to behold so large, well-formed and pow- 
erful a xnan. He was a splendid personification of human 
power. His limbs were long and large, but well proportioned; 
head unusually large and crowned with soft black hair; eye- 
brows full, coarse and shaggy, eyelids rich and long; eyes hazel, 
large and lustrous; nose decidedly Roman, the sort of nose that 
Napoleon would stage his fortune on ; cheeks lean with prominent 
bone; lips thin and firm-set; mouth very large and broad; chin 
prominent, clear-cut and well molded. The whole face was 
ruddy and somewhat rough, glowing with impetuous blood that 
rushed over it as quickly as a maiden's blush or an infant's 
anger. There was no veneering on this man. Strength, power, 
splendid manhood, were reflected and radiated from him as he 
sat or walked or talked. His gait in walking was a long, swing- 
ing stride, perfectly easy and natural, but with the power of a 
thoroughbred on the race course. Whatever chair he occupied 
seemed too small or too low. He impressed you as a man who 
should never sit down, but always stand erect, or walk. I should 
judge that James H. Horner and Abraham Lincoln were very 
much of the same physical make-up. Their height, frame, fea- 
tures and general physical aspect were almost identical. I have 
a photograph of Lincoln which has been taken for Horner by 
former pupils. There was some resemblance also between 
Horner and Horace Greeley, not in features but in physical 
aspect, and in undefined and indescribable suggestiveness of in- 
tellectual power by means of large physique. 

I have dwelt at some length upon the physical man because I 
believe that intellectual greatness is usually enhanced by physical 
greatness; and because the work accomplished by James H. 
Horner could not have been done in his day and by his methods 
unless he had possessed the extraordinary physical power which 
I have described. For over forty years he taught school, begin- 
ning at eight o'clock (or half past) each morning and closing 
at sundown or dark, without let or intermission, except at the 
noonday recess. He taught, too, not mechanically nor indiffer- 


€ntly nor even patiently, but throwing into every lesson all the 
power that he possessed. 

The daily work of the school began with Bible recitation and 
morning prayers. The entire school were seated in a row in 
front of and around the teacher's rostrum, forming about him 
a semicircle. The pupils were arranged by classes. Beginning 
with the highest class, each pupil recited a verse of Scripture 
not selected by himself or parents, but prescribed by his teacher, 
usually from the gospels or the psalms. Whole chapters were 
memorized, one verse at a time. A new verse was learned each 
-day, and the whole chapter, sometimes even several chapters, 
was reviewed daily throughout the session. I have heard the 
-entire Sermon on the Mount recited correctly by the whole 
school. Absolute accuracy was required. The slightest error 
caused a pupil to lose his place and be "tripped up" by someone 
telow. The Bible recitation was followed by prayers, read by 
Mr. Horner from a book of Family Prayers, and always con- 
cluding with the Lord's Prayer. The opening of each day's 
session in this fashion accomplished three results: i. It brought 
>each pupil in familiar contact with the best literary model in the 
English language. John Ruskin says that his literary ambition 
and his excellence as a writer were due in large measure to 
the fact that when a child he was made to memorize accurately 
twenty-five or thirty of the most beautiful chapters in the New 
Testament, the Psalms, the Proverbs and the Prophets. 2. Each 
pupil was taught absolute accuracy and thoroughness, even in 
so small a matter as reciting one or two English sentences. 
3. Each day's work began with a lesson in reverence, lack of 
which is possibly the chief defect in modern life. 

As a teacher of literature Mr. Horner knew nothing of mod- 
ern methods, but his own fondness for good literature and his 
instinct for accuracy, simplicity, clearness and brevity made him 
-an excellent English teacher. He was a man of few books, but 
these he mastered. His favorites were Homer, Virgil, Shake- 
speare, Milton, Walter Scott and the Bible — all heroic books, 
immortal books, books which one might almost think a part of 


nature like mountains, forests, streams and flowers. It was a 
proof of Horner's greatness that he loved these books and sought 
to make his pupils love them instead of the trashy, mushroom 
things that spring up in a day and in a day are forgotten. 

Mr. Horner was not only a lover of good literature, but also 
an excellent reader and a fine declaimer, with deep, rich, strong 
voice and full, clear, distinct utterance. His powers of elocution, 
of oratory and of debate were so conspicuous that he occupied 
the foremost position as a debater and an orator when a student 
in the state University. On one occasion during his student life 
he was challenged to a contest of extemporaneous oratory by a 
fellow-student scarcely less gifted than himself in intellect, in 
literary attainment, in power of invention and in oratory. At- 
tended by the whole University, the two rivals sought the hall 
of the Philanthropic Society, where for two hours they faced 
one another in a contest of extemporaneous oratory. Rarely has 
the University furnished a finer spectacle. The audience were 
the judges, and they voted the victory to Horner. Once a week 
each pupil in school was required by Mr. Horner to produce a 
written composition or a spoken declamation. Each Friday after- 
noon was devoted to these exercises. 

Mr. Horner loved and admired intellect. Mediocrity was 
barely tolerated by him, while dullness was abhorred and de- 
spised. While yet a school-boy he himself had been pronounced 
a genius by no less authority than William J. Bingham. His 
intellect was so clear, active and powerful that he seemed in- 
capable of appreciating or even understanding the difficulties ex- 
perienced by dull brains. Such boys he passed by unnoticed. 
The dullest boys in each class were placed at the foot of the 
bench. These boys were left alone in their stupidity. When it 
came to the boy of brains and no application, ridicule was the 
weapon used. If he happened to be a boy of large size and ma- 
ture years, woe unto him ! Teasing and mock compliments were 
often indulged in. The smallest child in school was then called 
forward to answer the question that the poor sluggard hadl 


For such occasions Mr. Horner kept on hand and in good 
training a sufficient supply of infant geniuses. The smallest one 
present was usually called up and placed beside the dullard to 
emphasize, by contrast of size and sense, the superiority of mind 
over matter. Horner now repeated the question to the infant 
genius, wording it so skillfully as to carry its own answer. Thus 
the pebble was fitted, the sling was whirled and Goliath fell with 
a thud. He was the only teacher I have ever known who could 
bring into the class-room and keep going day by day the same 
spirit of rivalry, the same joy of conflict that you see on the ball 
ground or the race course. Boys of talent and ambition as they 
faced him on the platform with their Caesar or Anabasis, their 
geography or history, their arithmetic or geometry, their English, 
Latin or Greek grammar were no less interested, intent, alert, 
anxious, even excited, than they had been a half hour before on 
the ball ground. I have seen a class of twelve or fifteen in his- 
tory or spelling or arithmetic or Latin so intent upon the recita- 
tion, so forgetful of the fact that they were in school, and the 
entire school so intent upon the class, that cheers and clapping 
of hands both by Horner and by the entire school broke forth 
spontaneously upon the successful answer of a difficult question 
by some favorite of the school. 

While conducting a recitation Mr. Horner was oblivious to 
everything else around him. When the recitation began, he sat 
in his chair. As it proceeded, he warmed up with interest and 
excitement, appealing now to this pupil, now to that, with some 
quick, sharp suggestion adapted to each. He gradually arose 
from his chair, half erect, leaning forward with intense interest, 
eyes sparkling, face all aglow, arms spread out much like an auc- 
tioneer, excitement of interest growing and frequently culminat- 
ing in violent clapping of hands, loud shouts of approbation, 
or hearty burst of laughter evoked by some ridiculous response. 
The boys in the class were similarly excited, some were sitting, 
some standing, some leaning forward, absolutely without dis- 
order, entirely unconscious of everything except the subject be- 
fore them. It was a genuine intellectual frolic, a game of mental 


football, wherein this great Hercules and the little pigmies around 
him tumbled and scrambled together on terms of equal enthusi- 
asm and absolute equality. This was Horner's great power. 
Every colt that he trained reached the full limit of its speed on 
the track. 

Mr. Horner was no disciplinarian and rarely punished. Lazy 
boys he ridiculed, abused and drove from school. Bright boys 
were anxious for the daily match game on the intellectual grid- 
iron and were busy training for the conflict. There were no 
rules of conduct or order in the room. The Senate of the United 
States would have barred out Daniel Webster about as soon as 
his school would have barred out James H. Horner. No personal 
indignity could possibly have been offered him. Dull boys held 
him in fear and reverence. Bright boys were friendly, admiring 
and even familiar. From them he endured, and even enjoyed, a 
moderate amount of intellectual audacity and impudence. He 
was exceedingly fond of real wit, humor or fun, and keenly 
relished a joke, even on himself. It was a great pleasure to see 
him laugh. His whole body shook with enjoyment; his pleasure 
was hearty, unrestrained, natural and contagious. I have seen 
an urchin of ten years audaciously and with impunity remind 
him that even he sometimes made mistakes and that he might 
not be as smart as he considered himself. Such a reminder was 
received with the greatest good nature and the humor of it en- 
joyed most heartily. He possessed no executive ability. He was 
not a man of business. His chief joy and his chief power was in 
the intellectual development of bright pupils. He aimed at noth- 
ing else than absolute accuracy and thoroughness. One of his 
pupils remained in school five years without getting higher than 
the freshman class. The senior class rarely numbered over three. 
Promotion depended entirely upon scholarship. There was no 
compromise with dullness supported by family pride or wealth. 

Mr. Horner's chief pleasure was in teaching Latin, with equal 
skill, however, in Greek and English. His mind was strong, 
clear and analytic. He loved accuracy and precision. The su- 
periority of Greek and Latin over English in accurately and 


clearly expressing subtle distinctions of thought endeared these 
languages to him. He used them with pleasure and with power 
as instruments of mind culture, because they were perfectly 
fitted to his own mental machinery. He loved the classic litera- 
tures, because they are simple, natural and strong, representing 
both in nature and in life what is permanent, universal and en- 
during. He loved them because they were like him. Had Horner 
lived in the Homeric age, he would have been one of the chief- 
tains of the "Iliad." You can see him in the pages of his favor- 
ite authors — Homer, Virgil, Scott or Shakespeare. You may 
find him also among the ancient patriarchs, in the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures. You would not look for him in the pages of Dickens or 
Bulwer; of Zola or Du Maurier. He was strong, rugged and 
unadorned; a simple-natured, heroic genius, combining in one 
person the intellect of a sage and the simplicity of a child, the 
strength of Hercules and the weakness of a baby ; the power and 
the love to inspire and guide soaring intellect with contempt and 
ridicule for crawling and struggling dullness. His life was 
blameless, free from vice, scandal and selfishness. It was abso- 
lutely consecrated to others. He was a living sacrifice on the 
altar of education. He followed the footsteps of the Great 
Teacher and for the sake of others crucified himself. His flesh 
and blood were gladly, even joyously, given to build up new 
brains and inspire new hearts in two generations of youths. By 
the willing sacrifice of power, daily and hourly made for forty 
years, he created new power and fashioned new forces that will 
influence the world long after he is forgotten, 

Mr. Horner was born in Orange County April 3, 1822, and 
died in Oxford, Granville County, June 13, 1892. When he was 
thirty-nine years of age the Civil War began. He was an ardent 
Democrat, as was his father. Colonel William Horner, of Flat 
River, and John C. Calhoun was his expounder of the Consti- 
tution. Mr. Horner was no mere theorist. If the South had a 
right under the Constitution, he demanded that right, and if any 
undertook to deprive her of it, in his view they became law- 
breakers. For John Brown, Sumner and Garrison he had a 


deep hatred. When the "higher law" was declared, he was wil- 
ling and ready to fight. Being of a kind and benevolent nature, 
he would have gladly freed his own slaves, had the consensus 
of opinion been that it would have been best or desirable; but 
free them under compulsion ! Not while a dollar could be raised 
to defend the right or a drop of blood flowed in his veins ! When 
President Lincoln called for troops, Mr. Horner closed his school, 
raised a company, was chosen captain of Company E, Twenty- 
third North Carolina regiment, and went to the front. He was 
at the first battle of Manassas and served a year or more under 
General Jubal A. Early, whom he disliked because of his dissipa- 
tion. While in the army he would have been elected colonel of 
his regiment, but declined because his duty lay with his com- 
pany. His health broke down completely, and with great reluc- 
tance, in 1863, he was forced to leave the army. He then re- 
turned to his school work. 

Mr. Horner was not a lover of money or of self. Various 
chairs in the University of the State were offered him, but he 
declined them. In 1889 the University conferred the degree of 
LL.D. upon him. The honor was unsought and unexpected. 

For many years Mr. Horner was senior warden at St. Stephen's 
Church at Oxford. His churchmanship was of that broad, 
liberal type which goes to make the Christian of largest influ- 
ences. The tower of the handsome stone church erected in Ox- 
ford in 1904 is a memorial to him, and bears, on a marble tablet 
this inscription: "This tower is erected to the glory of God and 
the memory of James Hunter Horner, M.A., LL.D. — April 3, 
1822 — June 13, 1892. Granduate of the University of North 
Carolina, 1844. Founder Horner Military School, 1855. Cap- 
tain Company E, Twenty-third regiment, N. C. S. T., C. S. A. 
For many years Warden of St. Stephen's Church. A Scholar. 
An Educator. A Christian." 

He was kind to the poor, thoroughly democratic in his man- 
ner, very approachable, and full of fun when not engaged in 
study. His wife was Miss Sophonia Moore and his family con- 
sisted of seven daughters and three sons, all of whom reached 



maturity but one. One talented daughter died in young woman- 
hood. The others are men and women of vigorous mental en- 
dowment, thoroughly educated and of large influence in their 
respective homes. His unmarried daughter, Miss Mary E. Hor- 
ner, is still identified with a church school in Western North Car- 
olina. The other five daughters are the devoted wives of Judge 
A. W. Graham, Colonel H. G. Cooper, of Oxford, Judge R. W. 
Winston, of Durham (this lady now deceased), W. S. Manning, 
of Spartanburg, S. C, and R. C. Strong, of Raleigh, N. C. His 
two sons are the gentle bishop of the district of Asheville and the 
present efficient principal of the Horner School. These with a 
sympathetic wife, possessing more common-sense, more charac- 
ter and influence for good, more energy and power than perhaps 
any other woman of her day, made up a sturdy, strong, heroic 
North Carolina home. 

George Tayloe Winston. 


iT will not be thought strange that in the biog- 
raphy of a representative teacher we make 
much of environment as well as of the man and 
give special heed to his social relations. Few 
come to the highest place in this sphere of use- 
fulness save through the happy conjunction of 
character and circumstances. 

Jerome Channing Horner, the son of James Hunter Horner 
and his wife, Sophronia Moore, was born July 23, 1853, in Ox- 
ford, N. C. The town had a delightful social life colored by the 
confluent streams of some of the best blood of neighboring sec- 
tions. Honest industry, true culture and religious earnestness 
met in its pleasant ways. Like Arnold of Rugby, James H. 
Horner stamped himself on little Arthur and on burly Tom 
Brown. Night and day power went out from him, and reverence 
for God and His law, for truth and duty, instilled itself into the 
children of his household and the sons of North Carolina who 
felt the stimulating glow of his presence. In his thorough-edged 
but genial character were exemplified the highest qualities of the 
teacher as well as the noblest virtues of Christian manhood ; and 
in the atmosphere of manly sincerity and simplicity, where theory 
and practice, speech and action accorded well, grew the child- 
hood of the subject of this sketch. 

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But he was not prepared for the work he was to do in the 
world without the other supreme molding influence. His mother, 
Sophronia Moore, was descended from a long line of distin- 
guished ancestors. (See accompanying sketch of his brother, 
J. M. Horner.) Among them was General Stephen Moore, who 
sold his estate on the Hudson River to the United States as the 
site for the West Point Military Academy. Mr. Horner even de- 
rives part of his name from a near kinsman in this connection, 
the saintly Bishop Richard Channing Moore of Virginia. The 
best traits of such a line were evident in her who was Roman 
matron and Christian mother in one. The order and the method, 
the common sense, the standard of honor and religious duty 
which marked her character were transmitted to many strong 
and gracious children. 

But no better product of this admirable life in the family and 
the school is found than Jerome Horner himself. One of the 
former Horner boys says : "Those who attended the school in the 
70's will never forget 'Rome,* who could jump higher, run faster 
and hit harder than any boy in the company. Indeed it took 
four boys usually to handle him." He was noted for truthful- 
ness, accuracy in all things, honor. He took a high rank in the 
school, where he had the advantage of his father's instruction 
and of the elder R. H. Graves in the classics and mathematics. 

As the state University, of which his father was an alumnus, 
was closed when Jerome was ready for college, he was sent to 
Davidson, where he graduated with honors as A.B. in 1875, 
leaving the distinct impression of his character on his fellow- 
students and his teachers. His alma mater conferred pn him 
the degre of A.M. It is of interest to take the point of view of 
an old-time friend of his, who says ; "The religious life of David- 
son appealed to young Horner ; for he had a rigid, almost Quix- 
otic rule of right." Certainly it gave him that wider view in 
matters spiritual which has always influenced him and secured 
him the co-operation and sympathy of other Christians. 

In 1875 he was elected principal of the Albemarle Academy 
at Edenton, and taught there two years. The Horner School 


was then located in Hillsboro, N. C, and was conducted by James 
H. Horner and Ralph H. Graves, Sr., but as Mr. Horner's health 
was bad, he withdrew from the school and went to Florida while 
his family returned to Oxford. Mr. Graves died in May, 1876, 
and the school was ended. In the meantime Jerome Horner had 
decided to make teaching his profession and to reopen the Horner 
School in Oxford. In the fall of 1877 he reopened the Horner 
School as sole principal and remained in that capacity for two 
years. In 1879 his brother, Junius M. Horner, taught for him 
while he went to the Cape Fear Military Academy as assistant for 
the purpose of learning how to manage a military school. He 
returned to Oxford in 1880 as principal of the Horner School 
and remained as sole principal for several years. As his father's 
health improved and the school grew in numbers the father took 
more and more classes, and the two were finally associated as 
principals. Later he was joined in this work by his brother, 
who remained with him from the time he was ordained priest 
till his election as bishop. 

In September, 1914, Mr. Horner removed his school from the 
old location in Oxford and re-established it in Charlotte, N. C, 
where it has enjoyed a still larger degree of success. 

All his inherited quality and his instincts, his high moral pur- 
pose and the reserve force of a strong nature unite to make 
Jerome Horner the effective head of his school, the director of 
its well-selected teachers, and its many-sided life. Sturdily reso- 
lute, scrupulously pure, the soul of method, he is yet more exact- 
ing of himself in the discharge of duty than of others. There 
can be no compromise with irregularity. The students repre- 
sent the best people of the State, and all alike recognize the strict 
impartiality of his administration. The fine military organization 
requires a just attention to detail and to those minutiae which 
secure accuracy and daily obedience to law, but more and more 
the fatherly spirit of the principal is evident, and the punctilious 
enforcement of order is tempered by the kindly personal element. 
The individuality of such an executive interests and controls the 
whole body. The school traditions of his physical prowess touch 


their fancy as they identify the fence over which he vaulted 
in pursuit of a fast fleeing boy, or recount other deeds of high 
emprise of ''old man Rome." 

Himself a scholarly and thorough teacher in the midst of his 
industrious staff, he sets the standard of excellence in work. You 
would expect him to be a master of the classics. His father was 
wont to say, ''Jerome is the best instructor in fundamental Latin 
I have ever seen." 

Mr. Horner has prepared his own printed guides to the stud}' 
of paradigms and syntax, and accuracy is enforced by the daily 
drill and the painstaking review which is characteristic of his 
method. As in the careful teaching of the classics, so is it in 
mathematics. He insists on these prime studies, including the 
thorough drill in our mother tongue, and no cheap methods must 
turn teacher and student from the way of scholarship and duty. 
Thus the best preparation for life, for the college or university 
is assured. 

Mr. Horner takes the deepest interest in the relation between 
the preparatory schools and the higher institutions, and urges 
with force and earnestness the maintenance of the best standards 
of entrance to university and college, and the reactive influence 
of this requirement on the quality and grade of all education. 
There is no doubt of the wholesome effect of the protest against 
multiplicity of studies in preparatory schools and against "the 
short cut" to higher institutions. 

His ability, his successful principalship, and his strong convic- 
tion as to the high school or academy have marked him as a 
leader. He has often addressed the Teachers' Assembly of the 
State, and the Association of Academies and High Schools, and 
has held oflice in them. One cannot help noting the singleness 
of his purpose as an educator. Like the father before him, with- 
out reference to material profit, he devotes himself to the highest 
ends of a sacred calling, and he has the honor and the joy of sus- 
taining and advancing the fame of an institution whose history is 
indissolubly linked with that of North Carolina. Its sons are the 
flower of our youth. They adorn the most exalted positions. 


In the state schools and colleges, among business leaders, on the 
Bench and at the Bar, in the ministry of the gospel, among use- 
ful workers on every side, they make their distinctive mark, and 
reflect honor on their alma mater and their State. 

Mr. Horner is a faithful member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and has rendered efficient service as senior warden, 
treasurer and lay reader of St. Stephen's, Oxford. 

The Christian tone of his school has been quietly maintained, 
the rules requiring attendance on the services of the student's 
own church. 

He is interested in the municipal and business life of Oxford 
and in the work of benevolent orders, being a Mason and an offi- 
cer of the Odd Fellows' Lodge. 

In his own immediate family life Mr. Horner has been fortu- 
nate. His first marriage was on November 22, 1885, to Miss 
Kate M. Williams, of Wilmington, N. C. She died, leaving two 
children. On September 25, 1901, he married Miss Elouise 
Kent of Fond du Lac, Wis., by whom he has had four children. 

Thomas Hume. 


NER, first bishop of the missionary district of 
Asheville, is of English and Scotch ancestry. 
The first of the Horner family to settle in 
America was Robert Horner of Ripon, York- 
shire, England, who came on a business venture 
in behalf of his brother, and was induced to remain. He lived 
first in Maryland, and then he moved to Prince William County, 
Va., where he spent the remainder of his life. 

On his mother's side Bishop Horner is descended from the 
Moores of Fawley, England, whose lineage is traced back six 
centuries to Sir Francis Moore of the time of Edward III. The 
first of the family to come to America was the Hon. John Moore, 
who settled in Charleston, S. C, in 1680, and there married, in 
1685, Rebecca Axtell, daughter of the Landgrave Daniel Axtell, 
hereditary peer of the Dominion of Carolina. This John Moore 
held many offices of honor and trust in South Carolina. Years 
later he moved from Charleston to Philadelphia, where he again 
held office, among others that of Crown advocate and deputy 
judge of the court of vice-admiralty, and attorney-general. He 
was one of the founders and a vestryman of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia, and was buried beneath its aisle. 

The oldest son of Hon. John Moore was Colonel John Moore 
of White Hall, New York City, and of Moore's FoUy-on-the- 


Hudson, near West Point. He was an alderman of New York 
City, and a member of the colonial and King's council of the 
province of New York. He was also a vestryman and warden 
of old Trinity Church, and he and his wife, Frances Lambert, 
are buried in the family vault in Trinity Churchyard. He left a 
large estate in the province of New York and the city of Philadel- 
phia, all of which he bequeathed to his wife, except the family 
seat on the Hudson, which he devised to his son Stephen, who 
was Bishop Horner's great-grandfather. 

During the Revolution General Stephen Moore removed from 
New York to Mount Tirzah, N. C, and in 1779 commanded a 
regiment of North Carolina state troops. After the Revolution- 
ary War, Alexander Hamilton, secretary of war, recommended 
that West Point on the Hudson be condemned by the United 
States as a military post. Finding that he must yield to the 
military needs of his country. General Moore sold West Point 
to the government for Sii,ocx). This debt North Carolina as- 
sumed, but never paid. 

It is interesting to note that Colonel John Moore, the great- 
great-grandfather of Bishop Horner, was the grandfather of 
Richard Channing Moore, the second bishop of Virginia. There 
are also many other distinguished members of the family. 

Junius Moore Horner is the third son of the late James Hun- 
ter Horner and his wife, Sophronia Moore. He was born in 
Oxford, N. C, July 7, 1859, and from his infancy was dedicated 
by his mother to the service of the church. His education was 
begun at the Horner School and was continued at the University 
of Virginia, at Johns Hopkins University, where he took his de- 
gree in arts, and at the General Theological Seminary, where he 
graduated in 1890. He was ordained deacon on Trinity Sunday 
of that year by the Right Rev. Theo. B. Lyman, bishop of North 
Carolina, in St. Stephen's Church, Oxford, and one year later 
was advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Lyman in Holy Inno- 
cents Church, Henderson. He was married, on December 14, 
1892, to Eva, daughter of Dr. E. W. Harker of Liverpool, and 
his wife Katherine. 


For eight years he was associate principal of the Horner 
School with his older brother, Jerome Channing, a sketch of 
whose life also appears in this volume, and at the same time he 
had charge of several missionary stations near Oxford. Thus 
while his high ideals and broad views were impressing themselves 
on some of North Carolina's future citizens, he was gaining ma- 
turity and experience for the great work of his life. 

He received the degree of B.D. from the General Thological 
Seminary in 1893, and that of D.D. from the University of the 
South in 1899. 

When in 1898 the General Convention of the Episcopal Church, 
in session in Washington, D. C, came to select a bishop for the 
mountain section of North Carolina, which had been set apart 
as a missionary district, in 1895, Junius Moore Horner was 
selected as the man best suited for this high and holy office. On 
Holy Innocents day, in December, 1898, in Trinity Church, Ashe- 
ville, he was consecrated bishop, and shortly afterward moved, 
with his family, to Shoenberger Hall, Asheville, the official resi- 
dence of the bishop. 

The Church had not neglected to minister to these mountain 
people in earlier days, and the beginnings which had been made 
by Bishop Ives and Bishop Lyman were followed up with active 
interest and success by Bishop Cheshire during the interval be- 
tween 1893 and 1898. 

When Bishop Horner took charge of the district he was the 
youngest member of the House of Bishops, but was already ma- 
ture in judgment and experience, and possessed of marked execu- 
tive ability. His field of work is broad and presents exceptional 
difficulties, but the patient endurance, patriotism, loyalty and 
daring bravery of these rugged mountaineers at once took deep 
hold on him, appealing to the best in a peculiarly noble and gen- 
erous nature, and he has thrown the full force of a noble char- 
acter and great abihties into his work. 

There are nearly one-half million people in the mountains of 
North Carolina. Until recent years they have been cut off by 
natural rugged barriers from the progress of other sections. 


but in every crisis of the country's history since the Revolution 
they have proved their patriotism and courage on the battlefield, 
but their isolation and hard lives in a country of magnificent 
grandeur and beauty has resulted in producing men and women 
noble in nature, yet narrow through lack of education and touch 
with the outside world. They are proud and sensitive and quick 
to resent help which savors of patronage, but are easily ap- 
proached through the assurance of sympathetic interest. 

The difficulties of ministering to this population are increased 
by the fact that though there are many small towns, the greater 
part of the people are scattered on tiny farms, many of them al- 
most inaccessible over rough mountain roads. But Bishop Hor- 
ner writes of the work that "Taken as a whole, it is the most 
hopeful, interesting, and appealing missionary ground the Church 
has in all the world." 

His executive ability and experience in educational matters 
have enabled him to plan, organize and develop the work with 
great rapidity. He feels the pressing need of education for these 
people, and desires to establish not less than eight well-equipped 
industrial schools at strategic points in the district. In regard to 
this he writes: 

"These schools would sooner than any other means render our district 
independent and self-supporting. It would at the same time give a worthy 
and deserving people assistance along lines that would be most beneficial 
to them." 

Four such schools have already been established and are in 
active and successful operation. The most important of these 
is situated at Valle Crucis, on the site selected by Bishop Ives 
more than seventy years ago as an ideal spot for such an institu- 
tion. The property, however, had been lost to the Church and the 
school suspended for many years, but Bishop Horner has suc- 
ceeded in regaining five hundred acres of the old school farm, 
and substantial buildings, suitable for school purposes, have been 
erected. In 1916 there were enrolled eighty-three pupils who 
received an industrial education, combined with careful religious 
and moral training, and the influence which these children carry 


back year by year into their homes is already giving full proof 
of its value. 

In the meantime day by day, with an earnestness and sim- 
plicity w^hich touch the hearts of the humblest and lowliest, 
Bishop Horner is carrying the "glad tidings" to his people — a 
veritable tender shepherd ministering to his flock. Over rough 
mountain roads in sleet and rain, as well as sunshine, he drives 
from house to house, holding a service now in a cramped room 
of some cabin, now in the open air under the shelter of the trees, 
and now in one or another of the little chapels. And always he 
is the welcome pastor and loved friend, thoroughly identified and 
in closest touch with his people, revered and trusted by all. 

His preaching is marked not so much by eloquence as by a 
deep earnestness and sincerity, which comes from a profound 
conviction of the importance of the message of which he is the 
herald, and from a strong desire to share with his fellow-man the 
blessed truths which mean so much in his own life. Ofttimes 
in fashionable churches have I heard him deliver learned, even 
profound sermons, full of force and spirituality, but once only 
have I had the great good fortune of hearing in a rude little 
chapel, hidden away in a mountain forest, one of his talks to his 
own people. They sat before him, twenty or thirty unlettered 
men and a few women, with upturned faces, listening eagerly 
and in profound silence, as he poured forth, with a force and 
pathos such as I had never before seen him display, the ever- 
new old story. It was not a sermon, it was a powerful and 
touching appeal, and having heard it, I knew the secret of their 
love and of his influence. 

Mrs. IV. S. Manning. 


HE career of every man who climbs steadily 
the heights of success is full of human interest. 
The story of the life of Herbert Worth Jack- 
son is a record of quiet and steady growth in 
purpose, achievement and power. Born at 
Asheboro, Randolph County, N. C, on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1865, he received his elementary instruction under a 
private tutor in his native town. From 1877 to 1883 he attended 
the celebrated Bingham School under Colonel Robert Bingham at 
Mebane, N. C, and matriculated in the University of North Car- 
olina in 1883, from which he was graduated in 1886 with the 
degree of Ph.B. 

Soon after graduation he received the appointment of teller in 
the office of the treasurer of North Carolina, which he filled ac- 
ceptably and creditably for two years. Following his resignation 
of this position he was elected treasurer of the Wetmore Shoe 
and Leather Company, and later, upon the organization of the 
Commercial and Farmers' Bank of Raleigh, in September, 1891, 
was elected its assistant cashier. After a successful career of a 
few years this bank, authorized and organized under the laws of 
North Carolina, decided to change its charter and become a 
national bank, under the name of the Commercial National Bank 
of Raleigh. Following this change, Mr. Jackson was elected 
director and cashier, in which capacity he served continuously 

^^ ^'c, £• z:^Mi//,a^s ^Si-aMy 

i:;/n,.s.z. i^Sr-t /^^/puri, /^u^'is 


until November i, 1909, when he was elected president of the 
Virginia Trust Company of Richmond, Va., and invited to as- 
sume the management of the affairs of this strong financial 

On October 2.2.^ 1890, Mr. Jackson was happily married to 
Miss Annie Hyman Philips, of Tarboro, N. C, a young lady 
of rare personal charms and beautiful character, daughter of 
Judge Frederick Philips and Martha Hyman Philips, grand- 
daughter of Dr. James Jones and Harriet Burt Philips, great- 
granddaughter of Hartwell and Phereby Jones Philips, who 
came from Mecklenberg County, Va., and located in Edgecombe 
County, in this State. The great-grandfather on the maternal 
side was Captain William Burt, who served in the Revolutionary 

Mr. Jackson is likewise descended from noble ancestry. In 
the sketch of his mother, Mrs. Elvira Worth Moffitt, in this 
volume, and in the history of the life of his distinguished grand- 
father. Governor Worth, may be traced on the maternal side 
his direct descent from three of the pilgrim fathers. On the 
paternal side we find his ancestry distinguished for learning, 
ability and patriotic service. John Jackson, of Anson County, 
first known ancestor of the name of whom we have record in this 
State, was prominent among those who first espoused the cause 
of independence of British rule. He was a member of the house 
of commons from Anson from 1783-87, and was an active 
and leading public citizen of that county for many years, exerting 
great influence in public affairs until his death. His son, Isaac 
Jackson, born, 1762, married in Wadesboro, N. C, in 1783, Mary 
Spencer, a daughter of Sam.uel Spencer, of Anson County. Later 
Isaac moved to Alabama, where he died, leaving one son, Samuel 
Spencer Jackson, born March 10, 1787. Samuel Spencer Jack- 
son married Elizabeth Kinchen Alston in 18 15 and died in 1856. 
He left six daughters and three sons, one of whom was Samuel 
Spencer Jackson, born September 6, 1832. He married Elvira 
Evilina Worth in 1856 and was the father of the subject of this 


Through the Spencers Mr. Jackson has descended from one 
of the oldest and strongest New England families, coming from 
Bedfordshire, England. This family originally settled in Con- 
necticut. Mr. Jackson is the great-great-grandson of Judge 
Samuel Spencer, who was a graduate of Princeton University in 
i759j from which he also received the degree of LL.D. Judge 
Spencer was appointed colonel of the North Carolina militia in 
1775, and was also appointed in the same year, with Waightstill 
Avery, on the Provincial Council of Safety, which was the real 
executive of the State during the interregnum between the abdi- 
cation of Josiah Martin, the royal governor, in 1775, and the 
accession of Richard Caswell, the first governor under the con- 
stitution. Judge Spencer represented Anson in the General As- 
sembly and was an active and able member of the convention 
at Hillsboro in 1788. He was also one of the three judges of 
the superior court, being first elected under the constitution in 
1777, and serving until his tragic death in 1794. Through his 
grandmother, Elizabeth Kinchen Alston Jackson, Mr. Jackson is 
closely related to the Alstons, one of the most noted and dis- 
tinguished families of the South. By every test he has shown 
himself worthy of the fine Anglo-Saxon blood from which he 
comes and the honorable name he bears. 

During his residence for more than a decade in Raleigh 
he won high place in the affection and confidence of the 
people of that city. The leading daily of that city said of him 
that in every department of the city's life and activities he had 
grown into leadership. His usefulness was so broad that it 
reached all agencies for the betterment of his fellows. In civic 
matters he had been an alderman, a member of the public school 
committee, a trustee of Peace Institute, and a trustee of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. In addition to his duties as director 
and cashier of the Commercial National Bank, he was director and 
leading spirit in the Raleigh Standard Gas Company, a director of 
the Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Company, a director and 
treasurer of the News and Observer Publishing Company, and 
also a stockholder and leading spirit in other institutions and 



enterprises which he had aided in building up. He has filled the 
position of president of the North Carolina Bankers' Association 
and is still identified with various commercial and banking enter- 
prises of North Carolina. 

It was this fine record of success and achievement which at- 
tracted the attention of the outside world, and particularly that 
of the directors of the Virginia Trust Company. Elected to 
the presidency of this company on November i, 1909, he imme- 
diately assumed the charge and direction of its affairs, removing 
his family there in February, 1910. 

His fine personality and his enthusiasm, his alert eye for busi- 
ness, his long and close touch with the currents and cross-currents 
of commercial life, his cool judgment and superb courage in the 
field of finance placed a new dynamo behind the forces of this 
company, inspired its officers and employees with new ambition 
and fresh yearning after larger business, moved it into a sky- 
scraper and into the forefront of the fiduciary institutions of 
the South. The city of Richmond was not long in finding in 
him a strong force in its business life and soon called him into 
the directorate of the Chamber of Commerce and into other 
places of leadership. He is now in the meridian of his well- 
rounded and splendid manhood, equipped by his large experience 
and the severe discipline of his vocation and with larger oppor- 
tunities for greater achievement. 

One of the secrets of his fine character and splendid success 
may be found in his beautiful home life. In his charming home 
he finds relaxation and happiness with a happy family, consisting 
of a wife and three living children, Evelyn Hyman, Herbert 
Worth and Samuel Spencer Jackson. 

It is doubtful if North Carolina has sustained a greater loss 
among all her departing sons of recent years than in that of 
Herbert Worth Jackson. 

G. Samuel Bradshaw. 


^HE man enjoying the unique honor of being the 
first governor of the first colony in the New 
World settled by Englishmen was Sir Ralph 
Lane. He was the fifth generation from Wil- 
liam Lane, of Thingdon, Northamptonshire, 
and was born in Northamptonshire about 1530. 
From two of his letters, written in 1583 and 1584, we learn that 
he entered the Queen's service in 1563. Strype records his 
services in 1569 against the "rebel earls" of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland, and calls him "a great soldier in these times." 
Not long after this he was serving the Queen at court as an 
equerry, and was commissioned by her to search certain ships 
of Brittany thought to have unlawful goods on board, and to 
seize the same. In 1574, with Elizabeth's consent, he offered 
his services to Philip II of Spain as commander of an English 
regiment to fight against the Turks. His name first appears 
among the Irish papers January 8, 1582-83, and he was there in 
January, 1584. 

Lane was made governor of Raleigh's colony at least as early 
as February, 1585, and readily undertook the commission. The 
Queen ordered a substitute to be appointed in his government 
of Kerry and Clanmorris, "in consideration of his ready under- 
taking the voyage to Virginia for Sir Walter Raleigh at her 
Majesty's command." His residence in Ireland, and Raleigh's 


interests there, account for the number of Irish names that ap- 
pear among the colonists. 

The fleet with Lane's colony on board left Plymouth April 9, 
1585. It was under the command of Sir Richard Grenville, 
cousin of Raleigh, sailed by the Canaries and West Indies, and 
reached the coast June 26th. Grenville with Lane and others 
spent eight days in explorations toward the south. He discov- 
ered the towns of Pomeiock, Aquascogoc and Secotan and the 
great lake Paquipe. The first town was probably in the country 
lying between the head of Bay River and Newbern; the second 
was perhaps near the mouth of the Neuse ; Secotan was perhaps 
on the headwaters of Bay River, near the boundary between 
Beaufort and Craven counties. Lake Paquipe has been identi- 
fied by Martin with Mattamuskeet. At Aquascogoc Grenville 
burned and spoiled the corn of the Indians because a silver cup 
had been stolen. This rash and thoughtless act doubtless in- 
creased the dangers that were soon to fall upon Lane and his 
infant colony. In August Amadas went to Weapomeiok, the 
peninsula lying east of the Chowan and north of the Albemarle 
Sound. On August 25th Grenville sailed for England, having 
been on the coast since June 24th. 

Hakluyt has preserved for us the "particularities of the em- 
ployments of the Englishmen left in Virginia'* under the charge 
of "Master Ralph Lane, general of the same." The journal 
extends from August 17, 1585 to June 18, 1586, the time of their 
departure, and is from the pen of Lane himself. The colonists 
were one hundred and eight in number. They built a fort at 
the north end of Roanoke Island and began exploring. They 
had only a small boat of four oars, which could not carry more 
than fifteen men, for their pinnace drew too deep water and 
"would not stir for an oar." They went south from Roanoke 
from eighty to a hundred miles, north one hundred and thirty 
miles, northwest one hundred and eighty miles. They visited our 
counties of Cartaret, Craven, Jones, Beaufort, Hyde, Dare, and 
all the counties north of the Albemarle Sound from Currituck 
to Chowan. They ascended the Chowan to the junction of the 


Meherrin and Nottoway, coasting Bertie, Hertford and Gates. 
They went up the Moratoc, or Roanoke, until they were one hun- 
dred and sixty miles from their home on Roanoke Island, and 
then went on for two days more, which brought them perhaps 
as far up as the present county of Warren. They went up Curri- 
tuck Sound into Virginia almost until they reached the Chesa- 
peake below Norfolk. 

Lane saw that the harbor of Roanoke Island was ''very 
naught," and consequently unfit for a settlement. He planned 
to send, as soon as the ships arrived, a double expedition by land 
and sea to seek the better harbor of the Chesapeake, of which 
he had learned from an Indian chief. Raleigh acted on the 
judgment of Lane, for the colony of 1587 was instructed merely 
to touch at Roanoke and to go on to the Chesapeake. 

Trouble soon began. Pemisapan, king of the mainland, plotted 
to starve the English, Lane divided his men into three small par- 
ties and sent them out to live by fishing. The Indians planned 
to massacre them. The plot was revealed by Skyco. Lane's 
action was now prompt and decided. The English fell upon the 
savages and butchered them without mercy. He acted calmly 
and deliberately about returning to England. There was no 
haste, no precipitateness in his action. A council of the chief 
men was called; the company had been weakened by the loss of 
some of their best men, who had been carried to sea in the Fran- 
cis; Sir Francis Drake could not now furnish them all neces- 
saries after his heavy loss by storm; the second ship he offered 
could not be brought into their harbor, and was therefore value- 
less ; Grenville had promised to come to their relief before Easter, 
while it was now June ; and matters were growing dark between 
England! and Spain. Under these circumstances, it was de- 
termined to ask Drake for transportation to England, and the 
request was made in "all our names." They sailed June 19, 1586, 
and reached England July 27th. 

Lane did not return a second time to America, nor did he 
resume his government of Kerry and Clanmorris, in Ireland. 
On November 2y, 1587, he was present at a special council of 


war held to concert measures of defense against the threatened 
Armada. The other members of this council were Lord Grey, 
Sir Francis Knowles, Sir Thomas Leighton, Sir Walter Raleigh, 
Sir John Norris, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Richard Bingham 
and Sir Roger Williams. Lane was the only member of the 
council not of the rank of knight. "This is a distinguished testi- 
mony to his reputation as a soldier." He served under Drake 
in the Portuguese expedition of 1589. Before the close of 1591 
he was made muster master-general of Ireland, an office corre- 
sponding somewhat to inspector-general of modern armies. He 
was an active officer and a better disciplinarian than courtier- 
He was knighted by Fitz- William, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, 
in 1593, having been dangerously wounded about the same time- 
Lane had not married in 1593, and probably did not after that 
date. The family was continued through Sir Robert, older 
brother of "Rafe," as the governor always wrote his name. Ralph 
died in Ireland in 1604. He was a man of decided ability and 
executive capacity, says the "Narrative and Critical History of 
America," and deserves not to be forgotten, as seems to have 
been his fate. But he has one monument, at least, as lasting as 
time itself — he introduced tobacco into England. 

Theodore de Bry published in Latin the narrative of the expe- 
dition of Grenville, as furnished him by Lane and Hariot, in his 
"Perigrinationes in Americam," Part I. (Frankfort, 1590). 
Hakluyt has preserved the account of the expedition and Lane's 
account of life there in his "Voyages." These Dr. Hawks has 
reprinted, with very valuable annotations, in the first volume of 
his "History of North Carolina." They have also been re- 
printed, with annotations, by Rev. Increase N. Tarbox, in his 
"Sir Walter Raleigh's Colony in America" (Boston, 1884). Four 
letters of Lane, written in America and sent home by the re- 
turning vessels, have been edited by Rev. Edward E. Hale, and 
published in Volume IV of the "Archeologia Americana" (i860). 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


;AMES EDWIN LATHAM comes of a family 
of English origin which settled in North Caro- 
lina in the early colonial period. 

His father, Norfleet Franklin Latham, was 
born in Beaufort County, but being left an or- 
phan at an early age, was taken by an uncle to 
Wayne County, where the remainder of his life was spent. He 
was married to Miss Nancy Bell Gardner, daughter of Josiah 
Gardner, of Wayne County, and was a farmer when, at the 
beginning of the Civil War, he enlisted as a private in the Fif- 
tieth North Carolina regiment. 

He served throughout the war, and when Johnston's army was 
disbanded, in the spring of 1865, with the stripes of a sergeant 
on his tattered uniform, returned home to find his dweUing 
burned, his farm devastated and his wife and children refugees 
in the town of Goldsboro. 

Land had no marketable value, but upon the security of his 
moral character he bought a mule and the bare necessities of life 
and began a new fight, harder, perhaps, than the one he had 
just left. 

In such surroundings James Edwin Latham, the youngest of 
a large family, was born on September 11, 1866. Life was 
necessarily hard, but as he himself afterward said, "the poverty 
that hurts is that against which one rebels. We didn't rebel; 

<0. cT^^^^-^^M.^^^^ 


everybody around us was poor, too, and we accepted it as a 
matter of course." 

His early life was spent much after the usual routine of a 
boy on a backwoods farm, with such scanty education as the 
short terms of the neighborhood schools afforded. At the age 
of eighteen Mr. Latham went to live with an elder brother in 
Goldsboro for the purpose of attending the graded schools, but 
after one year at school decided that the time had come for him 
to play a man's part, and he looked around for some available 
lowest rung of the ladder from which to begin to climb. 

A local hardware store offered him the place of general handy 
man and put him to work blacking stoves. This position served 
two purposes. It provided for present necessities and it gave 
him a start, humble but sure, in the mercantile world in which 
he was later destined to take such a prominent part. After a 
year he had become a clerk, but began to see that the untrained 
man had little hope of advancement, and decided to invest his 
meager savings in a course at a business college. 

Having finished this last stage of his education, he returned 
to Goldsboro and was employed by the same firm as bookkeeper, 
the grading and buying of cotton being later included in the list 
of his duties. 

In 1889 he removed to Newbern to establish himself as a 
cotton merchant, and after having achieved something of a suc- 
cess in this line, added to his cotton business the wholesale hand- 
ling of heavy groceries, and continued as a cotton and wholesale 
grocery merchant until, seeking a larger field, he came to Greens- 
boro in 1904. 

Before coming to Greensboro he arranged the facilities whereby 
Greensboro was made a concentrating and distributing point with 
re-shipping privileges. This machinery contemplated the estab- 
lishment of bonded warehouses. Greensboro had not a single 
cotton storehouse in 1904; to-day there is storage capacity for 
forty thousand bales, and Greensboro, then unknown as a cotton 
town, is now the second largest cotton market in North CaroHna 
and one of the largest interior cotton markets in the world. 


Even greater success than he had formerly known, followed 
Mr. Latham's establishment in Greensboro. He remains to-day, 
as he always has been from early manhood, primarily a merchant, 
with an instinctive clearness of vision and mental grasp of the 
larger phases of mercantile life. To his cotton business, however, 
he soon added other activities. He was one of the moving spirits 
in the consolidation of several life insurance companies into the 
Jefferson Standard, now the largest company south of Philadel- 
phia, and has since the consolidation served as a director and 
member of its executive committee. He is also director and 
member of the executive committee of the Dixie Fire Insurance 
Company, the largest of its kind in the South. Entering the 
field of cotton manufacture, he became and is now president of 
the Pomona Mills, a company which is not only well known for 
the high grade of its product, but which has what is perhaps the 
most beautiful mill village in the State. He has also purchased 
large tracts of land in the outskirts of the city and is engaged in 
the planning and development of a residential section which is in- 
tended not only as a profitable investment, but also as an exem- 
plification of "the city beautiful." 

These activities, varied as they are, have not, however, inter- 
fered with Mr. Latham's notably successful career as a merchant. 
His firm is now among the largest handlers of spot cotton in 
America, and through its agents and correspondents buys and 
sells cotton all over the United States and also in practically 
every country under the sun where cotton is used. The volume 
of business done this year aggregates about $20,000,000. 

For many years Mr. Latham has been a member of the New 
York Cotton Exchange and an associate member of the Liverpool 
Cotton Association. 

However, he has never allowed his own business to engross 
the entirety of his time or thoughts. From his first entrance 
into the business world he has taken an active and unselfish in- 
terest in public matters. He was a member of the Goldsboro 
Rifles. He assisted in the organization of and was a member 
of the Newbern Coast Guards, served for four years as a mem- 


ber of the board of aldermen and for two years as president 
of the Newbern Chamber of Commerce. Looking back, he now 
says that even from a selfish viewpoint his aldermanic services 
were by no means time wasted, as the insight thus acquired into 
community life and methods of transacting public business has 
been to him of distinct educational value. 

He is much interested in the Greensboro Chamber of Com- 
merce and has for a number of years been a member of its 
board of directors. For one year he served as its president, but 
declined a re-election, preferring to devote more of his time as 
chairman of its agricultural bureau, which, in connection with 
the Guilford County farm bureau, of which he is vice-president, 
has made such a success of the organization and conduct of 
demonstration work, home economics, canning clubs, pig clubs 
and kindred subjects, that Guilford County has been pointed out 
by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture as a model to 
be followed by other counties. 

If Mr. Latham can be said to have a hobby it is the building 
up of the happiness, wealth and prosperity of the State by more 
intelligent and productive farming. Largely for the purpose of 
a practical demonstration along this line he owns and personally 
supervises Lake Latham Farm of several hundred acres in 
Alamance County. Here he is raising pure-bred beef cattle, sheep, 
hogs and chickens, and experimenting in grazing, forage and 
soil improving crops, the pride of the farm being, however, 
its herd of registered Hereford cattle, one of the finest as well 
as one of the first of its kind in the South. With the accuracy of 
an experimental station every move is first worked out along the 
most advanced scientific lines and then put into operation in a 
practical manner. Numbers of those interested in better agricul- 
ture and stock-raising come to Lake Latham to see the methods 
used and the results obtained. Firmly fixed in Mr. Latham's mind 
is the idea that North Carolina has almost untold dormant wealth 
in its millions of acres which needs. but the "open sesame" of 
intelligent application ; and with this idea is the steadfast purpose 
of assisting in bringing about the conditions he would like to see. 


He is also an active friend and liberal contributor to the Young 
Men's Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation and Masonic and Eastern Star Home, and is ever ready 
to counsel or assist worthy young men who seek his aid or 

In 1892 he was married to Miss Maude Moore, of Newbern, 
and their union has been blessed with two children, May Gordon 
Latham and Edward Latham. 

On the social side James Edwin Latham is a thirty-second 
degree Mason, a Shriner, an Elk and a member of all of the 
important clubs of Greensboro, and in his handsome granite 
home overlooking the broad stretches of Fisher Park lives sim- 
ply and unostentatiously with an open door and cordial welcome 
ever waiting for his friends. 

Finally, what are the personal characteristics of this man who 
has come to the front without ever pushing down a fellow- 
traveler to make for himself a stepping stone, who, as one of 
the great merchants of the world, directs large and varied busi- 
ness interests, and yet finds time to assist actively in the moral 
and material upbuilding of the community? 

Physically he is well above middle height, broad shouldered 
and sparely built, active and almost tireless, low voiced and 
direct. His wavy iron-gray hair matches well his fifty years,, 
but the corners of his blue-gray eyes wrinkle with amusement, 
and his laugh is as hearty as that of a boy when at times it re- 
places the expression of poise and repression so often seen in the 
faces of men of power who have spent their lives in strenuous 
and successful endeavor. 

Mentally he is clear visioned, resourceful and analytic, rather 
than dashing or impetuous. To quote his own words, "The man 
who can act quickly is the man who has prepared himself to act."" 
Temperamentally he is an actor rather than a dreamer, with one 
of those rare minds that in the complicated problems of business 
life seem to have the faculty of analyzing a situation and de- 
termining a course of action with the deductive certainty of a 
mathematical conclusion. Though inclined to be domineering in 



method and at times brusque in manner, he has withal a cathoHc 
sympathy which would not intentionally wound the humblest 
man with whom he comes in contact. 

To the general public he is an outstanding merchant and finan- 
cier, a man of large and successful business interests and an 
active and influential public-spirited citizen ; to his intimates "Ed 
Latham" is the happy combination of a companion with whom 
a thoroughly enjoyable hour may be spent, and a steadfast and 
devoted friend. 

The work of a biographer necessarily stops with the present, 
though the career of James Edwin Latham has not yet stopped ; 
has, in fact, apparently not yet reached its zenith. A prophet 
would doubtless say that with a record of notable achievement in 
the past and the full flush of vigorous manhood still in his pos- 
session, the future holds for him the promise of greater things 
to come. 

Robert Dick Douglas, 


ACOB LONG was born near Graham, N. C., 
March 28, 1807, and died May 21, 1894. His 
paternal grandfather was Conrad Long, spelled 
in German Conrad Lange. He came from Ger- 
many, from near the river Rhine, and settled 
in Pennsylvania before the Revolution. He 
married and had two children, Casper and Mary. After the death 
of his wife he married Cathrine MacRine, and soon thereafter, 
about 1760, with his wife and his two children by his first wife, 
joined a party of emigrants and came to North Carolina. 

He settled on a farm of six hundred and thirty acres on the 
west bank of Haw River, then called Saxapahaw River. On this 
farm, which remains in the family, he built a house and lived the 
remainder of his life. To him and his wife Cathrine were born 
three sons, Jacob, Henry and Conrad, and one daughter, Eliza- 

Casper, the son of the first wife, was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tion and served under Washington, and was with Greene at 
Guilford Court House. Elizabeth married Henry Farmer and 
removed to West Tennessee; Henry married and removed to 
Ohio and thence to Illinois; Conrad, who never married, died 
on the old homestead November 23, 1858, aged eighty-six. 
Jacob, the oldest son by his second wife, was born on the old 


S'up.&^fSa'^T/^^'ns ^Br^ jvy^ 




homestead in North Carolina in 1765. He married Catharine 
Shaver, or Shepherd. His death occurred April 6, 1849, aged 
eighty-four. His wife died November 18, 1845. They had four 
sons, William, Joseph, John and Jacob, and two daughters, EHza- 
beth and Catharine. They all married and had children except 
the last named. She married, but had no children. 

Jacob, the youngest son and the subject of this sketch, became 
the owner of the old homestead and made it his permanent resi- 
dence. On January 3, 1833, he married Jane Stuart Stockard, a 
daughter of Colonel John Stockard, of Alamance County. Colonel 
John Stockard's father was James Stockard, or Stockhardt. 
He was a soldier in the Continental Army during the War of 
the Revolution. He married Ellen Trousdale, a sister of William 
and James Trousdale. One of these brothers was a captain in 
the patriot army and was wounded in the battle of Guilford 
Court House. They were reared about two miles south of 
Graham and about one mile from Big Alamance Creek. 

During the Revolutionary War, and for several years there- 
after, the middle and western counties of North Carolina were 
infested by lawless bands of Tories and ruffians, who, led by 
desperate men like David Fanning, pillaged the country, and 
often slew unprotected persons without mercy. The Trousdales, 
Stockards and others suffered greatly in this way for their fidelity 
to the cause of American independence. 

William Trousdale, born on the Murphey-Ruffin place, in Ala- 
mance County (then Orange), in 1790, a son of James Trousdale 
(captain in the Revolution), was a lieutenant in the Seminole 
War, and at the battle of New Orleans ; served at first as a colonel 
in the Mexican War, and later commanded a brigade; twice 
wounded at Chapultepec, and for gallantry was appointed brig- 
adier-general in the United States Army; was elected governor 
of Tennessee in 1849 ^^^ served two terms, and in 1853 was 
appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Brazil by President Pierce. 

To James Stockard and Ellen Trousdale Stockard were born 
ten children, six sons and four daughters. The sons were 


William, John, Richard, Samuel, James and Joseph. The daugh- 
ters were Elizabeth, Ellen, Margaret and Nancy. 

All the family removed, about the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, to Tennessee, except John, who remained and resided 
on the south bank of Big Alamance Creek, and about one mile 
from its junction with Haw River. He was married twice. His 
first wife was Jane Stuart, the eldest daughter of Samuel Stuart 
and Elizabeth Bradshaw Stuart, who lived eastward from Haw 
River in what was then Orange County. To them were born 
three children, Ellen, Samuel and Elizabeth. After the death of 
his first wife, Colonel John Stockard married Catharine Albright. 
She was a daughter of Henry Albright (or Albrecht, as it is 
spelled in German), and Mary Gibbs Albright. Mary Gibbs was a 
sister of General Nicholas Gibbs, who served in the Indian wars 
with General Andrew Jackson, and was killed by an Indian 
squaw with a tomahawk at the battle of Tohopeka, or Horseshoe 
Bend. General Gibbs lived in middle Tennessee, and at one time 
owned the land whereon was situated the Hermitage, which after- 
ward became the residence of General Andrew Jackson. 

The children of Colonel John Stockard by his second wife, 
Catharine Stockard, were Jane Stuart, James Gibbs, Mary, Mar- 
garet, Nancy, William, Lettie and John Richard. 

Jacob Long married Jane Stuart Stockard January 3, 1833. 
They had eight children: John Henry, Elizabeth Catharine, 
William Samuel, Joseph Gibbs, Daniel Albright, Jacob Alson, 
George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. All are now living 
except Joseph Gibbs Long, who, as first sergeant of Company E, 
Thirteenth iNorth CaroHna troops, was killed on May 3, 1863, 
at Chancellorsville, Va., and the oldest, John Henry, who died 
July, 1907, at his home in Missouri, and George Washington. 

If the biography of all noble lives could be written, many 
volumes would be added to our libraries, and many splendid 
names would be added to our long list of great men. If genuine 
character could be written, Jacob Long, the subject of this 
sketch, would shine on the printed page. Only points and fea- 
tures of this worthy man can be outlined, while the reader must 


work out in his own mind the manhood too full to fall within 
the limits of this picture. Many elements of greatness were con- 
spicuous in his nature and magnified in his life. 

Mr. Long always voted the Democratic ticket except in the 
old Whig days, when he supported such men as William A. 
Graham and Giles Mebane, because of his personal attachment 
to them and his faith in their ability and integrity. He voted 
against secession, but stood ardently and firmly by the Confed- 
eracy after the States had seceded. He always had convictions, 
and never swerved from them. His political views and affiha- 
tions were not tainted by desire for honors, for he never sought 
or held office. He was a farmer whose acres yielded to the 
touch of honest toil and smiled with golden harvests. He did 
not accumulate a large fortune, but peace and plenty greeted the 
happy guests who enjoyed the hospitality of his home. His edu- 
cational opportunities were limited, yet his chief concern was to 
educate his children. His self-denials to accomplish this purpose 
and his success deserve and are worthy of a well-written volume 
He was a pioneer advocate for broader culture and higher educa- 
tion in the State. He believed in denominational schools, but 
no sectarian bias excluded from his thoughts and efforts the 
common schools and university. 

His horizon was larger than his own generation, and he grasped 
and advocated measures by intuition. His great soul ranged be- 
yond his own education into fields where younger generations 
might find full sway for their genius. He believed in God, and 
for thirty years was a member of the church. His life was a 
daily exemplification of his profession. He was "diligent in 
business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." His simple faith 
was heroic, and his deeds of love are imperishable. The State 
can boast of few men of his opportunities who have done so much 
for themselves and their families. Christian manhood is the 
best definition of his character. He stood among men like a 
peak among foothills. He towered in quiet greatness. Had 
he been educated he would have taken his place among men 
as the finished statue amid the uncut marble. States might have 


safely trusted and honored him. Patriotism, charity and rev- 
erence for God were among the elements that guided his great 
soul in the duties and loves of his rural home in Alamance and 
molded his full-orbed character. It is not strange, therefore, 
that throngs from all stations in life visited his death-bed ten- 
derly, and that his former slaves loved him to the end and bore 
his body to the tomb. 

It was his privilege to be born and to spend his life upon the 
soil that gave birth to American liberty. The battle of Alamance, 
fought between the Regulators and the colonial troops under 
Governor Tryon, May i6, 1771, was almost the first resistance 
to British tyranny. When the granite shaft that stands as a 
monument on that sacred spot was unveiled, May 29, 1880, Judge 
Fowle said : "Alamance and Liberty are joined together." The 
voice of the orator is now as silent as the mute stone which stands 
where the Regulators, though defeated, won the first victory of 
a great nation ; but the historic truth he uttered will live while 
the Stars and Stripes wave over a free people. 

Among the liberty-loving sons of Alamance, near the spot where 
the first blow was struck for the principles of American Institu- 
tions, Jacob Long was born, established his home, tilled his farm 
and educated his children, and served his God. His habits of 
purity, honesty, industry and piety were untouched by the shock 
of the Civil War or the losses that followed it. Such men as he 
are like the unexplored mountains which contain beneath their 
rugged breasts undiscovered riches. All the great mines have 
not been opened, and all the royal men are not known to fame. 
The nation and the church rest on these foundation characters,, 
and without them the brilHant sons of genius would fade out In 

The loss of his son, Joseph Gibbs, at Chancellorsvllle, brought 
the bitterest pang to his life, but it excited his spiritual longings 
and enriched his spiritual hopes till he went down to his grave 
in peace. Civil institutions and Christianity are safe while such 
men maintain the constitution and the Bible with their lives. The 
engraving shows Mr. Long at the age of eighty-four. 


The wife of Jacob Long, Jane Stuart Stockard, belonged to one 
of the oldest and most honorable families of Alamance County. 
Her kith and kin have written their names among the heroes, 
patriots, statesmen and divines in the galaxy of North Carolina 
and Tennessee. Her Scotch-German ancestors were among the 
Regulators who sounded the first call to American independence, 
and her kin are numbered among the patriotic dead of four wars. 
Her father. Colonel John Stockard, represented his county sixteen 
terms in the Legislature of his State. 

In all the vicissitudes of her husband's fortunes, through all the 
good and evil report of the world, in all the struggles, all the sor- 
rows, the affectionate participation and cheering encouragement 
of his wife were his never-failing support and solace. She made 
garments for the poor and needy. The letters she received from 
the orphans at Oxford, N. C, were treasured as jewels. The 
success of Christian missions filled her soul with delight. So 
skillful was she with her needle that she made a quilt for the 
Alamance Fair in her ninety-second year which was awarded a 
premium. She died December 13, 1902, aged ninety-two years. 

Thoroughly devoted to the. cause of Christian education, she 
trained her children at home, and heartily united with her hus- 
band in sending them to the best schools. A careful and constant 
reader of good books and papers, she always placed the Bible 
first, and read it most of all. There was not a virtue which can 
abide in the human heart but it was the adornment of hers. The 
descendant of Revolutionary heroes, her heart glowed with pa- 
triotic fire. She was the personification of charity, piety and 
virtue. While yet a girl she organized and conducted, in a room 
in her father's house, the first Sunday-school estabHshed in this 
part of North Carolina. 

W. W. Staley, 
J. U. Neivman. 


near Graham, in Alamance County, N. C., Oc- 
tober 22, 1839. His father, Jacob Long, was a 
sturdy farmer of the Piedmont type, an honor- 
able citizen, respected by all who knew him, 
honest to the core. His mother was Jane Stuart 
Stockard, daughter of Colonel John Stockard. The father was 
uneducated himself and was not disposed to educate his children 
above the academy; but William, once having a taste for learn- 
ing, thirsted for more, and persuaded his father to lend him 
money for a collegiate education. To this he consented, and the 
progress of William was so gratifying, and he won so many com- 
mendations from teachers and others that it inspired the whole 
family life in the quest of knowledge. All the boys wanted an 
education, and the father was so pleased that he gladly adopted 
the plan of lending his sons money for higher education, allow- 
ing them to repay it or to deduct it from their portion of his 
estate. William's plan, therefore, deserves credit for the higher 
education of the entire family. Besides this, he became a success- 
ful teacher when very young, and all the younger boys were 
taught by him ; they have all become eminent in their professions 
and are all professional men except John, who is a farmer in 
Missouri, and Joseph, who fell at Chancellorsville in 1863. 

Dr. Long was married to Elizabeth Faucett, daughter of John 




Faucett, clerk of the superior court for Alamance County, on 
June 25, 1861, and they lived together in that happy relation 
till October 2'j^ 1903. The issue of their marriage was a family 
of eight children, four of whom still live. In their long and 
happy union of forty-two years Dr. Long had the abiding sym- 
pathy and earnest co-operation of his wife in all his trials and 
undertakings; and this contributed in a marked degree to what- 
ever success has crowned his work. He contributes his life work 
as a monument to her loving memory. 

On April 19, 1905, Dr. Long was married a second time to 
Mrs. Mary Virginia Ames, only daughter of Captain and Mrs. 
T. R. Gaskins, of Lower Parish, Nansemond County, Va., and 
they reside in Graham, N. C, where he continues as superin- 
tendent of public schools, seeming to ripen in experience and 
service as the years come and go. 

He has been honored by his church, his county, and literary 
institutions. He was president of the Southern Christian Con- 
vention for eight years ; founder and first president of Elon Col- 
lege for five years ; superintendent of public schools for Alamance 
County for many years. Trinity College, N. C, conferred on him 
the degree of A.M. in 1872, and Union Christian College, Ind., 
gave him the degree of D.D. in 1890. In all of these positions 
and under all of these honors he has proved himself worthy and 
efficient. The multitudinous duties and responsibilities which 
have been crowded into his life have not prevented his distinc- 
tion as a preacher of the gospel. He is one of the strongest men 
of the State in the pulpit. His sermons are sound, spiritual, 
ornate and catholic. He has' been the leading preacher and 
educator in Alamance County for thirty years, and has recently 
inspired the erection of graded school buildings in several vil- 
lages and rural districts in the county, including Burlington, 
Graham and Haw River ; and when it is known that Alamance is 
one of the leading counties of the State, such service is seen to 
have greater value. He founded Graham Female Seminary at 
the close of the Civil War ; out of this came Graham High School, 
Graham Normal College and last Elon College, now one of the 


colleges of rank in the State. A student, a thinker, an orator, a 
genial companion, a worker. Dr. Long takes his place easily 
among the first men in North Carolina. He has not pressed his 
claims upon public confidence and favor, but he has come into 
position and useful service by virtue of stalwart manhood, excel- 
lent religious character, unsullied reputation, and fidelity to duty. 
No duty is too small for his painstaking attention, and no position 
too large for his natural and acquired capacity. Many have sat 
at his feet to learn wisdom, and many have touched his heart 
to find it a fountain of sympathy. His work is rather permanent 
than brilliant, and his character is more solid than sparkling. The 
German stock from which he sprang has lost none of its virility 
and intellectual strength by removal from the fatherland, but it 
is simply perpetuated with American additions in his progressive 
and useful life of self-denial for Christian education. "As the 
marble wastes the statue grows" might be applied to illustrate 
how he has given himself to grow in the esteem and affection of 
a good people. Every school bell in the county unconsciously 
rings out his praises and every school building is a monument to 
his honor. 

He was the first in the county of the middle class in society 
to attain to collegiate learning, and the percentage has increased 
till it is the common thing for that class to bear oft* college honors, 
and many from the lower walks of life are aspiring to and win- 
ning diplomas. He is not only a leader, but he was a pioneer in 
education. The value of a man's life, when considered by the 
scope of its influence, would give Dr. Long high rank and wide 
usefulness. He has made his mark in the hearts of men and the 
history of his native county; and he has reached this value like 
the growth of forests, by long and tedious processes. The wealth 
of the forest is the result of unnoticed growth and the acorn that 
started it is lost in the beginning of it ; so great men plant, toil, 
suffer, wait patiently, and then comes the enlightened community, 
the strong character, the enterprising spirit, the corporate 
strength, and yet all may be traced back to one solitary man — so 
the glory of Christendom can be traced to the Man of Galilee. 


Special characteristics that have made Dr. Long may be 
summed up briefly: i. Loyalty to religious convictions. He was 
never diverted from Christ nor personal manhood by fear or 
favor. Whatever temptations he met, he remained true to his 
religious faith and the Scriptures. His foundation was never 
shaken by learning nor gold, by modern criticism nor commer- 
cialism. 2. Life-long devotion to the cause of truth. He despises 
shams and deception. He will sacrifice himself and others for 
right. He despises meanness and trickery. He would spend a 
day contending for a comma in character punctuation, and die 
rather than consent to known wrong. He is a severe critic of 
those who sacrifice principle for place or pay. He counts honor 
more than fame, aLnd right more than success. 3. Inflexible pur- 
pose and will-power. He does not shift in his purpose. He out- 
lines in his mind some noble purpose, and when he once satisfies 
himself that it is right and expedient, he advocates it with a per- 
sistency that is both German and English. This method is a 
mark of his strength. He makes everything revolve around the 
one idea and presses his claim without fear of defeat; but he 
never espouses an unworthy cause, and this gives double strength 
to his purpose and will. 4. Social and conversational gifts. He 
is a genial companion, a ready and well-informed conversational- 
ist, with humor and earnestness enough to make the fireside with 
him a delight to old and young. This social grasp, this natural 
human tie gives him a force that opposition cannot dislodge. 
Fires glow brighter when he speaks, railroad travel becomes a 
pleasure with him as a companion, the feast is richer when he 
sits at the board and all feel that he is at home with the people. 

These are the four corners of his strength on which the edifice 
of his usefulness is builded. He is a model for others in most 
of the strong points of his character. 

W. W. Staley. 


!^^N reviewing the records of the forceful men in 
North CaroHna it is observable that many of 
those whose achievements have been most re- 
markable are sturdy, honest *'sons of the soil." 
It is to men like these, born of smiHng, sunny 
fields and shaggy mountains, that North Caro- 
lina owes the most of her honor and her pride, and among them 
is to be mentioned Dr. Daniel Albright Long, a brother of Judge 
Long and of Dr. W. S. Long. He was born May 22, 1844, at 
the old homestead in Alamance County. His father, Jacob Long, 
enjoyed the highest esteem of all with whom he came in contact. 
Good sense and honesty characterized his dealings with men, and 
his life was modeled along the lines of industry, purity and 

Mr. Long's early life was spent mostly in the country, where he 
obtained an education in spite of serious difficulties for all 
the money set apart by his father for his education was lost in 
the war of 1861. Being in ill health, his father put a substitute 
for him in Lee's army, but the last year he served as lieutenant 
in the North Carolina Home Guards, and was acting as adjutant 
when the command was surrendered by General Joseph E. John- 
ston at the close of the war ; he won and has received the southern 
Cross of Honor. 


When he returned home in 1865 he was in debt. This, how- 
ever, proved a blessing in disguise, since it brought to the fore 
all his latent ability to surmount obstacles, and no character is 
ever stronger for having been helped over the rough places which 
by its own innate power it could pass alone. Despite his heavy 
indebtedness, he paid it all and educated himself thoroughly as 
well. He attended Graham Academy under Dr. W. S. Long, 
afterward studying under Rev. Alexander Wilson, D.D., at Mel- 
ville Academy, where he completed his preparatory course for 
the University of North Carolina. He received the degrees of 
A.M. and D.D. from the University of North Carolina, the degree 
of LL.D. from Union Christian College, and a fellowship from 
Columbia University, New York. He studied also at Yale and 
the University of Virginia. At the age of sixteen, prior to the 
war, he began his career as an educator as teacher in the public 
schools of Alamance County when Rev. C. H. Wiley, D.D., was 
superintendent of public instruction in North Carolina. He was 
ordained to the ministry in the Christian denomination in 1868. 
He was president of the Graham Normal College, the first normal 
college in the State, from 1873 to 1883, when he resigned to accept 
the presidency of Antioch College, Ohio. Here he served for 
sixteen years, and resigned in June, 1899, to care for his mother. 
He then came back to live in North Carolina on the old Long 
homestead, where he was born and reared and around which so 
many happy associations cling. 

Dr. Long is a member of the College Association, a member 
of the National Educational Association, a member of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Christian Philosophy, and a member of the 
council of the American Congress of Churches. He was presi- 
dent, of the American Christian Convention of the United States 
and Canada from 1886 to 1894, and was elected president of the 
Christian Publishing Association of the United States and Canada 
in 1886, which position he also held for eight years. He was 
the editor of the Yellow Springs Review and Spirit and Life for 
several years. He has written a ''History of Antioch College," 
and the prize "History of Coinage," published in 1895. This 


essay was written in hearty approbation of the gold standard 
almost a year before it was made a party issue. 

He has been a Mason for many years. As an orator he ranks 
among the first in his denomination. He names as the books 
which have most helped him in attaining his success the Bible 
and the masterpieces of English, Latin, Greek, French, German 
and Italian literature. Although Mr. Long has "soared fancy's 
flights beyond the pole" and has delved deep into the realms of 
classic fact and fancy, he relies only on the Bible as the mainstay 
of his advancing years. And although he has been to many places 
and seen many men, he comes back to Alamance County with 
these words on his lips : "There is no place on earth like the old 
farm." After attendingthe South's biggest universities at Chapel 
Hill and Charlottesville, as well as Yale and Columbia, Mr. Long 
comes back to his farm and says of athletic training, "There are 
no parallel bars like the plow handles, and no dumb bells equal to 
a good, stout hoe." 

Mr. Long was married first to Miss Ava Warters, daughter of 
James Warters of Lenoir County, N. C. ; second, to Carrie E. 
Bell, and third, December ii, 1895, to Mrs. A. B. Beech. She 
died January 8, 1907. Mrs. Beech was born and reared in Ten- 
nessee. Her maiden name was Sara Stockard, the daughter of 
Colonel Samuel Stuart Stockard and Myra Louise (nee Lester) 
Stockard. Her paternal grandparents were William and Leah 
Stockard (nee Mann). Her great-grandparents were James 
and Ellen Stockard (nee Ellen Trousdale). Leah Mann was the 
granddaughter of James Stuart, of Orange County, N. C. Her 
maternal grandparents were Fountain E. and Sarah Fox Lester 
(nee Sara Fox Napier). Her maternal great-grandparents were 
Patrick and Martha Napier (nee Martha Clayborn). These 
were blood descendants from Lord Delaware and two of the 
early governors of Virginia. Her husband was a Confederate 
soldier. Her father was a colonel in the Mohawk W^ar. Her 
great-grandfathers were officers in the Revolutionary War and 
her mother's grandfather held office under the Crown before the 
Revolutionary War. 


His second wife, the daughter of Colonel D. B. Bell, of Enfield, 
N. C., was the mother of five children, of whom four are now 
living: Margaret Bell, Carrie Eugenia, Lillian Beech and Joseph 
Cromwell. Margaret is the wife of Mr. D. K. Wolfe, Jr., Den- 
ver, Col. They have one child, named Daniel. Carrie is the 
wife of Mr. Charles H. Belvin, Jr., of Raleigh, N. C, and they 
have one child named Lizzie Pullen. Lillian is the wife of Mr. 
George Albert Kernodle, of Elon College, N. C. She has two 
children: Daniel and Carrie Bell. Joseph Cromwell Long, now 
fourteen years of age, was named for his uncles, Joseph Gibbs 
Long, 1st sergeant. Company E, Thirteenth North Carolina 
troops, who was killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cromwell Petway, of Colonel Mat. Ransom's 
regiment, who was killed at Malvern Hill in 1862. The Crom- 
wells of eastern North Carolina, to whom the mother of his chil- 
dren was so closely related, are blood relatives of Oliver Crom- 
well. Mrs. Carrie Eugenia Bell Long was a cultured woman, 
a wise and devoted mother. 

D. A. Long, Jr., died of typhoid, at the age of nineteen, August 
6, 1903. He was nearly through his college course and expected 
to devote his life to music. Like his cousin, Henry Jerome 
Stockard, he was a poet. 

Of Mr. Long it has been said: ''Although guided and advised 
by loving parents all through his early life, when the real de- 
cision had to be made as to how he could do the most good, the 
boy was left to determine for himself, and well for North Caro- 
lina did he decide." 

In 1905, Mr. Long received and accepted a unanimous call as 
pastor of the Hillsboro Street Christian Church, in Raleigh. He 
has traveled in Europe, Egypt and Palestine. 

/. F. Joyner, 


lACOB ALSON LONG of Graham is a member 
of a family that has given to the State several 
men noted not only for strength of character 
but for their intellectual capacity. His father, 
Jacob Long, is the subject of a separate sketch 
in this work. His mother was Jane Stuart 
Stockard, daughter of Colonel John Stockard, who represented 
Orange County in the Legislature almost continuously from 1826 
to 1848, and had been a soldier in the War of 181 2 with rank 
of colonel. 

Born at the old homestead near Graham on April 6, 1846, 
Colonel Jacob A. Long in his boyhood days had the advantage 
of good schools and attended the high school at Graham and the 
academy at Hyco, Va. ; but in 1864, before he had finished his 
course, he left his books and enlisted in Wright's Battery, a 
Virginia organization, and continued with the Army of Northern 
Virginia until Lee's surrender at Appomatox. He was a good 
soldier, and underwent all the hardships and vicissitudes of the 
fearful experience that fell to the lot of Lee's veterans toward 
the close of the struggle, without a murmur and with the spirit 
of a patriot. 

After the war had ended he returned home and eventually 
studied law under William K. Ruffin, a son of Chief Justice 


Ruffin, who was regarded by many as the best teacher of law in 
the State, and whose character and intelHgence left their deep 
impress on all the young men who had the good fortune to be 
his pupils. Having received his license, Colonel Long began the 
practice of law at Graham in 1870, and possessing the con- 
fidence of his neighbors and friends soon became one of the lead- 
ing practitioners of his county. His political affiliations have 
been with the Democratic party, and in 1886 he received the 
Democratic nomination for solicitor of the fifth district, but was 
defeated at the polls. Although an active partisan and a member 
of the State democratic executive committee for many years, he 
has not been ambitious of office, but in 1893 he was prevailed on 
to serve one term in the Legislature, and was recognized as one 
of the strong and leading men of that body. He was chairman 
of the finance committee of the house. 

He has always been an ardent Confederate and much interested 
in whatever concerns the welfare of the old veterans, and he now 
holds the rank of colonel in the United Confederate Veteran's 
Association, Army of Northern Virginia. Colonel Long is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and a Presbyterian in faith, 
which well accords with his personal traits of character, a faith- 
ful adherence to high ideals and fidelity to every trust. Fond 
of his profession, while his reading has been discursive he has 
applied himself diligently to the study of his law books. His 
chief recreation is fishing, which has been very attractive to him 
ever since his boyhood. 

He adopted the law as his profession from his own personal 
preference, as it opened up avenues to usefulness and influence, 
and was in accord with his natural disposition to engage in con- 
tests of an intellectual character; indeed, one of his distinguish- 
ing characteristics has been to be always ready for the fray and 
the last to quit it when once begun. He believes that what suc- 
cess he has met with in life has been largely due to his home 
training, although he considers that contact with the men with 
whom he has associated has also been very beneficial in deter- 
mining his own career. The war interfered with the full com- 


pletion of his educational course and he has felt all through 
life the deficiencies that have arisen from the lack of a more 
thorough preparation than that which, because of the war, he 
was able to obtain. 

Colonel Long played an important part in the subduing of the 
negroes at the close of the War between the States. He joined 
the White Brotherhood in 1868 and was made chief of the 
"Klan" in Alamance County. He organized ten camps in the 
county having some four hundred or five hundred of the best 
men of the county as members, and was instrumental in having 
the White Brotherhood organized in Orange and Caswell coun- 
ties. He was the chief officer of two other organizations also 
known as Ku-Klux, these being the Constitutional Union Guard 
and the Livisible Empire. 

Colonel Long, as chief of "Klans," ordered but one raid, and 
that was to run the armed negroes acting as policemen off of 
the streets of the town of Graham. Judge James E. Boyd, who 
was initiated by Colonel Long and was a member of his camp, 
was also his law partner at that time. When Judge Boyd gave 
the Federal authorities information about the Ku-Klux, Colonel 
Long left the State and went to Arkansas but, owing to the fact 
that his fiance was living in Graham, returned to that place 
after six months. Shortly thereafter he was arrested, being 
charged with being an accessory to the murder of Wyatt Out- 
law, a negro who was hanged by the Ku-Klux-Klan some time 
before the betrayal of the order. The arrest was made at the or- 
der of Judge A. W. Tourgee (q.v.), who was then holding court 
in Graham, while Colonel Long was appearing in a case and 
he was required to give $10,000 bond for his appearance from 
day to day. Judge Tourgee then sent word by one of the grand 
jurors to Colonel Long that he would be released if he would 
divulge the names of other officers in the Ku-Klux-Klan. This 
so angered Colonel Long that he sent back a very curt reply 
in which he refused to disclose anything whatsoever. 

The arrest took place on Monday and the marriage of Colonel 
Long and Miss Esta Teague, which had been set for the follow- 


ing Wednesday, was not postponed on account of it (Dec. 20, 
1871). Two days later Colonel Long was discharged from cus- 
tody, the grand jury ignoring the bill. Mrs. Long was the only 
child of David Patterson Teague, whose wife was Julia Frances 
Faucett, a daughter of John Faucett, clerk of the court of please 
and quarter sessions of Alamance County. Their children are 
Julia Stuart, Jenny Patterson, Jacob Elmer, Pearl Hamilton, 
Ralph, Anna Claudia, Rebekah Kathleen. 

Julia Stuart married Honorable Seth Edward Everett, com- 
monwealth's attorney of the city of Suffolk, Va. Jenney Patter- 
son married John C. Halladay, assistant postmaster of Suffolk, 
Va. Jacob Elmer married the youngest daughter of Captain 
Thomas Lamar Peay, of Durham, N. C, and has been elected 
twice from Alamance County as the representative in the state 
Legislature of North Carolina, and is now the senator from the 
eighteenth senatorial district from the county of Alamance. 
Pearl Hamilton married Robert J. Mebane, of Greensboro, N. C, 
who is a son of the late Judge W. N. Mebane, who resided at 
Madison, N. C. Robert J. Mebane is now the third vice-presi- 
dent of the Southern Life & Trust Co. of Greensboro, N. C. 
Anna Claudia married Hersey Woodward, Jr., of Suffolk, Va., 
who is an employee of the Norfolk & Western Railway Co. 
Ralph and Rebekah Kathleen are unmarried. 

6'. A, Ashe. 


the old Long Homestead on the Haw River 
near Graham, N. C, July 15, 1848. He was 
one of a large family, of which all the surviving 
sons have attained prominence in their various 
JSjIj^^i^^J^^ professions — the ministry, medicine, law and 
education. George was educated in the common schools of the 
neighborhood, the Graham High School, Dr. Alexander Wilson's 
famous school at Hawfields, and the Hillsboro Military Academy. 
He received the degree of M.D. from the University of Penn- 

As a mere boy of sixteen he volunteered at the call of Governor 
Vance for service in the Confederate army and saw active ser- 
vice for a brief period toward the close of the war. He was 
married July 27, 1867, to Miss Mary Catharine Walker, a daugh- 
ter of Dr. John A. Walker of Hawfields. Six children were born 
to them, of whom a son and a daughter, Mrs. Barnett Adams of 
Statesville, jN. C, and George Washington Long, Jr., in busi- 
ness in New York City, are now living. 

All of Dr. Long's mature life was devoted to the practice of 
medicine at Graham, N. C, and there he was an exceedingly 
useful citizen, and was honored with responsible positions in the 
community, his professional associations, and his church. He 


was coroner of the county, president of the Alamance County 
Medical Association and the Medical Society of North Carolina 
and for six years a member of the State Board of Medical 

A few years after his retirement, by limitation from the board 
of examiners, he was elected unanimously the president of the 
State Medical Association. This was the highest gift of that 
body, and it was well earned and richly deserved. He brought 
to this office all the requirements, of a splendid presiding officer. 
His quiet manner, even poise and quick impartial judgment 
added distinguished dignity to the position. His address was 
scholarly, filled with lofty sentiments and noble ideals, a true 
reflection of the mind of the man. His whole life was filled with 
high resolves and noble impulses, with sacrifices and good deeds. 
Truly such a life and character must be an inspiration to the 
profession that he ennobled. 

In religion he was a Presbyterian, and for many years a ruling 
€lder in that Church, representing her in all her courts from the 
Session to the General Assembly. 

Dr. Long well earned the title bestowed on the evangelist Luke 
•of 'The Beloved Physician." But he was more, for he was 
one of the truest of friends and one of the noblest of men. 

After a lingering illness he departed this life to commune with 
the Great Physician on October 16, 191 5. 

An oil painting of Dr. Long by his nephew Mack Long was 
presented in October, 1916, by the North Carolina Medical So- 
ciety to the Hall of History at Raleigh, the presentation address 
was by Dr. L. J. Picot, and the acceptance for the Historical 
Commission by Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

E. C. Murray. 


of the superior court of the Tenth Judicial! 
District, is a resident of Statesville, where he 
has Hved since 1878. He was born near Gra- 
ham, Alamance County, on March 19, 1852,. 
and is a son of Jacob Long and Jane Stuart 
Long. After he had been well prepared at the Graham High 
School, at that time conducted by his brother, Rev. Dr. W. S.. 
Long, he was enabled to enter Trinity College, where he was-- 
graduated in 1874, and then to attend Judge Pearson's law school 
and finally to take a law course at the University of Virginia in> 
1877-78. But on beginning the practice of his profession he was 
in debt for money to obtain his education, which he soon dis- 
charged from the earnings of his business. He was an excellent 
scholar, and when he graduated at Trinity was the valedictorian 
of his class, among whom were Rev. Dr. Staley, Senator Overmam 
and Judge Boykin; for two years he was employed in teaching 
Latin and history in the Graham High School. At the end of 
that engagement he began his professional studies, which he 
prosecuted so earnestly that when he went to the University of 
Virginia he completed in one year the fulj two years' course of 
that institution and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 
He was awarded the orator's medal and was also selected as a. 

£^^ h 

/:/; 'M//,a'^^s SJ^^e AI, 

c:r,;,; r i^ri/^^pf,.-^, Puifisi^. 


representative of the Washington Society to dehver the oration 
at the commencement of that University. 

On his return home, laden with these collegiate honors, his 
friends offered him the nomination for state senator, but his pur- 
pose was to remove to Statesville, and, notwithstanding the flat- 
tering offer which appealed so strongly to his ambition, he de- 
clined to enter pubHc life. In October of that year, he became 
the law partner of Hon. William M. Robbins, one of the foremost 
lawyers of the State, who was then in Congress and had a good 
law practice at Statesville. The following year, December 23, 
1879, he was happily married to Miss Mary Alice Robbins, the 
lovely daughter of his partner, and their business associations 
became closer with this new relationship. 

Endowed with a vigorous intellect, highly educated, and the 
soul of industry, Mr. Long threw himself with all his ardor into 
the practice of his profession. As a matter of recreation he 
edited in 1879 the "Law Lectures" of Judge Pearson from notes 
he had taken while a student at Richmond Hill, and thus he 
preserved for the benefit of others those admirable lectures which 
would have been lost on the death of their learned author. 

For three terms he was solicitor of the inferior court of Ire- 
dell County, was attorney for the city of Statesville, while his 
general practice extended into eight counties. For five years, 
ending in 1885, he was the receiver for the western division of 
the Western North Carolina Railroad and discharged his duties 
with fidelity and exactness. And then for two years he served 
his community as mayor of Statesville, but resigned to accept the 
position of solicitor of the Eighth Judicial District, to which of- 
fice he was elected twice, filling it two terms, eight years. As 
prosecuting officer, he was fearless, bold and impartial; and his 
abilities and learning, no less than his bearing and conduct, gained 
him the respect and esteem of the people of that district so thor- 
oughly that in 1894 he was nominated by them as the Democratic 
candidate for judge of the superior court, but he shared the fate 
of all the Democratic nominees on the state ticket, who that year 
were defeated by the co-operation and alliance between the Re- 


publicans and Populists. At the next election for judges in 1902, 
he was again nominated for the same position and was elected 
by a large majority for the term ending 1910. 

In 1891 he was the author of a bill which resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the graded schools of Statesville. About the same 
time he, with two other public-spirited citizens, organized the 
first cotton mill started in his town. This was the Statesville 
Cotton Mill, which ranks high as one of the industrial institu- 
tions of the State. 

As a lawyer Judge Long is esteemed as a profound student 
of the various branches of professional learning, and as a prac- 
titioner he long enjoyed an enviable reputation. Indeed he has 
been accorded a position in the very front rank of his profes- 
sional brethren. He has appeared in many cases involving large 
interests and has achieved unusual success at the Bar. When 
Chief Justice Furches and one of his associates of the Supreme 
Court were impeached in 1901 Judge Long was employed for 
the defense, and his speech on that occasion for the respondents 
was considered a masterpiece, and so skillfully was the case con- 
ducted that although the misconduct attributed to the judges con- 
sisted in some degree of an alleged unlawful and unconstitutional 
attitude toward the General Assembly the judges were acquitted 
by a senate largely composed of their political opponents. 

Judge Long is a member of the Presbyterian Church. He 
is a member of the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity, of which he 
was at one time the second officer in the United States; and is 
also a Mason, a member of the Royal Arcanum and of the Elks. 
Among his law books, he is fond of Blackstone, whose lucidity 
and fine style excite his admiration; he has read much history 
and has thoroughly enjoyed the masters of English literature. 

It was at his father's fireside that the first impulses came to 
him to contend for the prizes of life ; while listening to the pre- 
cepts of his parents and learning day by day from them the duty 
of practicing virtue, or striving to attain knowledge and of pur- 
suing that course which would entitle him to the respect and re- 
gard of his fellow-men. His father, possessing great strength of 


character and native ability, and his mother being richly en- 
dowed with intellectual gifts and a constant reader of excellent 
books, impressed him to make every effort toward utilizing such 
advantages as were open to him and to acquire the best educa- 
tion possible as the means to achieve success in life. 

Judge Long and Mrs. Long have two daughters and one son 
now living, having been bereaved of two sons. The elder daugh- 
ter, Lois, married R. N. Hackett, a former member of Con- 
gress from the Eighth District. 

As a jurist Judge Long has won great renown. It has been 
his fortune to have tried some cases of unusual importance. 
One of these involved the title of the magnetic iron ore beds of 
Ashe County, of the estimated value of half a miUion dollars. 
It was fiercely fought at the Bar^ and numerous exceptions were 
taken to the judge's rulings. But on a calm review of the record 
by very able counsel, the defeated litigants under the advice of 
their counsel abandoned their appeal. In the case of Hill and 
others, vs. Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Co., et al., in- 
volving more than two millions of property, and where every 
possible exception was taken, Judge Long wrote an opinion set- 
ting forth the contentions of the parties and his rulings and the 
reasons therefor, and was sustained at every point by the Su- 
preme Court. These cases will illustrate his learning and effi- 
ciency as a trial judge. But he has had a particular distinction. 
For many years, at the North and the South alike, when the 
passions of men have been aroused by the commission of some 
shocking crime, they have disregarded the courts and have in 
their indignant wrath inflicted speedy punishment on the objects 
of their rage. Lynching was not uncommon; and the local 
community being in sympathy with the lynchers, they always 
escaped punishment. In August, 1906, several negroes were in 
the jail at Salisbury to be tried for a barbarous murder of which 
they were undoubtedly guilty. A mob of white men came into 
the town in the night-time to lynch them. The court solicitors 
had taken every precaution in their power to protect the prisoners 
and to give them a trial, but the officers of the county had been 


over-reached and deceived by the artful maneuvers of a mob 
largely composed of persons non-residents of Rowan. Notwith- 
standing the presence of a military company, the crowd that 
night battered down the door of the jail, and in a storm of 
anger put three of the six prisoners to death. This was done 
Monday night, August 6th, the first day of court, on which day 
court had opened and a venire to try the prisoners had been 
ordered returnable on the 7th. On the next morning when Judge 
Long opened court, the community, and indeed all that part of 
the State, being convulsed with excitement, he sent for the grand 
jury, and in delivering his charge to them at the opening an- 
nounced: ''God Almighty reigns and the Law is still supreme. 
This court will not adjourn until this matter is investigated." 
Every effort was made to shield those who had participated in 
the affair. Proof was difficult, but Judge Long's action was 
such that the eyes of the State — indeed, of nearly every State — 
were fixed upon him. He declared that he would maintain the 
majesty of the law. Bravely, staunchly, unmoved, he held his 
course and caused the arrest of many suspected of the crime, 
only one of whom, however, could be convicted. The convict 
Hall is the only man ever convicted and sentenced for such a 
crime in the State. On appeal his rulings and judgment were 
confirmed. Hall is now in the penitentiary, serving a sentence 
of fifteen years. Everywhere the Press rang with his praises 

"It will be impossible," said the Star of Indianapolis, "to exaggerate 
or overestimate the tremendous service rendered to his State or to his 
race by Judge B. F. Long, of Statesville, N. C, who has just sentenced 
a white lyncher to fifteen years in the penitentiary. This brave and upright 
judge, and all who have co-operated with him, have rendered their fellow- 
citizens and the cause of self-government everywhere a service which is 
worthy the best traditions of Carolinian chivalry and statesmanship." 

Leading papers and leading men in every State gave him 
merited applause. 

A year later Judge Long tried another case that brought him 
yet greater prominence. In February, 1907, the Legislature 
passed an act fixing the passenger rate at 2%. cents, and making 


a violation of that act a misdemeanor. The railroad companies 
obtained from the circuit court of the United States an injunc- 
tion order prohibiting the enforcement of that law until the ques- 
tion of its constitutionality should be determined. This order 
was made by the circuit judge June 29, 1907, two days before 
the rate law went into effect. Under that order the Southern 
Railroad Company did not observe the law, but through its agent, 
Green, continued to sell tickets at Raleigh (as elsewhere) at the 
old rates. 

On the 8th of July, 1907, Wake superior court convened. 
Judge Long presiding. The situation was novel, the conditions 
had developed suddenly. There were no precedents, but Judge 
Long had in the brief interval given the subject careful and 
anxious thought. In addressing the grand jury Judge Long 
directed them very particularly to inquire whether the railroads 
of the State were violating the criminal law in selling tickets at a 
higher rate than that provided by the statute. In consequence 
of this charge, Ticket Agent Green was indicted for selling a 
ticket at Raleigh at a rate exceeding 2^4 cents, and was arrested. 
The passage of the act by the Assembly had developed much 
friction. The order of Judge Pritchard suspending the opera- 
tion of the law largely increased the excitement in the State. 
When it was thought that Green would be arrested, Judge Pritch- 
ard announced that officers and agents of the company acting 
under his orders would be protected, and when the arrest was 
made Judge Pritchard came to Raleigh for the purpose, it was 
believed, of issuing a writ of habeas corpus for his release. 
But Judge Long promptly ordered the sheriff to deliver the body 
of the prisoner up to the court, and the judge took Green into 
his own possession. He did not require Green to remain in his 
presence during the trial, however, except when court was in 
session. It was denied that the circuit court of the United States 
had the right to suspend a criminal law of the State ; it was 
denied that because of the application for injunctive relief, that 
court came into possession of the whole subject matter to the 
exclusion of the jurisdiction of the state courts. It was denied 


that a Federal court could enjoin or interfere with the superior 
court, the grand jury or its officers in indictments .or trials for 
crimes committed in the State, and only against the laws of the 
State, wherein the state court alone had sole and exclusive juris- 
diction of the subject matter and the accused; it was denied 
that a citizen of a foreign State, corporate or individual, could 
sue the State, and enjoin it and its court, in a Federal court under 
either the nth or 14th amendment to the constitution of the 
United States; it was denied that a Federal judge could protect 
a citizen who was daily and hourly violating the criminal law of 
the State and take him out of the hands of the state officials 
and set him at liberty on a writ of habeas corpus. And the as- 
sertion of a right on the part of a Federal judge to exercise such 
power inflamed the people and there was a period of great excite- 
ment. It was when this excitement was at its height that Judge 
Long himself took possession, as a state judge, of the person 
of the defendant Green. Judge Pritchard seemed to have realized 
the delicate situation. He did not issue the writ, but at once 
returned to Asheville. The power of the state court over Green 
was not interfered with and the case was tried without interrup- 
tion. It attracted widespread attention. On behalf of the State, 
Governor Aycock, Speaker Justice and an array of great coun- 
sel presented the argument, while astute lawyers appeared for the 
railroad company. Both the Southern Railroad Company and 
Agent Green were held guilty of misdemeanor. On Green's 
promising to observe the law he was fined $5 and set free. The 
company would not agree to desist from selling tickets against 
the law and was fined $30,000. In his ruling Judge Long held 
that the Federal court could not suspend the criminal laws of 
the State, nor protect a citizen who was violating the state laws. 
There was some doubt as to whether the act of Assembly made 
the company punishable for misdemeanor in violating the law; 
but the judge held that the company was guilty because it com- 
manded its agent to commit the act, and as the grade of the' 
offense was a misdemeanor the principal and agent were both 
guilty. On appeal the Supreme Court held differently, saying 


that the act, by its terms, made only the person who violates 
the law guilty of a misdemeanor, and limited the punishment 
of the company to the penalty defined in the act. This was only 
an incident to the main question. In all his other rulings Judge 
Long was sustained unanimously by the Supreme Court. The 
question of transcendent importance was the question of juris- 
diction, and the Supreme Court sustained his rulings in every 
phase as to jurisdiction. Because of the result of this trial, 
the Southern Railroad Company, eight days after the verdict 
and judgment, suggested to the governor of the State that it 
would obey the law of the State, and it applied to the circuit 
court of the United States to modify its orders, allowing it to 
conform to the rates established by the State, pending the in- 
vestigation as to their legality in the courts. 

It was considered that in this matter was involved a very im- 
portant phase of states-rights, whether the State had a right to 
fix rates and to require obedience to the law until the law should 
be ascertained judicially to be unconstitutional. And it was fur- 
ther considered that the orderly method of determining that 
question was by invoking in the first instance the authority of 
the state courts, and then by writ of error removing the case for 
final decision to the Supreme Court of the United States ; that 
a foreign corporation should not be allowed to sue the State, 
abuse its laws or violate them and shield itself from punishment 
by injunction or habeas corpus. Judge Long's action and de- 
cision led first to the observance of the state law by the railroad 
companies and to quieting the public mind which had been so 
greatly agitated ; and finally to an arrangement, confirmed by the 
Legislature at a special session, under which satisfactory pas- 
senger rates were established for all the south Atlantic States. 

5. A. Ashe. 


[ACHARIAH INGE LYO,N was born June i, 
1 815, in Granville County, N. C, and was a son 
of Zachariah T. and Mary Lanier Lyon, both 
natives of that county. Z. T. Lyon, the father 
of the subject of this sketch, was a planter, but 
subsequently died in Norfolk, Va., in 181 5, 
while serving his country in the United States army. It was his 
dying request that his son's middle name should be Inge, in honor 
of the captain under whom he was serving at the time of his 
death, and about the time young Zachariah was born. 

The Lyon family were among the early settlers of Virginia 
and North Carolina, having come to Virginia about the middle 
of the seventeenth and to North Carolina about the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. Tracing this family back to the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century, they were prominent and suc- 
cessful tillers of the soil. Little of the early life of Zachariah 
Inge Lyon can be obtained, but he availed himself of such educa- 
tional facilities as his day and time afforded, which were crude 
and limited. The "old field school," as it was known in that 
day, was his college, and there he laid the foundation for his 
future. He was the youngest of four sons — Robert, Elkana and 
John. He was the first among the Lyon family to branch out 


"-^ ^<?^^ r4^r//,^ms 3Bi-^ An^ 

/. eZ^ 


from and give attention to other vocations than farming. Being 
possessed of a progressive and public-spirited nature, he was in 
early manhood selected as deputy sheriff of Granville County, 
which position he worthily filled for several years. 

In 1852 he moved to Durham station, now the city of Dur- 
ham, and accepted a position supervising the grading of the 
North Carolina Railroad, which was completed the same year. He 
also filled the same position on the Western North Carolina and 
Chatham Railroad, continuing in the meantime to cultivate his 
home farm until 1865. He was exempt, through his connection 
with railroading, from service in the Confederate army. In 1867 
he formed a copartnership with his son, J. Ed. Lyon, and began 
the manufacturing of smoking tobacco on his farm near Durham. 
The firm was styled J. Ed. Lyon & Company. At first they only 
employed three or four hands. The tobacco was beaten (or 
granulated) with flails and sticks, and then sifted through a wire 
cloth to extract the stems and the dust. They adopted as their 
brand the 'Tride of Durham.'* This brand soon established quite 
a reputation and demand, and was regarded as one of the best and 
purest articles of smoking tobacco manufactured in the United 
States. In 1868 J. Ed. Lyon sold his interest in the business to 
his brother, C. H. Lyon, and formed a copartnership with John 
R. Green in the manufacture of the Durham Bull brand of smok- 
ing tobacco, and the former firm assumed the name of Z. I. 
Lyon & Company. In 1869 J. Ed. Lyon sold his interest with 
J. R. Green and entered into a new copartnership with Z. I. Lyon, 
and afterward took in as partners J. W. Cheek and F. C. Geer, 
for the manufacture of the "Pride of Durham." These two lat- 
ter gentlemen put into the business $300 each, and in ten years 
they were paid $10,000 each for their interests. With enlarged 
facihties and additional business sagacity and experience, the 
business soon mounted the highway of great popularity and suc- 

Z. I. Lyon & Company continued to do an extensive business 
until 1886, when they sold their business and brand to Captain 
E. J. Parrish, who continued for several years to manufacture 


the "Pride of Durham" under the old firm name. No better evi- 
dence could be adduced as to the popularity of the old firm than 
that their worthy successor continued to do business in their 
name. In their business relations it was often said that Z. I. 
and J. Ed. Lyon did not have to give a bond, their word being 
sufficient. When Captain E. J. Parrish went to Japan to repre- 
sent the American Tobacco Company the "Pride of Durham"' 
brand was taken over by that company. 

In 1886 Mr. Z. I. Lyon retired from active business life, hav- 
ing worked successfully in building up and placing upon a solid- 
foundation of prosperity the celebrated "Pride of Durham," and 
as one of Durham's pioneer tobacco manufacturers, he, through 
his indefatigable industry, wise business management and hon- 
orable dealings, established an enviable reputation. Quick to dis- 
cern and improve opportunities, of inflexible will-power, not easily 
discouraged, he pursued his vocation with a pertinacity which 
brooked no failure. He began life with limited means and ad- 
vanced step by step, fully mastering his business in all of its 
minutest details. He was strictly courteous and honorable in aB 
his business transactions ; alive to the best interests of his work- 
men, and may be justly termed one of the most prominent build- 
ers of Durham. As a Christian gentleman he was known by all^ 
men to be faithful and firm. He had been an active member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for fifty years prior to- 
his death, which occurred August 7, 1887. 

He was twice married. His first wife was Nancy B. Walker,, 
of Orange County. They were married in the year 1840. 
To this union were born eleven children (eight sons and three 
daughters), namely, J. Ed., Annie B,, Cadmus H., John C, Rob- 
ert E., Sarah E., Zachariah F., Nancy V. C, William G. (died in 
infancy), Andrew J., and Thomas F. His second wife was Mrs. 
Mary McMannen, widow of Rev. John A. McMannen, of the 
Methodist church. There were no children from this union. 

James A. Robinson. 


HE subject of this sketch, George Leonidas 
Lyon, was born in Durham, N. C, February 
3, 1881. He was the second son of Robert 
Elkana and Mary Duke Lyon, and the grand- 
son of two captains of industry, Zachariah I. 
Lyon, manufacturer and originator of the 
*Tride of Durham" smoking tobacco, and Washington Duke,, 
manufacturer, patriot and philanthropist, sketches of whom will 
be found in the present work. 

George Lyon received his academic training at Horner School 
(Oxford), at Guilford College and Trinity College. But neither 
his disposition nor his interests encouraged him to pursue any 
of the learned professions, and it was by the merest accident, it 
seems, that he found a career in which he could distinguish him- 
self and a profession that could claim his time and energy. While 
visiting in Baltimore in 1901, he was invited to attend a match 
at the Baltimore Shooting Association. One of the members of 
this association took enough interest in young Lyon to show him 
how to hit inanimate targets, and the pupil became so apt that 
he at once attracted the attention of the members of the associa- 
tion, and in a remarkably short time jumped into fame as an 
amateur and then as a professional trap-shooter. 

From 1906 till 1910 he shot as an amateur. His shooting^ 


at Indianapolis in 1906, where he competed successfully in the 
Grand American Handicap, brought him into national fame, 
which was sustained a year later at Chicago, and in 1908 he won 
the Great Eastern Handicap at Boston, making ninety-one suc- 
cessful shots out of a hundred at nineteen yards. He continued 
piHng up winnings as an amateur until 1910, when he joined 
the professionals. A short time afterward America sent a team 
of amateurs to the Olympic Games in Stockholm, Sweden, and 
George Lyon accompanied the team as coach and adviser, and 
it was due in part to his work that the American team was 

He established his claim to national distinction by defeating 
Lester German in 191 1 in a match game for the world champion- 
ship at inanimate targets. This title was won at Atlantic City, 
and later defended in a contest between Lyon and German at the* 
Dupont Trap Shooting Club, Wilmington, Del., May 4, 191 2. It 
was in 191 5 that he made a record-breaking record at the New 
York Athletic Club grounds, Travers Island, where against a 
field of one hundred and forty-three of the crack shots of the 
country he won out for the national championship honor with 
a total of one hundred and ninety-two breaks out of two hundred 
targets. He also won the preliminary event with a score of one 
hundred and ninety-one out of two hundred targets. These win- 
nings, with his average of three hundred and eighty-three breaks 
out of four hundred, established a new record in this country. 
This victory the young champion considered his greatest triumph. 
At that time he was in very poor health, but he finished with the 
remarkable record given above. The best previous score he had 
made was one hundred and eighty-eight out of two hundred. His 
winning of the preliminary handicap at the same time and place 
was by a score that passed any ever before turned in. Previous 
to this contest he won the annual championship of the Long 
Island Club, held at the Manhassett Yacht Club. The last impor- 
tant shoot in which he took part was a Southern handicap at 
Memphis, Tenn., held in May, 191 5. At that time he pushed 
Wood folk Henderson to the limit for high average honors, but 


his strength was now failing and his career was coming to a 
close. His health did not permit him to enter into any other 
great contest. 

While still young this inclination for sport found for him an 
occupation that was congenial to his disposition and in harmony 
with his brilliant but short career. The Remington Arms Com- 
pany discovered in him a very worthy representative, and he 
remained in the employ of this company until his failing health 
made it possible only for him to serve one master — the dreaded 
disease that had already claimed him for a victim. 

Feeling that his life was ebbing away, he went to Albuquerque, 
N. M., in search of health, but his journey was in vain. The 
summons had already come, and on January 11, 1916, he died 
at St. Joseph's Sanatorium, Albuquerque, N. M., in his thirty- 
fifth year. 

He was regarded as one of the best all-round shots in this 
country and was respected as a clean-cut and congenial sports- 
man. Sporting Life of Philadelphia paid him this tribute: 

"George L. Lyon was one of the greatest trap shooters that ever stepped 
to the firing line." 

The sporting fraternity has organizations called Indian bands, 
or tribes, and this beautiful tribute by one of these tribes is paid 
to the subject of the sketch: 


"George L, Lyon, of Durham, N. C, is dead, as announced by the 
signal fires built at Albuquerque, N. M., January 11, 1916. The spirit 
of one of the very best of the Okoboji Indian chiefs has passed to the 
happy hunting grounds. Yet Chief Bull Durham will live in the memory 
of the tribe until generations have come and gone, until a sufficient 
number of years have passed that the falling of the seared and withered 
leaves, dropped by the winter blasts, will make a comfortable covering to 
his grave and memory. The Great Spirit will welcome Chief Bull Durham 
to the realms of the happy hunters. His many acts of kindness on this 
mundane sphere have been placed to his credit, hence there is much due 
him in the happy hunting grounds. 

"Popular here, popular there, hence the sunny smile, winning manners, 
and most pleasing personality of George L. Lyon will constitute him a 


star guest in the realms where men are weighed up for their true worth 
and their welcome extended accordingly. We have lost a valued chief and 
a close friend. The Great Father beckoned and he has gone to that land 
from which no warrior returns. He has gone from our ranks and council, 
but never from our hearts. Until the next regular meeting of the tribe, 
this tribute from the high chief will represent the sorrow and grief of 
the tribe as an entirety. 

"In witness hereof, in deep token of our respect, sympathy, regret and 
esteem we, the tribe of Okoboji Indians, inclusive of squaws and papooses, 
assure the family of Chief Bull Durham that in their hour of grief and 
trouble we sorrow with them. Hereunto is fixed the official seal of the 
Okoboji Indians. 

"Tom a. Marshal, High Chief. 

"Chicago, January 12, 1916." 

The following tribute from the celebrated Mr. Sousa is but 
one of many similar expressions rendered to Mr. Lyon's memory 
by the large hosts of friends which he had in all the walks of 

"The companionship of Mr. Lyon and myself was one of sunshine and 
happiness at all times. 

"I admired him tremendously for his worth as a man and was very 
proud of his achievement as a wonderful shot. 

"I question if there are many men who were so generally beloved as 
George Lyon. 

"While his individuality and personality always commanded the respect 
of those who met him, there was something so cheery and happy about 
him that everybody felt at ease in his presence. 

"I am sure his memory will remain in the hearts of all who knew him. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

"John Philip Sousa." 

Mr. Lyon was married November 6, 1900, to Miss Snowden 
Carr, daughter of the late L. A. Carr, of Durham, and a 
niece of George W. Watts, the Durham philanthropist. His 
wife preceded him to the grave by two years. Three children 
survive him: Clara E., George L., Jr., and Mary Duke; and 
he leaves one brother, E. B. Lyon, and one sister, Mrs. J. E. 

Soon after his marriage he connected himself with the Presby- 



terian Church. He served his city as police and fire commis- 
sioner until his failing health compelled him to resign. At his 
death he was a member of the New York Athletic Club, the 
Quail Roost Gunning Club, of Durham, and seventy-two other 
sporting clubs and social orders. He was a Mason, and just 
before his death he had the thirty-third degree conferred upon 
him in Albuquerque, N. M. Moreover, he was a stockholder in 
a number of Durham enterprises. His genial and sunny dis- 
position won for him a host of friends, and the number of clubs 
in which he retained membership is an evidence of his popu- 
larity. He lived and died a true sportsman. 

E. C. Brooks. 


EW men occupied a relatively more important 
position in the colonial history of North Caro- 
lina than Henry McCulloh, who, after Lord 
Granville, was the largest landholder that the 
colony or State ever knew. He was also an 
importer of settlers, and was in part instru- 
mental in turning to North Carolina the stream of Scotch-Irish 
folk. His son, Henry Eustace McCulloh, was agent for the 
colony in England, and to the father is attributed the proposal of 
that line of taxation which resulted in the revolt of the American 

Henry McCulloh signs himself as of Turnham Green, in the 
county of Middlesex. He was a grandson of James McCulloh 
of Grogan and a descendant of Sir Cullo O'Neil, first laird of 
Myrton in Scotland, who was a son of the family of Claneboys in 
Ireland. He was a great-uncle of James Iredell, the elder, being 
a brother of James McCulloh, whose daughter Margaret mar- 
ried Mr. Francis Iredell, a merchant of Bristol. The genealogy 
of the family is worked out with considerable detail in McRee's 
''Life and Correspondence of James Iredell," and it is unneces- 
sary to trace it further in the present sketch. 

We know nothing of McCulloh's earlier years, but he seems to 


have been a prosperous merchant in London as early as 1726, 
when he says that he was acquainted with and gave assistance to 
Gabriel Johnston, later governor of North Carolina. This would 
place the date of his birth back in the seventeenth century. His 
first connection with North Carolina seems to have been about 
1736, when he conceived the idea of obtaining grants and paying 
for the same by the importation of settlers. In that year he 
presented a Memorial to the Crown in which he asked for a tract 
of land to be surveyed on the headwaters of Pee Dee, Cape Fear 
and Neuse rivers. It was his purpose, according to his Memorial, 
to bring in a settlement of foreign Protestants and others who 
were to engage in the making of pot and pearl ashes, at that time 
one of the most important imports of England; to raise hemp, 
produce naval stores and trade in furs. This proposal was re- 
peatedly considered by the Board of Trade, and on May 19, 1737, 
an order in council was issued under which warrants for 1,200,- 
000 acres of land were allowed to Murray Crymble, James Huey 
and their associates. Of this company McCulloh was the leading 
spirit, the others being little more than figureheads. The warrant 
directed that the lands were to be surveyed into blocks of 100,000 
acres each, and patents were to be issued in such quantities as 
were desired, provided that the smallest tracts were to contain 
not less than 12,500 acres. Patents for these lands did not issue 
until March 3, 1745-46, and they were to be quit-rent free for 
ten years from the date of the patent. 

These lands were located substantially as follows: Tracts i, 2, 
3 and 5 were located on the waters of the Yadkin and the Ca- 
tawba ; Nos. I and 3 were assigned to John Selwyn, one of the 
associates and father of George Augustus Selwyn, to whom they 
were soon transferred, and for whom the Selwyn Hotel in Char- 
lotte is named; tracts 2 and 5 went to Arthur Dobbs, of Castle 
Dobbs in Ireland, later governor of North Carolina. Tracts Nos. 
6 and 9 lay on the Yadkin ; tract Nos. 4, 7, 8 and 10 were on the 
Yadkin and Uwharrie ; tract No. 1 1 was held with Joshua Will- 
cox, and lay on the Cape Fear and Deep River; tract No. 12 lay 
on Flat, Eno and Tar rivers. At the same time another tract for 


71,160 acres was granted to McCulloh by Governor Johnston, 
and located between Black River and the northeast branch of 
Cape Fear River in Duplin and Sampson counties. 

It was found on the survey of Lord Granville's line that tracts 
9, 10, II and 12 and part of tract 8, amounting in all to 475,000 
acres, lay within that territory. Lord Granville did not disturb 
the arrangements made by McCulloh. He took back 175,000 
acres, allowing McCulloh to retain the other 300,000 acres on 
the same terms as the lands held from the King, and also granted 
him an extension of time in which to complete his settlements. 
These had been much retarded by the French and Indian War, 
and McCulloh was already behind in his quit-rents. 

In 1754 it was reported to the authorities that McCulloh and 
associates had taken out patents for 1,200,000 acres, of which 
475,000 acres lay within Granville's line and 725,000 acres to the 
south of that line; that according to the terms of the original 
grant McCulloh was to settle on this land 3,625 foreign Protes- 
tants, while he had in reality up to that time settled but 854. In 
November, 1757, Governor Dobbs reported to the Board of 
Trade that tracts i, 2, 6 and 7 were very much broken with steep, 
stony and rocky hills, and therefore settled in but few places. He 
estimated that there were then on tracts Nos. i and 3 about 400 
souls ; on Dobbs' tract Nos. 2 and 5 about 700 ; on No. 4, about 
500 ; on Nos. 6 and 8, about 42 ; on No. 7, about 43 ; on No. 8, 
y2', on No. 9, 720; on No. 10, 540; on No. 11, 714; on No. 12, 


Even these figures were found to be over-estimates, for a little 
later Alexander and Frohock were appointed to make an official 
investigation as to the number of inhabitants, and reported in 
1766 that in March, 1760 there were 167 white persons settled on 
tract No. 4; 57 on tracts Nos. 7 and 8, and 115 on McCulloh's 
tract in Duplin, with 18 on tract No. i and 240 on tract No. 3. 

Immigration had been greatly retarded by the disturbed state 
of the frontier. The French War and then the Cherokee War 
had driven even the most daring pioneers back on the stronger 
centers of civilization, and McCulloh succeeded in having the time 


limit moved forward to March, 1760. He succeeded also in 
getting the quit-rents due from him charged against the salary- 
due to him from the colonial governments. He then appointed 
John Campbell, of Bertie, and Henry Eustace McCulloh, his son, 
as agents and attorneys to sell his lands, and give titles for the 
same. After the war with the Cherokees came to an end a com- 
promise was effected, by which he and his associates were allowed 
to retain the amount of land that they had earned by the impor- 
tation of settlers on a basis of 200 acres for each settler. Com- 
missioners were appointed to ascertain their numbers, and Henry- 
Eustace McCulloh sought to fix his lines in order to open smaller 
tracts for actual settlers. But he found much difficulty in doing 
this. The lands in the Mecklenburg and Anson section were 
claimed by both the Carolinas; there were surveyors there from 
South Carolina locating grants made by that province ; there were 
other surveyors locating grants from North Carolina ; there were 
still other surveyors locating McCulloh grants. Disorders were 
frequent; riot reigned, and some lives were lost. McCulloh had 
become attorney and agent for George Augustus Selwyn, the 
owner, and did all that was possible to bring order out of chaos. 
He met a committee of the people, headed by Thomas Polk, and 
came to an understanding with them on terms which appealed to 
all parties because of their justice and fairness ; but when he 
returned later to begin the actual work of surveying, he was 
met again by the settlers, again under the leadership of the same 
Thomas Polk, who had accepted the former terms, and was 
warned off the land. That this warning was not an idle threat 
is evident from the vivid letter which McCulloh writes from 
Mecklenburg in May, 1765, to his friend Edmund Fanning, in 
which he describes the indignities, the insults and the actual 
thrashings which some of his surveyors had received at the 
hands of the enraged populace. 

Compromises were finally made with the settlers, and in 1767 
McCulloh and associates surrendered their grants to the King, 
"with exception of such parts only as they may have deeded 
or reserved in right of the settlement effected." McCulloh was 


also at a later date released from paying the quit-rents that had 
accrued since March 25, 1760, on the lands surrendered in 1767, 
and his bond to secure the same was cancelled. Even after 
this surrender of the greater part of his original grants he still 
had much valuable land in North Carolina (McRee says 64,000 
well-selected acres), which he continued to sell to settlers down 
to the days of the Revolution. 

McCulloh had not obtained these lands without effort nor held 
them in peace and quiet. He charged that soon after the grants 
were made Governor Johnston and Matthew Rowan, the sur- 
veyor-general, conspired to beat him out of the fees for survey- 
ing. Without instructions or request from him and contrary to 
his wishes the whole of the tract granted was surveyed at one 
time, and for the most part in one body, which was greatly to his 
financial disadvantage. Rowan then undertook to collect from 
the company of associates the fees for the whole of the survey, 
while McCulloh objected both to the manner and form of the 
survey and the amount of the fees demanded. There was a 
long correspondence between McCulloh and the colonial govern- 
ment; there were many charges and counter-charges, many com- 
plaints and counter-complaints, and for eighteen months McCul- 
loh was in the custody of the sheriff, although not in prison. He 
complained bitterly of (Johnston's action ,in this matter, and 
charged him with ingratitude and perfidy. He says that he had 
greatly befriended Johnston, that from 1726 to 1734 "he was 
almost wholly supported by the money advanced by your memo- 
rialist, who not only paid the fees of his commission, freighted 
a ship at his own expense to carry the said governor and his 
retinue to his said government, bought plate and furniture for his 
house and (that he might not be immediately in want of money 
on his arrival there) gave him credit for £250 sterling." 

It would seem that as soon as McCulloh presented his me- 
morial for land grants he began the actual work of importing 
settlers. In 1736 he sent out certain Scotch-Irish families who 
had been settled in Ulster. They were the van guard of that 
great body of immigrants of the same race and religion who in 


the next forty years were to do so much for the making of the 
commonwealth. The grant on which they were located lay be- 
tween the northeast branch of Cape Fear and Black rivers in 
Duplin and Sampson counties, and consisted of some 71,160 
acres. Alexander McCulloch, a relative of Henry, and John 
Campbell of Bertie were appointed agents for the sale of this 
land. McRee says that McCulloh's fortune, although large, w^as 
much reduced by these efforts at colonization. 

As early as January, 1738-39, we find McCulloh called into 
consultation by the lords of trade on Carolina affairs. He seems 
to have made himself indispensable to the board on that subject 
at an early date, and on May 16, 1739, was appointed inspector 
and comptroller-general of revenues and grants in North and 
South Carolina at a salary of i6oo a year, with an allowance of 
£200 a year for clerk hire. It appears that he came out to Caro- 
lina in October, 1740, and remained till 1747. He was in Wil- 
mington in March, 1741-42 and then published a notice to "all 
gentlemen freeholders and others" with rules and regulations and 
the King's instructions on the collection of quit-rents. In Novem- 
ber, 1 741, he submitted to the home authorities a long list of pro- 
posals, under which he hoped to settle the question of quit-rents 
in the Carolinas. He complains that he met with no support from 
the lords of the treasury or the Board of Trade, and that his ef- 
forts to collect quit-rents ran counter to the interests of Governor 
Johnston and the provincial officials, because they interfered with 
their fees. These officials were therefore hostile to McCulloh; 
he charged them with various frauds, and along with Corbin, 
Morris, Dobbs and others, made an unsuccessful effort to have 
Johnston removed from office. 

McCulloh did not have an easier time in his efforts to enforce 
collection in South Carolina than he had had in North Carolina. 
"To my great surprise I found that the members of his Majesty's 
council and all the other officers of the Crown were the only 
persons I had to contend with," he writes ; but this opposition in 
both provinces of the officials who were making fortunes for 
themselves out of the public lands was fatal to McCulloh, for 


his salary was to be paid out of the quit-rents, which he was 
unable to collect. After his return to England he put in a claim 
for his salary, amounting to £6,200, payment of which was finally 
allowed on condition that he resign his post, May 16, 1748, and 
accept this sum in lieu of all claims. This was agreed to, and 
he was later allowed to charge this sum up against the quit-rents 
which he was himself due to the Crown. Taken as a whole, his 
efforts to serve the Crown seem to have met with no substantial 

When McCulloh returned to England in 1747 it was as the 
representative of the six Northern counties in their struggle be- 
fore the Board of Trade for representation in the North Carolina 
Assembly. This struggle grew out of the effort of Governor 
Johnston to reduce the representation of these counties. Under 
the fundamental constitutions they had claimed and had always 
exercised the right of sending five representatives each to the 
General Assembly. Johnston undertook to repeal this old law, 
and for that purpose called the Assembly to meet in Wilmington 
in December, 1746. The northern counties, Currituck, Pasquo- 
tank, Perquimans, Chowan, Bertie and Tyrrell, agreed among 
themselves to send no representatives, as they could in that way 
break the quorum. But the Rump met under Johnston*s appoint- 
ment, and by "management, precipitation and surprise," repealed 
the old law, made a new apportionment, passed a court act, and 
fixed the seat of government at Newbern. The northern coun- 
ties, claiming their five representatives each under the charters 
of Charles II, the fundamental constitutions and immemorial cus- 
tom, refused to recognize the acts of the Rump and sent McCul- 
loh to England to appear for them before the Board of Trade. 
There the matter was considered for a long time, and Johnston 
waited in vain for a decision. Finally, when Dobbs came out as 
governor in 1754, he brought instructions that the representation 
of the northern counties should remain as it had been, and so the 
older counties were successful in their nullification of colonial 
law and retained their old advantage in numbers till the days of 
the Revolution. Then, when the fires of war were fusing the 


colony into a single body politic, this special and long-cherished 
advantage was surrendered without discussion.* 

The evidence shows also that it was the subject of this sketch, 
the promoter of immigration and collector of quit-rents, who first 
suggested to the British authorities the question of the Stamp 
Act. As this part of his career has been worked out with con- 
siderable detail by Mr. Shaw from manuscript materials in the 
British Archives, it can best be told in the words of the editor 
of his "Miscellaneous Representations Relative to our Concerns 
in America." Mr. Shaw says : 

"There are a few references to him during this last period of his 
life which transcend all the others in historical importance. In February 
and March, 1756, he petitions the Duke of Newcastle for relief in con- 
nection with the meeting of the bills of exchange drawn on the receiver 
of the quit-rents in South Carolina. And in the following year he sub- 
mits to the Duke a proposal for the introduction of exchequer bills of 
union in the colonies, with the object of enabling the provincial (that is, 
the colonial) soldier to pass from province to province without having 
to use the local provincial bills. This proposal was an eminently practical 
one, and would have had an effect much wider than McCulloh intended, 
had it been carried out. His purpose was simply to remove the one 
great obstacle to the general recruiting and service of the colonial 

*The records show that there were two men in North Carolina during 
this period by the name of Henry McCulloh, who have been in the past 
confused by students with each other. Thus Mr. William A. Shaw, who 
has recently published McCulloh's "Miscellaneous Representations rela- 
tive to our Concerns in America" (London, c. 1905), says that McCulloh 
seems to have been transferred in 1746 to Louisburg after its capture by 
the New Englanders, but it must have been another man of the same 
name, for our Henry McCulloh did not leave North Carolina till 1747, and 
was for the next few years working on the question of the representation 
of the northern counties. Shaw says further that McCulloh had long been 
a candidate for the office of secretary of North Carolina and clerk of 
the Crown, and quotes numerous letters on this matter from the British 
records. We know that a Henry McCulloh succeeded Nathaniel Rice as 
secretary and clerk of the Crown, and we have a letter from Governor 
Dobbs, written October 28, 1755, in which he says, "Yesterday Henry 
McCulloh, Esquire, secretary of this province, dyed." Mr. McRee also 
says that the Henry McCulloh who was connected with Iredell was Sec- 
retary of State (McRee's "Iredell," i. 7), but we know from the same 
work that that McCulloh did not die till 1778 and therefore could not have 
been the Secretary of State who died October 27, 1755 (see "Abstract 
of North Carolina Wills," p. 228; ses also "Colonial Records," v. 440, 
445, 807; vi. 620, 625; xi. 126, 127, 143). 


soldier, but if carried out it must certainly have had the effect gradually 
of driving out the various paper currencies of the colonies, and replacing 
them by English exchequer bills and banknotes. Important as this pro- 
posal, however, was, it passes into insignificance by the side of the 
proposals which he advanced in the years 1761 and 1763. The first form 
of these proposals is doubtless contained in the present tract, the imme- 
diate object of which was twofold, namely, firstly, to convince Bute of the 
value of the Canadian possession, . . . and secondly, to suggest some 
source of taxation by which the colonies could be made to contribute 
a quota to the cost of the late war. The proof of the deep impression 
which McCulloh's paper made is contained in the Hardwicke Papers at 
the British Museum. Under date of loth October, 1763, there is a long 
tabular statement running to twelve folio sheets, containing an exact 
scheme of the articles to be included in a Stamp Act. It is entitled *A 
state of the several articles proposed by Mr. McCulloh to be stamped, 
and the duties thereon ; likewise a state of all the different articles which 
are now stamped in Great Britain, in order to fix upon the articles which 
are to be inserted in the law intended for imposing stamp duties in 
America and the West Indies.' This' paper is drawn up in three columns, 
the first giving 'the present English duties,' the second giving 'duties 
proposed by Mr. McCulloh'; and the third giving 'duties intended by the 
Treasury.' On the back of the last sheet is the important indorsement, 
'loth October, 1763, was presented to Mr. Greenvill, who approved it.' 
In another volume of the Hardwicke Papers there is a further paper re- 
lating to the same transaction, and dated only two days later. It is 
entitled 'Minutes and observations taken in conference with Mr. McCulloh 
upon considering of his scheme for an American Stamp law. To be 
considered with the said scheme by the Board of Stamps, pursuant to the 
[Treasury] Commissioners' order, dated 30th September, 1763, in order 
for the perusal of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasur3\* This 
paper is indorsed 'Draft of conference with Mr. McCulloh, 12th October, 
1763. Copy for the Board [of Stamps].' 

"It must be clearly borne in mind," continues Mr. Shaw, "that what is 
here asserted as to Henry McCulloh's responsibility for the proposal of 
an American Stamp Act relates only to the actual introduction of that 
proposal into the domain of practical politics. As to how far the idea was 
in very truth an invention of his at this time, or was an adaptation by 
him of older proposals of which he may have been cognizant in his official 
career many years before, we cannot say. But in all such matters the 
name which the Muse chronicles for fame or infamy in the temple of 
human history is not that of the inventor who first originates an idea, 
but that of the practical man who first brings that idea into direct rela- 
tion with the needs of this or that particular conjunction of events in 


human life. For this reason Henry McCulloh Is justly entitled to the 
fame or infamy of being the one man responsible for the proposition 
which led to the revolt of the American colonies." 

The passage in McCulloh's "Miscellaneous Representations'* 
that contains the germ of the Stamp Act is the following: 

"There are several matters to be attended to which have a necessary 
connection with and dependence on each other. . . . The first is to ascer- 
tain our bounds in America. . . . Secondly, to form a system in Indian 
affairs, in regulating the trade carried on with them; in which particular 
care ought to be taken to have all the colonies act upon one system. And 
as it will require considerable sums to make presents to the Indians, and 
to put those concerns upon a proper footing, it will be absolutely neces- 
sary to establish proper funds in America, by a Stamp Duty on Vellum 
and Paper; and also by regulating and lowering the duties upon French 
rum and molasses. 

"Thirdly, if funds are established to answer the expense of the govern- 
ment in America, it will be also necessary to regulate the currency in the 
respective colonies, and to have it the same in all. And if this is done, 
it becomes equally necessary to regulate the course to be observed in col- 
lecting and accounting for the revenues in America, as there are at 
present openings for many shameful abuses." 

It was thus that Henry McCulloh, sometime citizen of North 
Carolina, set in motion the ball that opened the Revolution. 

During the time that Henry McCulloh, the father, was evolv- 
ing a plan of taxation for the American colonies, Henry Eustace 
McCulloh, the son, was a resident of North Carolina, engaged 
mainly in settling the concerns of his landed estates. He came 
out about 1 761, and resided in the colony continuously until 
1767. He became a member of the council April 14, 1762, having 
been recommended for that position as early as May 14, 1761, 
which may be taken as about the date of his arrival in the colony. 
He resigned this office July 18, 1770, after his return to Eng- 
land. In 1764 he was a member of the high court of chancery 
and a justice of the peace. In 1766 he was a member of a com- 
mittee to take steps to facilitate the navigation of port Roanoke 
(Edenton) and the next year was made collector of that port. 
From the time of his arrival in Edenton in November, 1768, the 
duties of that office were performed entirely by his kinsman, 


the young James Iredell, although McCulloh retained nominal 
control until the opening of the Revolution. 

H. E. McCulloh returned to England, in 1767 and in 1768 
wrote to Edmund Fanning from London and asked for the ap- 
pointment as agent to prosecute the business of the province 
before the boards there. He urges his father's wide experience 
in the execution of the trust, "whether the appointment is in my 
father's or my name it is all one. I am bold to say we are best 
able to serve you." On December 2, 1768, he received the ap- 
pointment, which was for one year; in 1769 it was renewed for 
two years, and at the end of that term he received the thanks of 
the lower house for his "good conduct, zeal and activity" and a 
reappointment for two years, to date from December, 1771. In 
October, 1772, he again came to North Carolina, having in the 
meantime received a transfer from his father of all his property 
in this State, for he was now the only surviving child. He re- 
turned to England in June, 1773, being charged with important 
duties for the colony of which he was still agent. 

At the opening of the war McCulloh was in England. About 
August, 1778, he arrived in New York with the expectation of 
proceeding to the South, but the exigencies of war detained him, 
and he saw North Carolina no more. In his Memorial in behalf 
of McCulloh to the General Assembly of North Carolina, dated 
January 25, 1779, James Iredell says: 

"Your memorialist further takes the liberty to observe that he has 
the greatest reason to believe the said Henry Eustace McCulloh has 
always been firmly attached to the cause of American freedom, since in 
the course of a long and frequent correspondence between himself and 
your memorialist ... he often expressed himself in terms highly friendly 
and affectionate to America, and repeatedly assured him that nothing but 
the duty he owed his father detained him in England, and that whenever 
he should be unhappy enough to lose him, it was his fixed and determined 
purpose to come and settle in this country." 

But the petition was in vain. The tide had set against the 
Royalist ; no exception could be made in favor of McCulloh, and 
all his property in 'North Carolina was confiscated, which in turn 
caused many petitions to the Assembly from innocent purchasers. 


The rest of our knowledge of McCulloh is derived from 
McRee's Iredell. It is quoted here, as it seems to be a sort of 
authoritative statement of the estimate placed on him by the 
American members of his family, although it does not appeal 
to the present writer as without prejudice or altogether just: 

"He was a man of more than ordinary ability and culture; cunning 
rather than wise. Of loose morals, with a decent regard for appearances, 
he veiled his vices from the public eye. He had no instrumentality in the 
appointment of young Iredell to office in America; but knowing him to 
be a youth of great promise, he employed all his arts to win his confi- 
dence and secure his subservience to his interests. He not only devolved 
on him all the duties of his collectorship, but employed him as agent 
to transact his private business. Through the agency of Mr. Iredell he 
was enabled to enjoy uninterrupted, for long periods, the pleasures of a 
London life. He made Mr. Iredell no compensation for his services. 
Time after time he would hint that he intended making him his heir. 
Often he would amuse him with the hope that he would resign his office 
in his favor; but always found a ready excuse to evade the performance 
of his promise. His sagacity early detected the small cloud, surcharged 
with the thunders of the revolution, that was destined to spread over the 
continent. It was not until thus warned that he resigned his office. His 
property was confiscated to the State. After this loss his letters to Mr. 
Iredell became abject and piteous. The latter, true to the generous in- 
stincts of his nature, forgiving McCulloh's errors, made, without success, 
strenuous efforts to procure his pardon and the restoration of his estates. 
The services rendered him were manifold and valuable. At the close of 
the war, and after he had abandoned all hope of recovering his American 
lands, with shattered fortunes, but still with an income of 1,200 guineas 
per annum, McCulloh retired to a country seat in the vicinity of London, 
where he died" (after May 15, 1785). 

The materials for a study of the McCuUohs, father and son, 
are more numerous than is the case with most colonial worthies. 
Besides the documents in the "Colonial and State Records," Mr. 
William A. Shaw presents some other biographical facts from 
the unprinted records in the British Archives as an introduction 
to his edition of the "Miscellaneous Representations,^' while some 
letters and many facts, together with the genealogy of the family, 
is to be found in McRee's "Life and Correspondence of James 
Iredell," so often quoted above. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


chief justice of the Supreme Court of North 
CaroHna, was born at Cherryfields, in Transyl- 
vania County, N. C, September 15, 1830, and 
died at his residence in Raleigh, November 14, 
1892. His father, Rev. Branch H. Merrimon, 
was, like the father of Chief Justice Ruffin, a local minister in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and removed to this State from 
Virginia in the course of his duties. Judge Merrimon's mother 
was Miss Paxton, niece of Judge Paxton of our superior court, 
and through her he is descended from General Charles Mc- 
Dowell, of Revolutionary fame, and a member of the McDowell 
family, who have a wide and influential connection in western 
North Carolina. Soon after marriage his father moved to Mills 
River, then in Buncombe County, and engaged in farming and 
merchandising in addition to his ministerial duties. 

As a boy Judge Merrimon's opportunities for an education 
were limited. He kept until his death a copy of Town's "i\naly- 
sis," from which he had acquired the rudiments of an education 
by snatches while following the plow, or as he watched the saw 
cutting its way through the logs at the mill where he labored. 
There, as Burns said of the poetic genius of Scotland, the guar- 
dian Fate of his native State "found him at the plow and threw 
her inspiring mantle over him." 

^•^^■unnUiuTns uIj'iO'^-^ 

(yh^ J^/^, y4^^^1/^ 


Later his father sent him to school in Asheville, where he was 
able to remain only eight months; but such was his diligence 
and progress that he was retained six months longer as assistant 
teacher, and used the opportunity to prosecute his studies. He 
had no further school advantages. He studied law, and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1853, and located in Asheville. His merit 
was speedily recognized, and he was soon made county attorney 
for Buncombe and other counties. In i860 Judge Merrimon, 
being a Whig in his political afBliations, was what was called a 
Union man. In that year he was elected to the house of com- 
mons, defeating his able and popular opponent, David Coleman, 
by 2S votes. Party spirit ran high, the agitating question in the 
Assembly being preparation for possible civil war. A bill was 
introduced in the house appropriating $300,000 to purchase arms 
and ammunition. Judge Merrimon opposed it and contributed 
largely to delaying its passage, and in February he made a power- 
ful argument against the doctrine of secession to a crowded and 
excited house. However, the question of whether a convention 
should be called was submitted to the vote of the people, who 
determined it adversely by some 600 majority. At length, about 
the middle of April, President Lincoln called upon North Caro- 
lina for troops to suppress the insurgent states, and immediately 
all differences among the public men of North Carolina were 
hushed. Judge Merrimon himself volunteered in the Rough and 
Ready Guards, a company formed in Buncombe County. The 
Legislature being convened in special session, called a convention 
that on May 20 declared the State out of the Union. The Rough 
and Ready Guards were encamped at Raleigh, and Governor Ellis 
commissioned Judge Merrimon as captain in the commissary 
•department, and he served usefully at Weldon, Ocracoke, Fort 
Macon, and elsewhere. In the same year he was appointed by 
Judge French solicitor for the eighth judicial district, and was 
subsequently unanimously elected to the same office by the Legis- 
lature, and he performed the duties of that office until the close 
of the war. 

In 1862 he was active in bringing forward Colonel Z. B. Vance 


as a candidate for governor, and although no state conventions 
were held that year, he succeeded in having many county meet- 
ings recommend the election of Colonel Vance, who in August 
was elected governor over Colonel William Johnston. 

In the western counties composing his district there were many 
who were bitterly opposed to secession, while their secession 
neighbors were Vv^arm advocates of southern success. As a conse- 
quence, there was great hostility between the factions, that led 
to outbreaks, and as Solicitor Merrimon was resolved as far as 
possible to maintain law and order, his position and his duties 
brought him into much personal danger. On one occasion some 
of the inhabitants of Madison County seized Marshall, the county 
seat, whose principal citizens favored the southern cause, plun- 
dered the stores and committed many acts of violence. This law- 
lessness was bitterly resented by the Confederate population of 
Buncombe, and a thousand men, under popular and prominent 
leaders, hurried to Madison to punish the marauders. Solicitor 
Merrimon would not consent to this disregard of the civil power, 
and a violent contention arose ; but he carried his point, and the 
ordinary legal remedies were applied. Civil power was vindi- 
cated, and military ardor was suppressed ; but it was not without 
personal risks, and personal injury was threatened and was immi- 

At other times during the war he also ran great risks in per- 
forming his duties as solicitor; but with great resolution, firm- 
ness and bravery he held his courts, in the midst of civil war, 
and patriotically maintained law and order as far as he could in 
his district, frequently at the peril of his life. His services were 
highly beneficial to the State, and won for him the respect even 
of those who did not share his political views. 

In 1865 he was a candidate for delegate to the state convention, 
but was defeated by a small majority by Rev. Dr. Stewart. The 
canvass and the election were conducted under circumstances of 
great peril. Everywhere present and fully armed were ''Kirk's 
men," Union bushwhackers during the struggle and now breath- 
ing out vengeance against Judge Merrimon, who as solicitor, had 


prosecuted a number of them during the war. But although his 
life was often in jeopardy, he passed through the ordeal without 
harm. At the first session of the Legislature he was elected 
judge of the eighth judicial district, David Coleman being the 
solicitor, and he began at once to hold the courts of his district. 
The war was nominally over, but peace did not reign in the moun- 
tain counties where internecine war had prevailed. Often there 
were collisions, bloodshed and death. It was chaos until the 
civil law could again be enforced ; and even when the courts were 
first opened the court grounds were filled with armed men eager 
for collision with their adversaries. At the opening of the Clay 
court in particular there were hundreds of armed men waiting 
for a pretext for an onslaught; and on the first day of the term 
an affray took place in which sixty to eighty persons were en- 
gaged. The judge directed the sheriff to swear in sixty trusty 
and resolute men of both factions, and to see that they were well 
armed, and to instruct them to shoot without hesitation the first 
man guilty of violence with intent to create general disturbance. 
The same course secured quiet at the court of Cherokee, where 
danger was still more imminent. Crushing down the prevailing 
spirit of disorder and resolutely administering the law with im- 
partial justice, Judge Merrimon prepared the way for the people 
to resume their reverence for the law. A man of less courage, 
firmness and judgment could not have succeeded as he did in 
repressing violence and establishing order at that time, when 
^'border warfare" was still flagrant. 

When holding the court in Johnston County, Judge Merrimon 
received from General Sickles an order to disregard state laws 
and enforce military orders. Rather than obey he proposed to 
resign; but Governor Worth urged him to withhold his resig- 
nation until after the trial of the "Johnston Will Case," which 
was to be heard in Chowan County. He tried that celebrated 
case, the trial consuming four weeks, and being attended by the 
most brilliant array of lawyers ever engaged in a single case in 
North Carolina. Judge Merrimon's rulings on that trial gained 
liim high reputation. He subsequently resigned as judge and 


opened an office in Raleigh, forming a partnership with Samuel 
F. Phillips, which continued several years. 

Judge Merrimon early realized that the restoration of good 
government in the State could be had only through the instrumen- 
tality of the better class of citizens, and he identified himself 
with those who in 1866 formed the Conservative party. In 1868 
he was a member of the executive committee, and was also for a 
time chairman of the organization of that party. In that year he 
was tendered the nomination for governor, but declined it, accept- 
ing, however, the nomination for associate- justice of the Supreme 
Court. At that election more than 11,000 white men were dis- 
franchised, and if they had been allowed to vote the Conserva- 
tives would probably have succeeded. He was zealous in his 
antagonism of the measures of the Republicans and of Governor 
Holden's administration during the next two years. When at 
length Governor Holden began the Kirk War, Judge Merrimon 
was the trusted adviser of Josiah Turner, the editor of the Senti- 
nel, and himself wrote many of the editorials that gave that paper 
its great fame at that period. When the arrests of citizens began 
Judge Merrimon was among the first lawyers to make applica- 
tion for writs of habeas corpus, and he participated largely in the 
struggle for the restoration of the liberties of the people. The 
following winter Governor Holden was impeached, and Judge 
Merrimon, with Governors Bragg and Graham, was employed to 
conduct the impeachment. In this employment he won his great- 
est title to fame. To him was assigned the duty of examining the 
witnesses and his examination was perfect; it was as fine an 
exhibition as has ever been seen in the conduct of a great cause. 

In 1872 he was nominated for governor by the Conservative 
party, and made a thorough and great canvass of the entire State. 
He was a man of powerful physique and was thoroughly imbued 
with the spirit of the times. Day after day he made speeches 
of wonderful power, three and four hours long, at points far 
separated, the only means of conveyance being country buggies 
over rough roads. The returns showed a small majority for his 
competitor. Tod R. Caldwell, who was awarded the office. 


In the Legislature following the election of November, 1872, 
the United States senatorship was warmly contested between 
Judge Merrimon and Governor Vance. Some members of the 
Conservative party declined to go into the caucus, and it was 
claimed that Governor Vance did not receive the caucus nomina- 
tion, although his friends insisted that he had received it. After 
a long contest they both withdrew, and in good faith. But when 
the vote was taken in the joint assembly of the two houses, the 
Republicans voted for Judge Merrimon and enough Conserva- 
tives also voted for him to give him the election over Governor 
Vance, who was voted for by the other Conservatives. He served 
his term of six years, 1873-79. ^^ the Senate he added to 
his high reputation, and the State never had a more faithful 
or watchful representative. He was an indefatigable student, 
and thoroughly familiarized himself with all questions coming 
before the Senate. His great capacity for work, his acute intel- 
lect, his thorough knowledge of the law, his love of the principles 
of constitutional liberty and devotion to the cause of the southern 
people, united with his purity of character, his simplicity of de- 
meanor, his directness and abhorrence of duplicity, gained for 
him an influence that rendered him one of the most conspicuous 
as well as one of the most useful of the southern senators. 

In 1873 Judge Merrimon entered into partnership with the 
late Thomas C. Fuller and Captain S. A. Ashe, and he continued 
to practice law until, upon the resignation of Judge Ruffin, Sep- 
tember 29, 1883, Governor Jarvis appointed him associate justice 
of the Supreme Court. This appointment was ratified at the next 
election by the nomination of the Democratic state convention, 
and by the people at the polls ; he continued to fill that post until 
November 14, 1889, when, on the death of Chief Justice Smith, 
he was appointed chief justice by Governor Fowle. He was 
unanimously nominated for chief justice by the Democratic con- 
vention in 1890, and elected by a majority of over 40,000. He 
continued to discharge the duties of chief justice until his death, 
in 1892. 

At the age of twenty-two he married a beautiful and lovely 


woman, Miss Margaret Baird, daughter of Israel Baird of Bun- 
combe County. Their eldest daughter is the wife of Hon. Lee S. 
Overman, himself highly esteemed and beloved, who has often 
represented Rowan County in the Legislature, has been speaker 
of the house and is now United States Senator from North 

Mrs. Merrimon survived her husband until April 27, 1907, 
leaving three sons and three daughters. A sketch of Judge ]\fer- 
rimon, as is so often the case with distinguished men, would be 
incomplete without more than a passing reference to her who 
shared his early obscure fortunes and from whom, in no small 
degree, he received the encouragement and cheer that spurred 
him on to success in his life work. The bright season of their 
early happy married life was followed by the dark days of war 
and of reconstruction, to be succeeded by the calm of later years 
of achievements and of honor, and by the side of this great man 
through it all was the loyal, noble wife and unselfish, self-sacri- 
ficing, devoted mother of his children. To such silent influence 
the world owes much in its great men. To this lady is due the 
unstinted praise of those who tarry at home and quietly spend 
themselves in the interests of those they love, the perfume of 
whose lives is a lasting memory. 

Judge Merrimon left several brothers; among them Hon. 
James H. Merrimon, long known as one of the strongest lawyers 
of the State, and for many years a judge of the superior court, 
from which he resigned in 1892. 

Judge Merrimon's work is before the world. North Carolina 
has long since made up her estimate of his character. He was 
among her most useful citizens — broad-minded, enlightened, 
resolute in his purposes, and seeking to promote the welfare of 
the citizens and of the Commonwealth. His prophetic eye fore- 
saw the coming of triumph for prohibition, and often he would 
raise his voice for the temperance cause — so dear to his heart — 
when it sadly lacked the bold defenders that champion it to-day. 
Judge Merrimon was also one of the pioneers who urged educa- 
tion for all classes and conditions, and to such early advocates 


as he the state owes much of its present educational advance- 

As a judge, he was sound, discriminating and fearless in his 
interpretation of the law ; his opinions, found in Vols. 89-109 of 
the Supreme Court Reports, will ever mark him as one of the 
State's purest and ablest jurists. 

That with his disadvantages in early life he should have risen 
to be one of the leading lawyers of the State, chief justice and 
United States senator, and should have accumulated a handsome 
estate, argues the possession of no ordinary talents and capacity. 
Neither in public nor in private life did the slightest spot or 
blemish attach to his name or character. Faithful to his work, 
faithful to every duty, faithful to his people, he left behind him 
an example to encourage young men who set before themselves 
a high ideal. But few men have ever enjoyed more completely 
the confidence of the people of North Carolina. He was a man 
of great singleness of purpose, and an Israelite indeed in whom 
there was no guile. Always an earnest seeker after truth, in his 
last illness he connected himself with the church in which he had 
been reared, whose teachings he had respected and followed, and 
of which his father was for sixty years a beloved minister. 

Walter Clark. 


in Lancaster County, S. C, April 20, 1856. 
His father. Major Robert Morrison Miller, 
was a descendant of Moses Miller, a French 
Huguenot; his mother, Ann EHzabeth Cure- 
ton, was a descendant of James Potts, of 
Scotch-Irish extraction; both colonial ancestors were soldiers in 
the Revolution. Major Miller was a planter and merchant, and 
served with distinction in the Confederate States army; in 1866 
he moved to Charlotte, N. C. 

Robert Morrison Miller, Jr., the subject of this sketch, was 
prepared in the Finley High School, of Lenoir, N. C, and grad- 
uated from Davidson College, North Carolina, in the class of 
1876 with the degree A.B. He took a prominent part in the 
social life of the college, and was awarded the Philanthropic 
Literary Society medal for declamation in 1874. On returning 
to Charlotte after graduation, Mr. Miller was taken into his 
father's firm, R. M. Miller & Sons, as junior partner, engaged 
in the wholesale and retail merchandising business. When D. A. 
Tompkins arrived in Charlotte and saw the opportunity for in- 
dustrial development there, he sought the association of Messrs. 
R. M. Miller, Senior and Junior ; the outcome was the formation 
of the D. A. Tompkins Company in 1886, of which Mr. Miller, 
Sr., was the president, and Mr. Miller, Jr., the vice-president 


and treasurer until 1898, during which period that firm wielded 
a tremendous influence in the beginning and development of the 
industrial growth which ultimately made Charlotte the center 
of the cotton manufacuring industry of the South. Mr. Miller's 
strict attention to business, his ability as a financier and his 
splendid poise contributed in very large measure to that result. 
In 1892, Messrs. Miller and Tompkins conceived the idea of 
establishing a fine yarn mill in the South, spinning from 24's to 
40's twisted and plied yarns; the project was scouted by New 
England machinery men and others who were invited to come 
into the new organization ; while expressing confidence in the 
management, it was gravely explained that there was considerable 
doubt as to whether or not yarns as fine as 40's could be spun 
in the South, on account of unsuitable climatic conditions, un- 
skilled help and other like reasons. Courage and determination, 
however, won over opposition, and the result was the establish- 
ment of the Atherton Cotton Mills, of Charlotte, N. C, with 
Mr. Miller as vice-president and treasurer. Not only was this 
the pioneer in fine cotton spinning in the South, but the enter- 
prise was a financial success, and the forerunner of many similar 
yarn mills in the South. Mr. Miller was not content, however, 
with spinning fine yarns, as the term was then understood in 
the South. By the time other mills were spinning carded ring 
spun yarns of similar counts in 1900, he decided to take another 
step forward. The result was the organization and erection of 
the Elizabeth Mills in Charlotte, for the manufacture of 
two-ply cotton yarns from 6o's to 150's, both combed and carded, 
from long staple American, Sea Island and Egyptian cottons. 
This ambitious programme was also successfully carried out, with 
Mr. Miller as president and treasurer of the corporation. The 
great success of this mill was again an inspiration to others, 
and the Piedmont district of the South, centering in Charlotte, 
is to-day one of the leading fine-yarn districts of the cotton in- 
dustry in the whole United States. As an employer Mr. Miller 
demands efficiency, but is always thoughtful and considerate, the 
tenement houses at his Elizabeth Mills being among the first 


in the South to be equipped with electric lights, running water 
and sewerage. Welfare work among the operatives has always 
been a feature, and prizes are offered annually for those excelling 
in neatness and cleanliness of gardens and premises. Facihties 
are furnished for truck gardens for each family; schools and 
churches are provided, and the moral atmosphere of the village 
is an example to the neighborhood. From his own experience, 
Mr. Miller has always appreciated the full value and advan- 
tage of a good education. He gave practical support to his 
views on this subject by establishing and supporting a scholarship 
in the textile department of the North Carolina Agricultural 
and Mechanical College at Raleigh. 

With a natural gift for politics, Mr. Miller was always inter- 
ested in and a deep student of political questions. His work 
as chairman of the tariff and legislative committee of the Ameri- 
can Cotton Manufacturers' Association attracted national atten- 
tion. Although often importuned to allow his name to be used 
as a candidate by his friends, Mr. Miller declined political honors 
on account of the large business interests that required his per- 
sonal attention. The North Carolina Bankers' Association hon- 
ored him with its endorsement for a directorship in the Federal 
Reserve Bank. Mr. Miller's public service in the cotton industry 
has been notable. For five years he was president of the Cotton 
Manufacturers' Association of North Carolina ; in 1905-6 he was 
president of the American Cotton Manufacturers' Association; 
and he served for a long period as a member of the board of 
governors of the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers. 

Mr. Miller's club life follows the same trend as his business 
life: he served two terms as president of the Southern Manu- 
facturers' Club of Charlotte, and was always one of its most 
ardent and active supporters; he is a member of the Manufac- 
turers' Club of Philadelphia, and a member of the Mecklenburg 
Country Club of Charlotte. Mr. Miller has always managed to 
find time for social life and amusements, with a fondness for 
good horses and motoring, and is a most ardent baseball fan. 

For many years Mr. Miller has been sought as a writer by 


financial and technical publications, such as The New York Com- 
mercial and The [New York Journal of Commerce, and he has 
contributed largely to the transactions of the two associations 
of cotton manufacturers. He is secretary and treasurer of the 
Buford Hotel Company of Charlotte, and of the Millerton- 
Homes Company; he is a director in the Commercial National 
Bank of Charlotte, and in various other commercial, industrial 
and financial enterprises. Of the honors conferred on Mr. 
Miller, the one which he probably appreciates the most keenly 
is that of president of the Davidson College Alumni Association, 
his interest in his alma mater having increased rather than waned 
as the years have gone by. Mr. Miller's idea of success in life 
is that a man must have full knowledge of his business and give 
strict attention to its details. His success has, no doubt, been 
achieved through closely following those precepts ; but those who 
know him best always think of his clear good judgment, his 
judicial fair-mindedness, and his unswerving loyalty to his friends 
and his faith, as well as to his creed. 

Mr. Miller married, February 6, 1890, Estelle, daughter of 
John Patterson and Sara (Oliver) Ross, and one daughter, Sara 
Elizabeth, was born March 19, 1899. 

Stuart W. Cramer. 


HE business and social records of North Caro- 
lina afford no more exemplary character than 
James Henry Millis. Inheriting through a long 
line of ancestry culture and ability, he used it 
for the betterment of his State, incidentally 
leaving splendid heritage for his children and 
his country. He was born in Guilford County, six miles from 
Greensboro, at the old homestead, in 1853. He was a son of 
Colonel James Nicholson Millis, a successful farmer and business 
man, who was prominent in the affairs of his county and State. 
His mother was Elizabeth Armfield, a descendant of John Arm- 
field of England, who came to Philadelphia in 171 3. John Arm- 
field was the forbear of the Armfields in America. His oldest 
son, William Armfield, was born in 1720, and came to Guilford 
County and settled on the lands around Pomona. The second 
son of William Armfield was David Armfield, the maternal 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch. In the long line of 
descendants from these two noted families none met with more 
marked success or shed more luster on the family name than 
James Henry Millis. 

He spent his boyhood days on the farm, where he was sur- 
rounded by wholesome influences, with the guidance and watch- 
fulness of a good mother and a kind and wise father. Very 

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early in life he showed excellent qualifications for a business 
career, and when, at the age of seventeen, he expressed a desire 
to leave the farm and embark in business for himself, his parents 
encouraged him, notwithstanding his youth. His first move was 
a very fortunate one for him. He went to Asheboro, N. C, 
where for three years he was in the store of that distinguished 
North Carolinian, Dr. J. M. Worth, afterward state treasurer. 
Under the tutelage and direction of his employer he developed 
rapidly, and at the end of two years decided to embark in busi- 
ness for himself. He was associated for two years with Odell, 
Ragan & Company at Greensboro, afterward moving to High 
Point, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

About 1876 he organized the mercantile firm of Ragan, Millis 
and Company at High Point, N. C, which for many years was 
the largest business of that character in a radius of ten miles 
of the community. This business grew to such large proportions 
that there was a branch at Asheville, N. C. It embraced both 
retail and wholesale, and did local banking, and for several years 
was the largest shipper of dried fruit of any firm in the South. 

In 1892 Mr. Millis became interested in manufacturing, organ- 
izing the Home Furniture Company, of which he was secretary 
and treasurer for many years. He was also a large stockholder 
in other furniture plants and had much to do with making High 
Point a furniture center. For two years he was secretary and 
treasurer of the Snow Lumber Company. 

He did not confine his usefulness and talents altogether to 
personal afifairs. He was a promoter and official in one of the 
first local building and loan associations in the State, and the 
long years of success of these institutions in his home town was 
in a large measure due to the confidence and experience that he 
infused into the first one. 

In county affairs he was useful and served his constituents 
well. For ten years he was chairman of the board of county 
commissioners, and much of the progress of Guilford County 
was made during his administration. 

He was identified with the banking business from the time he 


was a young man, and through a period of many years was vice- 
president and director of one of the largest banks in the country 
and director in other banks in the State. 

The crowning work of his life began after he was fifty. 
He was the prime mover in organizing the High Point Hosiery 
Mills, which with its auxiliary plants has grown to be the largest 
industry in the community and one of the largest in the South, 
comprising fifteen brick structures, having an output of twenty- 
one million pairs of hose a year. Much of the success of these 
plants was due to the financial aid and splendid business judg- 
ment of Mr. Millis. He was president of the company until 
his death, July i6, 1913. 

Mr. Millis left a most interesting family — two sons, Henry 
Albion MiUis and James Edward Millis, and two daughters, 
Miss Mary Millis, deceased, and Sallie Elizabeth Millis, 
now Mrs. W. J. Armfield, Jr., of Asheboro. H. A. Millis, the 
eldest son, is cashier of the Bank of Commerce and director in 
the High Point Hosiery Mills, Piedmont Hosiery Mills, High- 
land Cotton Mills and Oakdale Cotton Mills. J. E. Millis is 
secretary and treasurer of the High Point Hosiery, Piedmont 
and Consolidated mills. The children all inherit much of the 
talent and business sagacity of their father as well as his other 
splendid qualities. They are aiding in carrying on the interests 
which their father established. 

Mr. Millis in the conduct of his large business found time 
and heart to be interested in other people. He was big-hearted 
and sympathetic and was helpful to the entire citizenship of 
his community. He was instrumental perhaps in helping more 
young men to get a start in life than any man who ever lived 
in his county, and always rendered the aid quietly, without re- 
ward or the hope of reward. There are many successful business 
men in the State who can appreciate the truth of this assertion. 

His well-rounded, successful career is an inspiration to those 
who knew him. 

/. /. Farriss. 

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6-' .'^//^^rr,^ ^jS^^ A/:^ 


^^^f^Pj^^^N this goodly company of those who have made 
Jm^r^^^JC ^^/^. i-j^g history of North Carolina there should be 
a place for one who has done much to pre- 
serve that history, for a woman whose activities 
in an extended sphere of service during moi^ 
than half a century entitle her to a choice page. 
That woman is Mrs. Elvira Evelina Worth Moffitt. 

She is a descendant of three ancestors, John Carver, John 
Tilley and John Rowland, who came over to America on the 
Mayflower, and who were three of the forty-one pilgrims who 
signed the Mayflower compact. John Worth, the earliest known 
ancestor of the Worth name, was killed at Plymouth Fort, 
England, and his property confiscated during the rule of Crom- 
well. His three sons emigrated to America. William, the third 
son, settled in Nantucket, Mass., in 1662, where he served as 
justice of the peace. 

About one hundred and forty years afterward, in the year 1802, 
one of his descendants, Jonathan Worth, was born in Guilford 
County, N. C, later becoming governor of his native State. He 
was the father of the subject of this sketch. At the age of twenty- 
two he married Martitia Daniel, of Virginia. Eight children 
were born to them, seven daughters and one son. Mrs. Moffitt 
was the fifth child, being born on December 3, 1836. She was 


educated at the Asheboro Female School and at Edgeworth 
Seminary at Greensboro. On December 25, 1856, she was mar- 
ried to Samuel Spencer Jackson. In 1857, her husband having 
been elected a tutor in the department of Greek at the University, 
they removed to Chapel Hill, where in addition to his work as 
tutor he continued his study of law, completing his course in 
1859. Returning to Asheboro in that year he was elected county 
attorney, practiced law with his father-in-law, and succeeded to 
his whole practice in 1862, when Mr. Worth was elected 
treasurer of North Carolina. 

In 1875 Mr. Jackson died, and his remains were laid to rest 
in the family plot in the Episcopal Church cemetery at Pittsboro, 
N. C. The universal testimony of those who knew him is that 
he wore the white flower of a blameless life. 

The issue of this marriage was one son, Herbert Worth Jack- 
son, of whom a sketch is presented in this volume. 

In 1877 Mrs. Jackson was married to Mr. Samuel Walker, of 
Asheboro, a lifelong friend and a most successful leader of Ran- 
dolph County. Mr. Walker lived only four months after this 
marriage, leaving, besides his widow, four children by a former 
wife. The youngest of these died quite young. The others are 
Mrs. C. W. Worth, of Wilmington; Mrs. James H. Pou, of 
Raleigh, and Mr. James M. Walker, of Statesville. 

Six years later Mrs. Walker was again married, to Mr. Eli 
N. Moffitt, a prominent citizen of Moore County, who died 
in 1886. 

Being thrice left a widow, it fell to the lot of Mrs. Moffitt to 
administer on large estates with varied investments and compli- 
cations. There she displayed executive ability and rare tact. 
Her son having in 1888 settled in Raleigh, she followed him 
there. Later, in 191 o, she accompanied him and his family to 
Richmond, Va., where she now resides. 

Interesting and eventful have been the years through which 
this remarkable woman has lived. And not less interesting have 
been her activities in various lines of service. Through three 
wars her busy hand has played a part. 


In 1861 she, with other ladies of Asheboro, made tents with 
their own hands to equip the Davis Guards, who were com- 
manded by her cousin, Captain Shubal Worth. In 1898, during 
the Spanish- American War, she was a member of the Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Raleigh. This society procured cloth from vari- 
ous mills in the State and worked it into garments for the 
soldiers. And again, in 191 5, she joined the War Relief Society 
of Richmond, Va., which prepares clothing for the bereft and 
surgical dressings for the wounded in the present war. 

Mrs. Moffitt is a Presbyterian by faith, and has been a most 
useful and faithful member of that church. She is also a mem- 
ber of various organizations, both civic and patriotic. In 1888 
she joined the Daughters of the Revolution, and was elected dele- 
gate to many of its annual meetings. In 1900 she became a 
member of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion and was elected first vice-president in 1909. In 1901 we find 
her an active member of the Johnston Pettigrew Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, of Raleigh, of which she was elected an 
honorary president for life. She organized also the Wake 
County School Betterment Association, a branch of the state 

In 1893 she became a charter member of the State Confederate 
Monument Association. On the occasion of the laying of the 
corner stone, by special request she prepared a sketch of Gov- 
ernor Worth's services as state treasurer from 1862-65. This 
sketch was placed in the corner stone, together with a Confederate 
note bearing the picture of her distinguished father. Also, in her 
own parlor in Raleigh, in 1903, a band of noble women, known 
as St. Luke's Circle of King's Daughters, was organized to aid 
the infirm and indigent sick and to found a home known as St. 
Luke's Home. 

She was also the founder, in 1904, of the Woman's Club of 
Raleigh and was later made a life member. A history of the 
club movement in North Carolina was written by her and placed 
in the corner stone of the new building in November, 191 5. 
From her came the first contribution to the State Confederate 


Monument Association. At Wilmington, on May 4, 1907, we 
find her participating in the organization of the North CaroHna 
Peace Society, and later she was appointed twice, by two gover- 
nors, to the national meeting of that association. 

In the rotunda of the capitol at Raleigh there was unveiled, in 
1908, a memorial bronze tablet to the "Ladies of the Edenton 
Tea Party" of 1774, by the Daughters of the Revolution, under 
the leadership of Mrs. Moffitt. To her public spirit and activity 
the Stanhope Pullen Memorial Association of Raleigh largely 
owes its existence. Her name is enrolled as a life member of the 
Roanoke Colony Association, and the North Carolina Federation 
of Women's Clubs. Since her removal to another State she has 
continued her good work in aiding the patriotic, literary and 
historical organizations in her newly adopted home. She is a 
member of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia 
Antiquities, also of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society 
of Richmond. It was she who conceived and launched the move- 
ment for the organization of the Matthew Fontaine Maury 
Association of Richmond, of which she was the first president. 
It is also to be noted that she is one of the enthusiastic members 
of the Virginia Historical Society. 

But perhaps the most valuable work of Mrs. Moffitt has been 
her work as co-editor of the North Carolina Booklet — a publica- 
tion established in 1901 as the organ of the North Carolina So- 
ciety of Daughters of the Revolution. This society has been a 
great factor in giving emphasis to important events in the history 
of North Carolina, in promoting a movement for a hall of history 
in which to preserve the State's archives, and in stimulating 
patriotic interest in research and record of important events in 
our State's history. 

Among other patriotic and unselfish movements with which 
Mrs. Moffitt is connected is the effort of the North Carolina 
Daughters of the Revolution to secure from Congress an appro- 
priation of $10,000 for a painting of the baptism in 1587 of 
Virginia Dare, the first Anglo-American child born and baptized 
within the borders of the United States. Senator Overman of 


North Carolina introduced a bill, Senate bill 2545, 62d Congress, 
for this purpose. 

A resolution endorsed by Mrs. Moffitt originated the move- 
ment for placing a memorial window in old Blandford Church, 
Petersburg, Va., commemorating the twenty-three thousand Con- 
federate soldiers buried there. As a member of the Johnston 
Pettigrew Chapter she conceived the idea of erecting a beautiful 
granite gate which now marks the dividing line between Oak- 
wood and the Confederate Cemetery in Raleigh. Another fund 
raised by the United Daughters of the Confederacy for the erec- 
tion of a memorial arch to the said cemetery was later abandoned, 
and the money voted to be invested and the income devoted to 
the education of a girl at the State Normal School. It was 
unanimously voted that this fund be called the Elvira Worth 
Moffitt Loan Fund. 

One of the most remarkable tributes ever paid to a woman in 
North Carolina was the farewell function planned and given by 
the Woman's Club in honor of its founder on the eve of her 
departure for Richmond. Among the many beautiful tributes 
paid her on that occasion nothing was finer than this by Miss 
Edith Royster: 

"Only those who have worked closely and intimately with Mrs. Mof- 
fitt can know what she means to those who are associated with her. 
A calm courage; absolute lack of self-consciousness; a serene superior- 
ity to class distinctions; recognition of the worth, of the individual; in- 
difference to criticism where there is a plain duty to be performed ; and 
?. tenacity and strength of will rarely found in a woman — the charac- 
teristics that make a man a master of men." 

This versatile and strong leader of her sex has never lost her 
modesty and rare charm of manner. Her womanhood is en- 
nobled by response to calls of home and church and state. Her 
years are jeweled with noble deeds of loving service. In a home 
full of activity and love and sweet memories, surrounded by 
those nearest and dearest, she who has lived this long, sunny, 
useful life is still bright and joyous with dreams of youth and 
busy with beautiful visions of further service. 

G. Samuel Bradshaw. 


IHE territory comprising Hertford County, even 
in the days when it was yet a part of Bertie, 
possessed a coterie of educated gentlemen well 
calculated by their intelligence and character 
to adorn society. 

The first preacher of the Word to become 
a permanent resident of the region west of the Chowan was Rev. 
Matthias Brickell, who officiated at St. John's Chapel in 1730, 
and died in harness and in the odor of sanctity some twenty- 
eight years later. His son, Colonel Matthias Brickell, equally 
esteemed with his father, married in 1748 Rachel Noailles, who,, 
as her name indicates, was of a Huguenot family. One of the 
daughters of this marriage became the wife of Colonel Hardy 
Murfree and an ancestress of the Tennessee novelist, Mary 
Noailles Murfree, who writes under the pseudonym of "Charles 
Egbert Craddock." Another daughter, Sarah Brickell, married 
Major John Brown, a retired British officer, who was wounded 
at Culloden, and later found a comfortable home in the vicinity 
of old St. John's Chapel. Among their children was a daughter, 
named for her mother, Sarah Brown. 

But even before Rev. Mr. Brickell had begun his ministrations 
at St. John's, further west in the same county resided John Cot- 

na Ifif £: C- i>l/'Mf,.ms 3 Bra /l/V 


ton,* whose son, Captain Arthur Cotton, married EHzabeth Rut- 
land, daughter of James Rutland, of Bertie County. She died 
February 10, 1779 and her son, Godwin Cotton, marrying Sarah 
Brown, united these families in the bonds of amity and social 
intercourse. Two daughters were born to Godwin Cotton, one 
marrying John Johnston (d. 1807), nephew of Governor Samuel 
Johnston, and became the mother of Rev. Samuel Iredell John- 
ston, D.D., a noted Episcopalian divine ; the other, Esther Cotton, 
married a prosperous planter, James Wright Moore, a son of 
William E. Moore, an officer of Virginia troops during the Revo- 
lution, and of EHzabeth Dickinson, daughter of James Dickinson 

*In regard to the spelling of this name. Air. Bruce Gotten, of Baltimore, 
a member of another branch of this family, writes the editor: 

"The name Gotten should be spelled with an 'e' (Gotten). All the older 
members of this family used this form, and it has been persisted in by 
their descendents. Godwin Gotten used this form, as shown by a number 
of signatures and by his will. Arthur Gotten also used the 'e,' as shown 
by the old tombstones at Mulberry Grove. No member of this family 
ever used any other form, though it more often appears in print Gotton. 
The form 'ten,' though prior to about 1750 very common in England, 
appears now to have entirely disappeared except in those descendents of 
John Gotten of Bertie. The form 'ten,' it would seem, is really correct, 
since the name Gotten is derived from the Saxon word cote, meaning a 
cottage, cotten being the Saxon plural." Mr. Gotten says further: "The 
claim that Arthur Gotten was in any way connected with Lady Alice 
Lisle, as set forth in Moore's "History of North Carolina," Vol. i, pp. 49 
and 53, must be rejected as being entirely erroneous. The ancestry of this 
unfortunate lady can be easily traced. She was in no way connected with 
any Gottens, though one of her granddaughters did marry a Rev. Thomas 
Gotton of London. Responsibility for this error on the part of Mr. Moore 
is traceable to a Mr. Ballis, who visited Dr. Moore at Mulberry Grove 
about 1870. This Mr. Ballis was an Englishman and was able to convince 
the Moore family that Arthur Gotten was connected in some way with 
this marriage. He visited other members of the family as well, and some 
of his letters have been preserved. About that time also there was a 
report that a large Gotten fortune was awaiting heirs in England. This 
same Mr. Ballis had several advertisements in the Richmond papers during 
the war for lost heirs to English estates, so I seriously suspect the honesty 
of his interest in the matter. He was also responsible for Mr. Moore 
adopting the form Gotton, which appeared for the first time in the old 
graveyard at Mulberry Grove. John Gotten came from Virginia in 1719. 
His wife was Martha Godwin, not Martha Jones, daughter of Colonel 
Frederick Jones, as has been sometimes stated. Though not yet estab- 
lished, there are some indications that he was a son of John and Ann 
Gotten of Queen's Greek in Virginia, the same who in 1676 wrote the 
interesting accounts in Peter Force's 'Tracts' entitled 'Our Late Troubles 
in Virginia, Bacon's and Ingram's Progress.' " 


of Northampton County, N. C. The three children of Esther 
Cotton Moore were Dr. Godwin C. Moore, the subject of this 
sketch, Mrs. Sally M. Westray of Nash, and Mrs. Emeline 
LeVert, wife of the distinguished physician. Dr. Henry B. Le 
Vert, of Marion, Ala. 

Dr. Godwin C. Moore was born in Hertford County, N. C, 
on September i, 1806. He was deprived of his father's care in 
his early years, and his grandfather, whose name he bore, directed 
his education. He was reared in the country amid the pleasures 
of country life, at that period of ease and comfort, and even 
in his mature years retained his early fondness for fox hunting 
as a recreation. 

After a thorough preparation for college at the O'Brien pre- 
paratory school at Murfreesboro, he entered the University of 
North Carolina, along with his cousin, Samuel Iredell Johnston, 
in 1822, and from that institution passed to the University of 
Pennsylvania, where he received the degree of M.D. in 1828. 

His chosen field for the practice of his profession was in the 
midst of his friends and connections at his home in Hertford 
County. As usual, there was the period of probation that at- 
tends the entrance on a professional career; but by his manner 
and bearing and large intelligence, he soon won the confidence 
of a considerable clientele; and it is recalled that long after his 
death he was remembered as a man of great dignity and of ele- 
gant carriage ; and so highly was he held in esteem that a goodly 
number of children in Hertford and Bertie were named by their 
parents in his honor. 

Having established himself in a lucrative practice, in 1832 he 
was married to Julia Wheeler, a sister of John H. Wheeler 
(q. v.), historian and state treasurer, and otherwise distinguished 
for his abilities and character. The fruits of this marriage were 
nine children, of whom five still survive, these are William E. 
and Julian G. Moore of Washington City ; and Thomas L. Moore, 
who for a quarter of a century has been employed as a civil 
engineer on municipal work in New York City ; and two daugh- 
ters, Mrs. R. T. Weaver and Mrs. S. J. Calvert of Northamp- 


ton County, N. C. Another son, the late Major John W. Moore, 
attained distinction as a soldier in the Civil War and later as an 
historian of North Carolina, and is represented in this work by 
a separate sketch. 

Judge Winborne, in his "History of Hertford County," says 
that Dr. Moore met with great success and reached the highest 
standard of a general practitioner in his chosen profession; but 
his excellence was not confined to his professional duties ; he was 
eminent in his community, not merely because of his attainments 
but because of his walk, in life. His wide sympathies found 
expression in many ways. As a Mason he was justly esteemed 
and was Master of his lodge. King David's Lodge, Roxobel, N. C. 
In his religious affiliations he was a devoted Baptist, and all his 
influence was for purity and goodness. He was ever zealous 
in good works, and so thoroughly did he possess the regard of 
his associates, that for thirty-seven years he served as moderator 
of the Chowan Baptist Association, and for that long period he 
exerted a supervising control in the affairs of the association 
within the sphere of his influence. "His exalted character, his 
polished manners and his learning," continues the local historian, 
"well equipped him for any honors within the gift of his peo- 
ple;" so notwithstanding his professional duties, in 1831 he was 
brought out for the house of commons, his opponent being a 
practiced public man. Major Isaac Carter, a man of much experi- 
ence and strong connections. But Dr. Moore was racy of the 
soil, being a "descendant of the old, wealthy and leading fami- 
lies, the Cottons, Browns and Moores," and he was elected to 
his seat despite the favor accorded to his adversary. 

On the defection from the Jackson administration and the 
formation of the Whig party, to which so many prominent men 
in his section gave their adherence. Dr. Moore remained stead- 
fast as a regular Democrat, and was ever attached to his party 
and strong in his party faith. 

In his county he was so greatly esteemed for his general intel- 
ligence and rectitude, that he was chosen for a number of years 
to serve as one of the special court for his county, and as chair- 


man of the county court, a position generally filled by a lawyer — 
in Wake County once filled by Judge Badger and in Alamance 
by Chief Justice Ruffin, and in other counties often by men of 
eminence. He served acceptably in the state senate in 1842 and 
again represented his county in the house of commons in 1866-68 
before the days of reconstruction and when only white men 
were voters. 

In the congressional district in which he resided the Demo- 
cratic party was in the minority, but on several occasions he was 
prevailed on to bear the standard of his party to certain defeat, 
and, accepting the nominations, made the sacrifice of standing 
unavailing and without hope of success for a seat in Congress. 

In every sphere of action he manifested the same spirit of 
fidelity, and his life throughout was not only without stain or 
blemish, but was an example worthy of imitation. But he had 
his reward, for but few if any in the entire region of the Albe- 
marle were more sincerely esteemed for excellence, for integrity, 
for virtue and for intelligence and learning than was this eminent 
physician, whose memory is still cherished by those among whom 
he passed his useful life. At length, on May 6, 1880, in the 
seventy- fourth year of his age, he died greatly deplored by the 
people of his county. 

S. A. Ashe. 


historian and novelist, was born at Mulberry 
Grove in Hertford County, October 23, 1833. 
He was the eldest son of Dr. Godwin Cotton 
Moore, a physician and planter of wealth, and 
a man without reproach, who served his county 
acceptably as a member of both houses of the Legislature. His 
mother, before her marriage in June, 1832, was Miss Julia Mon- 
roe Wheeler, a sister of Colonel John H. Wheeler, the historian, 
of whom a sketch appears in the present work. On his nephew 
and namesake. Major John Wheeler Moore, Colonel Wheeler's 
mantle fell, and he most worthily bore it by contributing to North 
Carolina literature a large history of the people of the State 
from the earliest times to the present day. 

Major Moore grew up in his native county a healthy country 
boy. Being wealthy, his father was enabled to bestow upon him 
the best educational advantages, and his only tasks were in the 
school-room. He was fond of reading, and eager to excel at his 
books, being willing for this purpose to forego the delights of 
his home, differing in this respect from his younger brother, 
James, who could not be reconciled to the enforced absence from 
the home circle necessary for the completion of his education. 
Major Moore early found history his most attractive reading. 
Books of travel and biography were enjoyed by him even more 


than the entrancing Waverley Novels, and he developed a special 
fondness for music and art, which continued throughout life. 
He was prepared for college by John Kimberly at Buckhorn 
Academy, and entered the State University at Chapel Hill as a 
freshman in July, 1849. Four years later he graduated, and on 
September 28, 1853, was married to Miss Ann James Ward, in 
whom he found one of the best of wives and a sympathetic com- 
panion in his journey through life until her death on March 15, 

After leaving the University Major Moore pursued the study 
of law at home, and in 1855, being admitted to the Bar, began 
his vocation as an attorney in Hertford County. Like his father 
before him, Major Moore was an ardent Democrat of the old 
Jeffersonian school; and naturally he took an active part in the 
political strife of the stirring years which preceded the outbreak 
of the War between the States. In 1856 he was nominated by 
his party for a seat in the state senate, but was defeated by Mr. 
R. G. Cowper; in i860 he served as a presidential elector, and 
was a member of the electoral college which in December of that 
year cast its votes for Breckenridge and Lane for President and 

During the first six months of the Civil War Major Moore 
held a commission as a staff officer in the Second regiment of 
cavalry, but in February, 1862, he was promoted to major, and 
the command of the Third North Carolina battalion was con- 
ferred upon him. This was a light artillery battalion, consisting 
of three batteries. As soon as organized it was ordered to Rich- 
mond to take part in the defense of that beleaguered city, and 
from that time it was in constant service until the close of hos- 
tilities, its field and staff officers remaining unchanged through- 
out the war. It saw its first hard service in the seven days* 
battles around Richmond, when McClellan's arrny was over- 
whelmingly defeated and driven as a disorganized mob back to 
Harrison's Landing. In command of his battalion. Major Moore 
remained with the Army of Northern Virginia until December, 
1862, when, to meet Foster's threatened attack on Goldsboro, he 


and his battalion were hurried from Virginia, arriving just in 
time to join the forces which held the crossing over Neuse River 
at White Hall. After General Foster had been repulsed, the 
battalion was stationed near Wilmington, and remained in that 
vicinity until Pickett's expedition against Newbern. General 
Pickett had been sent from Virginia with five brigades of veteran 
troops to drive the Federal forces from Newbern, and General 
Martin, with some fifteen hundred men, with whom was Major 
Moore and Battery A of his battalion, was directed to take More- 
head City and cut off the Federal retreat in that direction. Gen- 
eral Pickett won no laurels in that affair ; but although his move- 
ment signally failed, these operations afforded Battery A of 
Moore's battalion an opportunity of winning glory. At the bat- 
tle of Newport Barracks, where the forces were about equal, the 
Federal troops were driven off the field with heavy loss, while 
early in the same day Battery A, under its gallant major, made 
a splendid charge against a blockhouse across the open fields, at 
full gallop, so dismaying the garrison that it was captured without 
any loss to the assailants. During the remainder of the war 
Major Moore's three batteries served on the lower Cape Fear; 
Battery A, under the immediate command of Major Moore, 
being stationed first at Smithville, and then with General Hoke 
at Sugar Loaf. After the fall of Fort Fisher Captain A. J. 
Ellis, with Battery A, had the honor of covering the perilous 
retreat of the Confederate forces, and held the advancing Fed- 
erals in check at The Hermitage while the army was crossing 
the North East River; finally at Bentonsville, Major Moore's 
command once more rendered glorious service; and later the 
battalion was surrendered at Greensboro by General Johnston. 
After the end of the war, during which for four years Major 
Moore had been so gallant an ofificer, he resumed the practice 
of the law and those literary pursuits for which his natural 
tastes so admirably fitted him, and which were later a source of 
so much gratification to him and his friends. In the first days 
of comparative leisure he composed his first novel, and in 1876, 
at the suggestion of Chief Justice Smith, undertook the prepara- 


tion of Moore's ''School History of North Carolina," which was 
greatly needed, and for the compilation of which Major Moore 
was peculiarly fitted by his attainments. This work, placing 
within the reach of the children of the State a plain and con- 
densed statement of the chief facts in the history of North Caro- 
lina, supplied a school book that had long been ardently desired. 
From the moment of his announcement that such a volume was 
in course of preparation, its advent was awaited with impa- 
tience, and it was received with enthusiasm by pupils and 
teachers, it being the only work of the kind then published. It 
was put into immediate use throughout the State, and was for 
years the standard school history of North Carolina. 

Once engaged in historical work. Major Moore contributed 
a series of "Sketches of Hertford County" to the Murfreesboro 
Inquirer for 1877 ^^^ 1878. They run serially through volumes 
ii and iii and aggregate more than one hundred short chapters. 
He then conceived the idea of preparing a larger history of the 
State for library use, and in 1880 it was completed and issued 
in an edition of two octavo volumes of about five hundred pages 
each. Up to that time, although Martin, Williamson, Hawks, 
Swain, Wheeler, Jones, Caruthers and others had made historical 
publications relating to North Carolina and had produced works 
of merit, their books were written before the publication of the 
"Colonial Records" collected by Colonel Saunders, and were 
necessarily imperfect and often incorrect in detail. Colonel 
Wheeler had indeed brought to his work the enthusiasm of a 
patriotic and devoted son of North Carolina, but he did not have 
access to these valuable records nor did he attempt a narrative 
history of the State; while the learned Dr. Hawks confined his 
labors exclusively to the period ending in 1729. As interesting 
and meritorious as were these former publications, and as they 
still are, they did not supply the place of a history of the State, 
while Major Moore's large work covered the entire period from 
the first settlement to the present era, and was the first complete 
history of the State published. It is a work of value, and is re- 
garded as most creditable to its author. 


The year after his "History of North CaroHna" was issued 
Major Moore pubHshed a novel written shortly after the war, 
entitled "The Heirs of St. Kilda/' which deals with the life of the 
people before the war and the perilous days of reconstruction. 

In the latter part of the year 1881, Major Moore was employed 
by the State to superintend the preparation of a Roster of the 
North Carolina soldiers who had served in the Civil War. This 
laborious task was performed almost entirely without aid save 
that of his accomphshed daughter, Miss Julia Moore. Twenty 
years had elapsed since the war had ended, and there was no 
material within the State except the Roll of Honor and some 
hastily prepared field returns from which to obtain the names of 
the soldiers and the facts touching their enlistments, wounds, 
deaths, discharges or promotions. By the courtesy of Hon. Rob- 
ert T. Lincoln, then secretary of war, access was obtained to the 
archives of the Confederate War Department, seized by the Fed- 
eral authorities at the fall of Richmond and preserved at Wash- 
ington City, and there were found the returns of all the North 
Carolina regiments except the Sixty-eighth, and of that only a 
list of the commissioned officers was to be had. With this ma- 
terial in hand Major Moore sent out proof sheets with circular 
letters to the officers of the various commands with an appeal 
that they supply deficiencies. But the lapse of time had already 
been nearly twenty years, historical interest was still at its nadir, 
and these urgent requests brought but few answers. He was 
still further hampered by the inadequate pay allowed him for the 
work by the State, but in spite of these difficulties the work was 
pushed to a successful completion. It is doubtless as accurate as 
it could have been made under the circumstances and has been 
of inestimable advantage to the State. It was the first attempt 
of any southern State to preserve the names of those heroes who 
illustrated the valor of the great Civil War. 

Major Moore was a prom'inent member of the Baptist church 
and a teacher of the men's Bible class in Bethlehem church, to 
which he belonged, being convinced that to serve God and to live 
the truth is the chief foundation of all good character. He pre- 


ferred to read, above all other books, the Bible and that great 
master of the English tongue, Shakespeare, and made them his 
study for years. He was a sincere and earnest Christian, a gen- 
tleman of blameless life, and a finished scholar, who added to 
his legal and historical attainments a high appreciation of lit- 
erature generally, and a wide range of knowledge on both politi- 
cal and general subjects. As soldier and civilian he served the 
State most worthily in every position to which she called him. 

On September 2S, 1853, as already stated. Major Moore was 
married to Miss Ann James Ward, and by her had twelve chil- 
dren, of whom seven survive. It is due the memory of this noble 
woman that a word of commendation should be added to the 
above sketch of her husband's life. She was indeed a pattern 
of social and Christian virtues. Born to the possession of wealth 
and refinement, she added even in her girlhood such a grace 
of manner to her diligence in her school and collegiate studies 
that she was ever the favorite of every instructor blessed with 
her presence. She was the first graduate of the Chowan Baptist 
Female Institute and had become the pride of that noble institu- 
tion before her degree was conferred on July 5, 1853. 
No man ever loved and cherished a purer or better wife. For 
almost a full half century she lived to bless his life, and in dying, 
at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, left him to a deso- 
late widowerhood for the short remnant of his life on earth. 

Major Moore departed this life at Maple Lawn, the ancestral 
home of his wife, in Hertford County, N. C, December 6, 1906. 

S. A. Ashe. 


'HE fourth son of Major John W. Moore, the 
historian, was born at the family home, Maple 
Lawn, Hertford County, N. C, on August 29, 
1866, and was named John Wheeler Moore, Jr., 
for his father. 
His early years were passed on the planta- 
tion, and during his boyhood he was accustomed to the robust 
and hardening activities of farm life. His parents, like all their 
neighbors, were poor, for the results of the war had been disas- 
trous to them and agriculture was not a gainful occupation. But 
in many respects the children of the household were fortunate. 
As intellectual as was their father, their cultivated and gracious 
mother was a fit helpmate to him. Amid all the cares and duties 
of family life she found time to devote to the education of her 
children; and year by year, under her persistent tutelage, they 
made progress and advancement. 

In 1881 Major Moore was engaged in compiling the "Roster 
of North Carolina Soldiers," and temporarily moved to Raleigh ; 
and then for the first time the subject of this sketch had the 
advantage of studying at school. For seventeen months he was 
a pupil at the academy of Fray and Morson, and profited by the 

At length, the Roster being published, the family returned to 
the plantation, and the young man of seventeen again entered on 


the cultivation of the fields of Maple Lawn. He, however, did 
not abandon his books, but, under the direction of his parents, 
continued his studies, becoming a fair scholar, and especially- 
proficient in mathematics. 

In time farm work became irksome and offered but little that 
appealed to his ambition. No matter what efforts, labor, energy 
and intelligence were bestowed on it, the results were discourag- 
ing. So when attaining manhood — before he was quite twenty- 
one years of age — young Moore sought work as a civil engineer, 
and through the aid of Judge David A. Barnes obtained employ- 
ment with a party locating and constructing a railroad from 
Henderson to Durham. The change was inspiring, and with his 
heart in his new work, he applied himself to it with zeal. The 
chief engineer, Major Charles H. Scott, was not long in appreciat- 
ing his excellence, and before the work was completed he had 
risen step by step and had become assistant to the resident engi- 
neer. In March, 1889, he was again promoted to be assistant to 
the division engineer and given charge of the erection of bridges 
on the Norfolk and Carolina Railroad, from Norfolk to Chowan 
River. A year at this work still further improved his efficiency, 
and he was employed in New York and Connecticut, with a party 
locating a line in those states. But before twelve months had 
fully passed, he was engaged as assistant engineer in the con- 
struction department of the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg 
Railroad, which was being built by Henry G. Davis and Stephen 
B. Elkins and their associates. For two years he remained in 
their employment, winning the good opinion of those with whom 
he was brought into contact. 

A young Carolinian, not a graduate of a college, without any 
influence except that of his own personal excellence, so admirable 
was his skill, so thoroughly was he master of his business, that 
he forged ahead until he reached the high level of the most ac- 
complished men in his profession. 

Observing the difficulties of those operating large saw mills in 
bringing down the mountain streams the logs to the mills — for 
generally there was either insufficient water or a violent flood — 


young Moore began to urge the construction of suitable railways 
to remedy the situation. His views were considered ; and finally 
as an experiment, in the fall of 1892, he was allowed to locate 
and construct a road thirty-two miles long up the course of a 
difficult mountain stream to the timber land. This proved so 
advantageous that eventually it w^as extended and became a plant 
of a hundred miles in extent. 

In this work Mr. Moore was given a free hand by the com- 
pany, and as chief engineer had absolute direction. He took 
personal charge of the labor, and the result was most satisfac- 
tory. So skillful was the location and so economical was the 
construction that Senator Elkins declared that it was without a 
parallel in railroad building. It was known as the Dry Fork 
Railroad, and was very profitable, earning dividends every three 
years equal to the cost of construction. 

In the fall of 1896 Mr. Moore opened an office for general 
engineering in the vicinity of Elkins, W. Va., and was successful 
in his business. One incident is worthy of particular mention. 
He made a location for a railroad seven miles up a difficult moun- 
tain side, but his estimates were so low that the company was 
skeptical; thereupon he undertook the contract of building at his 
estimates, and made money at it. 

After three years of this independent work ex-Senator Davis 
sought his services as chief engineer in the construction depart- 
ment of the West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh Railroad. For 
five years he held this important position, being at the same time 
engineer in charge of the construction of several subsidiary 
lines — the Coal and Iron Railway 475^ miles in length; the 
Coal and Coke Railway, 173 miles in length, and Central Rail- 
way of Virginia. All of these roads were of difficult construc- 
tion, involving heavy mountain work. Indeed, the last named 
was so difficult that eventually it was abandoned. 

The duties involved in this position were so trying and so 
exacting that his health began to sufifer, and in 1904 he resigned 
and resumed work as a general engineer at Elkins. Two years 
later Mr. Moore determined to leave the field where he had for 


fifteen years gained so many laurels, hoping to find a benefit in a 
change of climate, and he obtained a position as assistant engineer 
on the Grand Trunk Pacific, a transcontinental railway in Canada. 
At first he was detailed to make the preliminary investigations,, 
and these being satisfactory, he located the Pacific end of the line^ 
from the western terminus on Kaien Island in the ocean, to the 
mainland, and thence along the course of the Skeena River 
through the Coast Range Mountains. 

The chief part of this important .work he accomplished in 
eighteen months, by which time he had made the location some 
sixty miles into the interior. But the climatic conditions were 
unfavorable for his continuance in that occupation. The rainfall 
per annum was i6o inches, and the effect was bad on bronchitis,, 
from which he suffered, so he retired from that service and 
resumed private work, where he could operate without being 
subject to the inclemency of the weather. He has since returned 
to the East. 

During all these years of ceaseless activity Mr. Moore has 
wrought successfully not only in the way of gaining reputation,, 
but as well in gathering substantial rewards for his labors. In 
the years to come his name will be perpetuated in West Virginia 
and on the Pacific shore for his intelligent constructive work, 
and North Carolina may well feel a just pride in his successful 

On October 4, 1893, Mr. Moore was married at Davis, W. Va.^ 
to Miss Elezabeth Parsons, daughter of the late Mr. James Par- 
sons and Mrs. Sarah (Peddicord) Parsons. Mr. James Parsons 
came from a prominent family of the South Branch Valley, and 
was for many years, up to his death, a prominent civil engineer, 
being vastly instrumental in the early development of West Vir- 
ginia by Messrs. Davis and Elkins. Mrs. Parsons {nee Peddi- 
cord) is from Cecil County, Md. She has five children, three 
girls and two boys, and Mrs. Elezabeth Parsons Moore, wife of 
the subject of this sketch, Is the youngest of the girls. Mrs. 
Moore has not been blessed with any children. , 

S. A. Ashe. 

CI. UO>-o~-u^ 

^/ia»./^.l/i,n A/apjp^n, fifA/isha 


lETWEEN 1720 and 1780 many Scotch-Irish 
people came to America from the north of Ire- 
land. They were pure-blooded Scotch, with all 
the characteristics of that sturdy, intelligent and 
courageous people. In the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries their Scotch Presbyterian an- 
cestors had settled in Catholic Ireland. The Protestant faith and 
racial distinction of these settlers had been intensified by a cen- 
tury of conflict with the loyal adherents of the Church of Rome. 
The determined spirit of the militant sects was stimulated by 
wars and constant antagonisms, culminating in the siege of Lon- 
donderry, forever memorable in the annals of heroic warfare. 

WiUiam Moore, the great-grandfather of Charles Augustus 
Moore, was one of these Scotch-Irish men. His ancestors had 
gone from Scotland to Ireland with the Duke of Hamilton, and 
are referred to by Foote in his "Sketches of North Carolina" 
when he says that "along with Hamilton went the Moores, the 
Maxwells, the Rosses and the Baileys, whose names hold good to 
this day." William and Charles were two of nine brothers who 
•came to this country about the year 1741. They stopped in 
Pennsylvania for a few years, and then, with many of their 
fellow-emigrants, settled in the Piedmont sections of North and 
South Carolina. 

The Hon. Hugh. Blair Grigsby, LL.D., in an address delivered 


at Washington and Lee University in 1870 on "The Founders 
of Washington College," has this to say of these nine brothers: 

"They served in the war of the Revohition, in which more than one 
of them is believed to have fallen. When the brothers came over to 
America they brought with them an aged female ancestor who could re- 
member the siege of Derry, during which she had been driven to the 
walls of the city by the generals of James the Second . . . and she used 
to tell her descendants of the dead bodies of soldiers beneath the walls, 
some of them with tufts of grass in their mouths, which they had torn 
from the earth to appease their hunger." 

Charles Moore settled on Tiger River, in Spartanburg County, 
S. C, from whom descended a large family, many of whom be- 
came prominent in the history of the country. General William 
Moore, of South Carolina, of Revolutionary fame ; Hon. Andrew 
Moore, the war governor of Alabama; Hon. John H. Evans, of 
Spartanburg, S. C, and Dr. Thomas J. Moore, late of Richmond, 
Va., were among the descendants of Charles Moore. 

William Moore settled for a short time in Burke County, 
N. C, near what is now Bridgewater Station, on the Western 
North Carolina Railroad. He was a captain in the Continental 
Army, and commanded an expedition against the Indians of 
western North Carolina, and by continued fighting drove them 
back across the Pigeon River to the extreme western part of the 
State. In thlis campaign there were several engagements; a 
bloody battle was fought on Hominy Creek in Buncombe County 
at a point known as John's Field, on the Moore Plantation, and 
a decisive victory was won by the whites. The fighting power of 
the Indians in this section was destroyed, but Captain Moore and 
those daring men associated with him in the expedition deter- 
mined that they should never again be a terror to the white set- 
tlers, nor a threat to peaceful industry. They continued to pur- 
sue them and drove all of them beyond the Balsam Mountains. 
This was the final passing of the savage from this mountain land. 
Security to life and property was assured and the development 
of the country was in its beginning. 

Captain Moore's report of this expedition is published in the 
"Colonial Records of North Carolina." 


After the termination of this Indian war he moved with his 
family to Hominy Creek in Buncombe County (then a part of 
Burke County) and settled on a large tract of land granted to 
him by the State. As the country was subject to occasional raids 
by the Indians from beyond the mountains, he built a block 
house or fort to which the settlers might come for protection. 
This fort was on the plantation now owned by Dr. D. M. Gudger, 
seven miles west of Asheville; the ruins of it remained until 
recent years, and were often visited by strangers as well as by 
the people of the nighborhood. William Moore raised a large 
family, three sons and nine daughters. Two of the sons left 
the State. One settled in Georgia, the other in Mississippi. His 
son Charles resided on the home place until he died in 1872 at 
the advanced age of eighty-two. This Charles Moore was one of 
the most prominent men of his day in Western North Carolina. 
He held several offices in the county of Buncombe, was a mem- 
ber of the General Assembly, and was for many years connected 
with public affairs in various capacities. He was foremost in all 
undertakings looking to the progress and welfare of the com- 
munity, and was especially active and effective in the develop- 
ment of the educational facilities of this section. He was an 
ardent Presbyterian and was an elder in that church at Asheville 
and one of the trustees to whom was conveyed the site on which 
the present church stands. In all that went to build up the com- 
munity and improve its citizenship he was a real leader. He 
also raised a large family of children. Robert P. Moore and 
Daniel K. Moore, father of Hon. Frederick Moore, are the only 
surviving sons of Charles Moore. Hon. Walter E. Moore, ex- 
speaker of the house of representatives, is a son of Colonel 
Hamilton Moore, another son of Charles Moore. In 1861 Robert 
went to the front in response to the first call of the State for 
volunteers as a lieutenant in Company I of the Twenty-fifth 
North Carolina regiment, and never laid down his arms until 
the roll of the last drum. He was severely wounded a few 
days before General Lee surrendered. His record as a soldier 
is an honor to his name and to his country. In the Army of 


Northern Virginia he was always in the foremost fighting Hnes 
and bears upon his person the scars of several battles. Since the 
war he has lived a quiet life upon his farm in the western part 
of Buncombe County, respected and loved by his neighbors, and 
especially by his comrades in arms. At the reunions of his old 
company, which are held every year at Candler, on Hominy 
Creek, N. C, he is conspicuous for his courtesy to all and for 
his affection for his fellow-veterans. 

On May 14, 1 851, he was married to Sophronia C. Wells, who 
belonged to one of the most substantial and honorable families 
of western North Carolina. She was a granddaughter of John 
Weaver, one of the earliest white settlers in the Reems Creek 
section of Buncombe County, from whom descended a large and 
prominent family. She was also a granddaughter of John Wells, 
an early settler in Buncombe County, from whom the extensive 
and influential family of that name in the western part of the 
State is descended. 

Charles Augustus Moore, the subject of this sketch, is the 
only son of Robert P. and Sophronia Wells Moore. He 
was born on December 25, 1852, on the French Broad River, 
three miles above Asheville, N. C. There were until recently 
living in the mountains of North Carolina six men born and 
reared in the immediate neighborhood of the Moore plantation 
on Hominy Creek who presided as judges over the courts of 
this State. Two of these judges were born at the old Charles 
Moore home place. 

For a period after the close of the war the boys and young 
men of the South had poor opportunities for education and little 
to encourage them in life — their parents had lost their property 
by the war. The schools and colleges had been destroyed and 
the whole country was in distress. The fact that not a few 
of the boys and young men of this generation had the indomitable 
energy and determination to triumph over hardship and adversity 
was the salvation of the South and is one of the finest tributes 
to our race. 

Charles Augustus Moore was one of these boys who came up 


after the war. It had made him and his parents poor, but he 
had inherited the courage and virility of his ancestors. As a 
boy he determined to succeed. Then, as now, Asheville was the 
metropoHs of this western country. He was educated in the 
schools of the county and at Asheville, where an excellent school 
was at that time maintained, and paid the larger part of his 
expenses with the money which he had earned by teaching. 
These struggles and triumphs of his youth were the beginning 
of that growth and development which has ripened into one of 
the best citizens and ablest lawyers of the State. 

In January, 1872, he began the study of law under Judge John 
L. Bailey, who at that time conducted a law school of fine stand- 
ing in the city of Asheville. After close and diligent application 
for three years he concluded a full course in law, and in January, 
1875, was admitted to the Bar of this State. He at once opened 
a law office in Asheville, and soon won for himself a fine repu- 
tation and a large clientele. The lawyers of the section at once 
recognized that a man had come to the Bar who was an antag- 
onist to be dreaded and whose industry and ability would win 
for him the foremost place among the able men that have always 
adorned the profession in this section. He tried his cases with 
marked ability and won decisions from courts and verdicts from 

In June, 1887, he was elected judge of the criminal court of 
Buncombe County, a place which he filled with distinction to 
himself and with honor to the State. In 1890 he resumed the 
practice of the law, and since then has given to his chosen pro- 
fession his entire time and energies. In 1880 he formed a part- 
nership for the practice of the law with Captain C. M. McLoud, 
one of the best lawyers in that part of North Carolina. The part- 
nership was interrupted by Judge Moore's elevation to the Bench, 
but after his retirement from that position the partnership was 
renewed and continued until the death of Captain McLoud. They 
were both men of large minds and hearts. For a time he was a 
partner of Parish A. Cummings, of Joplin, Mo., and for about 
three years was in partnership with Duff Messick, of Asheville. 


In the year 1895 he entered into a partnership with his cousin, the 
late Frederick Moore, an able and affable member of the pro- 
fession. This partnership was dissolved when Judge Frederick 
Moore was elected to the Bench in 1898. In 1903 he formed a 
partnership with Thomas S. Rollins, that firm enjoying a large 
and lucrative practice, both in the state and the Federal Courts. 

Judge Moore has perhaps appeared in more important cases 
than any lawyer in the western part of the State, and in the 
management of all of these cases he has displayed great ability, 
superb tact, and untiring energy. He has made a specialty of 
corporation law and has appeared in nearly all the cases in this 
section involving large interests and intricate questions of law. 

Judge Moore has been twice married. First on May 25, 1876, 
to Miss Alice Harkins, daughter of John Harkins, of Atlanta, 
Ga., and to them was born one child, Charles A. Moore, Jr. His 
first wife died in 1878. In 1882 he was again married to Miss 
Lucia E. Thayer, daughter of Frederick Nathaniel Thayer, of 
New Orleans, and to them has been born one child, Lulu Thayer 

Judge Moore is a man of fine physical development, and has 
a strong, handsome, intellectual face. His dress is always elegant 
and in the best of taste. His manners are always those of the 
cultured, courteous, dignified gentleman. He is now in the full 
maturity of intellectual vigor. He loves his profession. This 
jealous mistress has no cause to complain of him. To her he 
has devoted a gifted mind and a life of tireless energy. Politics, 
attractive to so many men of talent, could never allure him from 
the work and the study of the law. He is a born fighter. His 
veins are full of Scotch-Irish blood. He wins many of his cases 
and never stops fighting in any until the court of very last resort 
has pronounced the final judgment. When he loses his adversary 
may always be proud of the victory, for every inch of ground 
has been contested by all the means that skill and learning can 
command. , 

In 1907 he was elected president of the North Carolina Bar 
Association in the meeting at Hendersonville. No higher honor 



can be conferred upon any lawyer in this State. In this recogni- 
tion of Judge Moore the association paid a just tribute to his 
high character as a man and his eminent abihty as a lawyer. 

For more than a century the Moores have stood in the front 
rank of the people of western North Carolina. Right* worthily 
does Charles Augustus Moore wear the name of a most honor- 
able ancestry. 

Locke Craig. 


REDERICK MOORE was born on September 
lo, 1869, He died on August 14, 1908, and 
was buried at Webster, N. C. He was not 
quite forty years old. His birthplace was 
the old Moore homestead on Hominy Creek, in 
the French Broad Valley, about seven miles 
west of Asheville. The house in which he was born is noted in 
western North Carolina history. It was built by his great- 
grandfather, William Moore, in 1795, near a fort which this 
same soldier and pioneer had erected for protection against the 
occasional raids of the savages. The ruins of this fort remained 
until recent years ; strangers and neighbors often visited the in- 
teresting place. This old homestead was also the birthplace of 
the father of Judge Frederick Moore. It was the home of his 
grandfather and great-grandfather, and in it were likewise born 
Judge Charles A. Moore and Hon. Walter E. Moore, both 
cousins of Frederick. 

The ancestors of Frederick Moore on the paternal side were 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and a more extensive account of tHem 
is given in the sketch of his cousin, Judge Charles A. Moore. 
His great-grandfather, William Moore, came to this country 
about 1 741. He raised a family of three sons and nine daughters. 
His son Charles, the grandfather of Frederick, lived on the 

lEDERlCK M001^ 

r869. ^-^ 

^u^L 14, 1908, and 

^tcr. N. C, Pic 

was not 


{.muay Lrcek,,4n 

'oHev. rbont 



grandfather, Wil: ,... . ,. .,..;. 

same soldier and pioneei gainst the 

occasional raids of the savages. Tlic Jus iort remained 

until recent years; strangers and nc^;,: ,.,^, ,; ten visited the in- 
teresting place. This old homestead was also the birthplace of 
the father of Judge Frederick Moore. It was the home of his 
grandfather and great-grandfather, and in it were likewise bom 
judge Charles A. Moore and Hon. Walter E. Moore, both 
cousins of Frederick. 

The ancestors of Frederick Moore on the paternal ^..k \-< .^ 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and a more extensive accotjnt of the^ m 

ven in the sketch of his cousin, Judge Cha. 

•r'^'* Grandfather, William Moore, came to -»;. c- .,u, y 
lie raised a family of three spns and nine daughters. 
.tries, the grandfather of Frederick, le 

^na b'^i: Z," m//'3r^s SSrr AO^ 

Z'/»r#Z^ l>^i A2'/>/7e^. J^ut/^s/li. 


home place until he died, in 1872, at the advanced age of eighty- 
two years. This Charles Moore was during his whole life con- 
spicuous among the men of western North Carolina. In all that 
went to build up the country and improve the citizenship ; in the 
development of the religious, moral and intellectual Hfe of the 
people; in real progress, he was a leader. His title to remem- 
brance rests principally upon the impress that he made upon his 
generation as a gentleman, a man of stern integrity, who stood 
for and exemplified the highest ideals of citizenship. Charles 
Moore had three sons : Robert P., the father of Judge Charles 
A. Moore ; Daniel K., the father of Judge Frederick Moore ; and 
Colonel Hamilton Moore, the father of Hon. Walter E. Moore. 
While yet in his teens Daniel K. Moore joined the Confederate 
army, and was a gallant and faithful soldier. His home is now 
in the county of Clay. He is an unassuming, intellectual, well- 
informed and courteous gentleman, honored by all who know 
him, loved by his neighbors, and a tower of strength in his 

Frederick Moore's ancestors of the maternal line have also 
been prominent and influential. His mother's name was Matilda 
Caroline Dickey. She was the daughter of Burton K. Dickey, 
and David Lowry Swain was her great-uncle. She was no ordi- 
nary women. She was well educated, strong in intellect and 
character. Frederick was her first-born and only son. She 
taught him. She educated him at home. With a mother's love 
she unfolded his mind and exalted his heart. Her home was 
the university from which he went; her benediction was his 
indenture. While she lived she was given to know that she had 
borne a man that could stand as the recognized peer among the 
forem.ost. She and her boy were stricken almost at the same 
time by the same deadly disease. On account of her serious con- 
dition she was not allowed to know of his illness. He went first, 
by several weeks, and was ready to greet the mother in the 
world beyond. 

The boyhood of Frederick Moore was spent on the farm. 
Like so many men of power, he came from the bosom of Nature 


herself. His early life was one of diligent toil and study. In 
the public schools of Clay County, in the Hayesville High School, 
in the Franklin High School, and at home, he was well educated. 
After studying law for more than a year in Clay County he 
spent a few months at the University of North Carolina. He 
was admitted to the Bar in September, 1892, and at once began 
to practice at Webster, N. C, in partnership with his cousin, 
Walter E. Moore, under the firm name of Moore & Moore. 
This partnership continued until January i, 1895, when he came 
to Asheville and formed a partnership with Judge Charles A. 
Moore, under the same firm name — Moore & Moore. This last 
partnership was dissolved on December 31, 1898, by his elevation 
to the Bench. He practiced law for only six years, but his repu- 
tation was established and a future of large success at the Bar 
awaited him. His firm was employed in most of the important 
litigation of this section, and his clients relied upon him as a 
wise counsellor and a thoroughly well-equipped lawyer. He was 
always a Democrat. In 1898 he was nominated by his party for 
judge, and elected for the four years of an unexpired term. In 
1902 he was unanimously re-nominated, and was elected for the 
full term of eight years. When first elected he was twenty-nine 
years old, and though one of the youngest men ever placed in 
this responsible position in North Carolina, from the beginning 
of his judicial career he honored the great office. The Bar of 
the whole State bore testimony to his ability, his learning, his 
integrity, his urbanity, his instinct for equity and his judicial 
poise. The people of his native mountain land were proud of 
him for his intrinsic worth, and for the recognition of his emi- 
nence as a jurist. His earnestness, his patience, his purity of 
purpose, his strong common sense were the handmaids of justice. 
On November 27, 1895, he married Miss Lela Enloe, daughter 
of Captain W. A. Enloe, of Dillsboro, N. C. To them were 
born five children: Edith, Frederick, Jr., Margaret, Will- 
iam Enloe and Daniel Killian, Jr. His home life was congenial 
and beautiful. He was a member of the Methodist Church, and 
exemplified the spirit of Christianity. 



Judge Moore combined without affection the manners of the 
gentleman of the old school with the practical energy of our time. 
He was robust in body and mind, dignified and handsome. His 
character was impregnable. He was clear-cut and courageous 
for his convictions, but just and charitable to all men. His life, 
full of the promise of honor and usefulness, suddenly ended in 
the morning of the prime of a magnificent manhood. By his 
death the State lost one of her noblest sons and ablest judges; 
and we who knew him best have been bereft of a friend whose 
sympathy and fidelity were a pearl of great price. 

Julius C. Martin. 


lOGER MOORE was descended from distin- 
guished stock, for it had made its mark in the 
old country long before the settlement of 
America. Sir Bernard Burke finds the name 
of Roger Moore in English history as far back 
as 1400, but the Moores are of Irish ancestry,, 
running through forty-seven generations prior to the Irish rebel- 
lion of 1641, and it would appear that the family are most prob- 
ably Irish autochthones. The Colonel Roger Moore who died in 
1646 was the famous Rory O'Moore of Irish tradition, a leader 
in the formidable Irish rebellion of 1641, and the grandfather of 
the James Moore who became governor of South Carolina 
in 1700. 

This Governor James Moore was born in Ireland in 1640. He 
emigrated to South Carolina about 1685, and settled on a grant 
of land in the Goose Creek section of the colony. A year later 
he married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Yeamans. Ten chil- 
dren were born of this marriage, of whom were James 2d, colonial 
governor of South Carolina, 17 19-21, died unmarried November 
19, 1740; Maurice, afterward major, prime mover in the settle- 
ment of the Cape Fear, and of whom a sketch has been printed 
in volume two of this work ; Nathaniel, member of the colonial 
Assembly, 1738-39; Roger, known as "King Roger." As he prac- 



£-n^. iru£S. Hf//,a^ ^-Bj-v Ar/' 

£ i/-^n A'i-^-^-7' 


tically drove the Indians from the surrounding country, he mer- 
ited this title. He was for many years a member of Governor 
Gabriel Johnston's council, and a man of great wealth, possessing 
immense tracts of land in the surrounding country. 

The occasion for the coming of the Moores to North Carolina* 
is as follows: In 171 1, when the Tuscaroras were massacring 
the colonists in Albemarle and threatening to exterminate all 
the whites in North Carolina, Colonel James Moore 2d, with a 
body of South Carolina troops, hastened to the scene and waged 
a vigorous campaign, which helped to restore peace. He was 
re-enforced by an army under command of his younger brother, 
Major Maurice Moore, who remained in Albemarle a year, 
when he was summoned to South Carolina with his forces to 
subdue a serious Indian uprising. He marched along the coast, 
crossing Cape Fear River near Sugar Loaf, and was so favor- 
ably impressed with these river lands that he conceived the idea 
of settling there. He could not carry out the project until 1725. 
His brother. King Roger Moore, had married a daughter of Land- 
grave Smith, who had located a grant of 48,000 acres on the 
Cape Fear in 1692, and this may have had an influence in 
bringing about the settlement. King Roger Moore came with his 
slaves and built Orton, one of the finest examples of pure colonial 
architecture in America, which is still standing. 

For many years the Moores were among the most prominent 
families on the Cape Fear, and they never failed in their service 
to colony or State. During the Stamp Act troubles of 1765 they 
proved to Governor Tryon that the colony would resist unto 
blood; again in the Revolution, and after, the family furnished 
to the patriot cause another General James Moore, and to the 
Federal Government Judge Alfred Moore, of both of whom 
sketches appear in this work. From this stock was descended 
the subject of this sketch. Colonel Roger Moore, who was born 
in Wilmington, July 19, 1838, and his grandparents were Roger 
Moore and Ann Holling, while his father was another Roger 
Moore, who married Miss Toomer, and the love which he mani- 
fested for his native State and her people was quickened, na 


doubt, by the consciousness that his ancestors had been identified 
with the State's history; but, self-reHant by nature, he did not 
rely upon his ancestry, nor boast of it, nor did he expect it to 
command for him a consideration not due to his own individual 

He was educated in the common schools of Wilmington. At 
the age of fourteen he began life as a clerk in the mercantile 
house of his brother-in-law, Mr. James T. Pettaway, who was 
engaged in the grocery and commission business. At the age of 
twenty he was admitted as a partner in the firm, which was then 
called Pettaway & Moore. 

He continued in commercial life until the outbreak of the Civil 
War, when he promptly entered the military service of the Con- 
federacy. He was a member of the Wilmington Light Infantry, 
and, enlisting in that company, served with the Eighteenth North 
Carolina regiment until June 1861, when he resigned. In 1862 
he again entered the service as a member of the company, known 
as Laurence's Partisan Rangers, and when this was divided into 
two companies he became captain of the senior company. This 
company was assigned to the Forty-first regiment, or Third 
Cavalry. He became commissary of this regiment. On August 
18, 1863, he was commissioned major of the regiment, and from 
major was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, on August 10, 1864, 
and upon the capture of Colonel Baker, June 21, 1864, was there- 
after in command of the regiment until the close of the war. 
In the "Confederate Military History," edited by General Clement 
A. Evans, C.S.A., this reference is made (vol. 14, p. 663) to 
Colonel Moore's military service : 

"In the spring of 1862 he entered the service again as a member of the 
company known as Laurence's Partisan Rangers, subsequently assigned 
to Claiborne's regiment, the Forty-first North Carolina, or Third Cavalry. 
. . . While with the Third Cavalry he participated in the battles of 
Kinston, in December, 1862, Newbern (with General Hoke), the cavalry 
afTair on the Blackwater, and with Longstreet about Suffolk, the battles 
which resulted in the bottling up of Butler at Bermuda Hundred, Ashland, 
Yellow Taverns, Hanovertown, Hanover Court House, North Anna Bridge, 
Nance's Shop, Deep Bottom, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, Charles 


City Road, where General Chambliss was killed, Belfield, the fighting with 
Wilson's and Kautz's raids under Hampton, the City Point cattle raid, 
Reams' Station, Burgess' Mill, Hatcher's Run, Davis' Farm, Dinwiddie 
Court House, Five Forks, and Namozine Church. In all of these spirited 
cavalry engagements Colonel Moore bore himself as a gallant officer, 
fully sustaining the reputation of the troopers led by Generals Gordon, 
Barringer and W. H. F. Lee." 

The regiment, while in command of Lieutenant-Colonel Moore, 
was in the brigade of General Rufus Barringer. It was in the 
division of General W. H. F. Lee, under command of General 
Wade Hampton, commanding the corps of cavalry. In vol. i 
of "North Carolina Regiments," page 443, General Barringer, in 
concluding a sketch of the Ninth regiment, which was (as was 
also the Forty-first regiment) a part of his brigade, alludes to 
certain of his regimental commanders as follows: 

"In this limited sketch no attempt has been made to note the frequent 
changes in regimental commanders constantly occurring from promotion, 
death and other causes, but it is proper to add here that the four doing 
the largest service in the compaign of 1864 and 1865 were Colonel W. H. 
Cheek, of the First Cavalry; Colonel W. P. Roberts, of the Second; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Roger Moore, of the Third, and Colonel James H. 
McNeill, of the Fifth. They were all wonderfully efficient officers — ever 
skillful and brave, and in every emergency equal to the occasion." 

At Reams* Station General Barringer's brigade was actively 
engaged, and the conduct of the North Carolina troops under 
his command, of which Colonel Moore's regiment was a part, was 
so conspicuous in its bravery that General Robert E. Lee, ad- 
dressed a letter to the governor of North CaroHna recounting it 
and commending them. Colonel Moore was personally com- 
plimented by General W. H. F. Lee. It has been the opportunity 
of the writer to inquire personally of some of the men under 
his command what manner of officer was Colonel Moore. The 
answer has been uniform — that he was a brave and splendid 
officer, considerate and thoughtful for the welfare of his men, 
and that he enjoyed their absolute confidence and good will. 

Captain R. P. Paddison, a friend of Colonel Roger Moore, 
and a member of the Ku-Klux-Klan in another neighborhood, 


just before his death, wrote a member of the family the fact 
that Colonel Moore after taking the secret oath of the Ku-Klux- 
Klan at Raleigh, in 1868, organized and commanded a Ku-Klux- 
Klan at Wilmington, N. C. He stated, in speaking of the debt 
the citizens of Wilmington owed Colonel Roger Moore, that 

''Colonel Roger Moore did his duty in this matter and never allowed his 
Klan to commit an act that was not justified and endorsed by our su- 
periors. He was in every sense a gallant and chivalrous gentleman. The 
people of Wilmington had every cause to thank him and the Klan for the 
good order that followed. But, of course, none but the members knew it 
was he, as it was one of the closest hide-bound secret orders ever known." 

At the close of the Civil War Colonel Moore returned to Wil- 
mington and resumed active business in the re-established firm 
of Pettaway & Moore; after a number of years this firm was 
dissolved, and he engaged in the naval stores and brokerage 
business. He later withdrew from this and accepted the agency 
of the firm of Patterson, Downing & Company, the great naval 
stores factors of New York. He continued in this position until 
1893 or 1894, when he resumed business for himself and began 
dealing extensively in building materials. He was successful in 
this venture and built up a thriving business, in which he was 
still engaged at the time of his death. 

During these years also Colonel Moore became interested in 
city and county affairs; he was active in his efforts to restore 
order and prosperity to his native city; and in the days of recon- 
struction was a potent influence for good in bringing out of the 
chaos of political demoralization order and good government. He 
was elected alderman of Wilmington in 1873 and served two 
years. He was made chief of the fire department on September 
20, 1875, and served until March 26, 1881 ; he had previously 
served for some years as captain of the Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany. In those days the fire department was entirely volunteer 
and composed of many of the best young men of the community, 
and in serving as an officer he was engaged in a work of civic 


In 1874 a serious riot occurred in the city which the municipal 
authorities were unable to suppress. A white man named Hea- 
ton, personally reckless but brave, who exercised a baneful influ- 
ence over the negroes, was one of the county Republican leaders. 
Conditions threatened an armed conflict between the whites and 
negroes. In the midst of this the distillery of the late A. H. Van 
Bokkelen was set on fire. The fire department reached the 
ground. Colonel Moore found Heaton at his worst amid a crowd 
of infuriated negroes, determined not to permit extinguishing 
the fire. He saw that conflict was inevitable, and while he knew 
the negroes could be routed, feared that it could be done only by 
the sacrifice of the lives of white men. Colonel Moore went 
to Heaton, took him by the arm, and, walking up and down with 
him in the night, pleaded with him to subdue his own passions 
and to exercise his influence to stop the rioting. Finally Heaton 
said, "Colonel Moore, you have conquered. You have treated me 
like a man, and I give you my word that this thing shall stop; 
and I want to say this also, that no other man in Wilmington 
could have done with me what you have done this night." Hea- 
ton called ofif the negroes, the fire was extinguished, and no 
further incendiarism occurred. 

Colonel Moore was again elected alderman of Wilmington 
from the second ward in March, 1893, and served until March 
29, 1895. He was elected a member of the board of county 
commissioners of New Hanover County on April 24, 1881, and 
served continuously from that date until December, 1894. He 
was re-elected in December, 1896, and served until December, 
1898, when he was elected chairman of the board, in which ca- 
pacity he continued to serve until his death. In all these posi- 
tions Colonel Moore stood for a clean, upright and conservative 
administration of public affairs. 

He rendered conspicuous service to his community in the 
Wilmington revolution of November 10, 1898. The Republican 
and Populist parties had carried the State in 1894, and their 
Legislature of 1895 changed the government of the city of Wil- 
mington and county of New Hanover ; the long-established crim- 


inal court was abolished to make room for a political appointee 
in a re-created court that proved utterly incapable of correcting 
disorder; the wards were allowed to elect a representative on 
the board of aldermen, but the remaining aldermen were ap- 
pointed by the governor. The city and county were practically 
in the hands of the negroes and incompetent white Republicans. 
Disorder became more and more acute until, in the spring of 
1898, as a self-defensive measure, the people, without organiza- 
tion, commenced to arm themselves. The greater part of the 
police of the city were negroes and incompetent; the chief of 
police was mere putty; the mayor of the town was a moral and 
political debauchee ; disorders were everywhere perpetrated, and 
the courts were without corrective influence. The tension was 
growing greater each day. Added to this was the state political 
campaign, which developed more than usual excitement and 
bitterness. In the meantime a number of far-seeing men, seeing 
the danger, proceeded to organize the v/hite people for a defense 
of the town. Threats of burning the town as a retaliatory meas- 
ure were made by the negroes, and the danger seemed to be 
imminent. The organization of white men was quietly perfected. 
Each block in the city had its captain. These captains elected 
from their ward a ward captain, and in turn these captains 
selected Colonel Roger Moore as the head of the whole Vigilance 
Organization. On November 8, 1898, the election was held, 
and the State was carried by the Democratic party. On Novem- 
ber 9 the citizens of Wilmington, after a large mass meeting, 
appointed a committee who demanded the removal of a certain 
negro press, at once, under penalty of destruction. This paper 
had aroused great indignation by a series of incendiary and in- 
sulting articles about white women. It was agreed by the several 
organizations, on the night before November 10, that when this 
committee, followed by a large body of citizens, should proceed 
to destroy the press, the Vigilance Organization should place its 
men all over town, at the different corners, in order to prevent 
risings of an)^ kind. These men were all armed generally with 
Winchester shotguns, or rifles. The military companies assem- 


bled at their armories, in order that they might promptly obey 
any orders that might be sent them by the governor. 

On the morning in question several hundred citizens, under 
the lead of their committee, went to the building where the negro 
press was operated, removed it and destroyed it, and although 
it was not the purpose to do so, the building, which was owned 
by a society of negro women, was burned. The negroes, not 
unnaturally, were in a state of excitement. The citizens of the 
Vigilance Organization, stationed at the different street corners, 
stopped all negroes passing upon the street, disarmed them, and 
directed them to go to their work or to their homes, knowing 
no trouble would result if they were not allowed to congregate. 

At the corner of Front and Walnut streets several hundred 
negroes from Sprunt's compress assembled, and would not dis- 
perse. There were a large number of citizens who desired to 
disperse them- by using riot guns, but Colonel Moore was 
promptly on the ground. He would not permit the whites to 
make the slightest attack, and after much persuasion on his part 
and on the part of other conservative citizens, the negroes were 
induced to disperse and go to their homes. 

Hardly had this happened before an outbreak occurred in the 
northern part of the city. Colonel Moore was again present, but 
he would not allow, as far as he could prevent it, an aggression 
that was not absolutely necessary. There were, unfortunately, 
some ten or twelve negroes killed, about five of them by the 
military companies, but it was the desire of Colonel Moore and 
of his immediate adjutants, all of whom were old Confederate 
veterans, to accomplish the results aimed at, if possible, without 
the sacrifice of a single human life. Later in the day the city 
was placed by the governor under martial law. 

The result of the revolution was to force the then aldermen 
of the city to resign one at a time, and as each one resigned the 
remainder elected a gentleman to fill the vacancy, who imme- 
diately qualified, and in this manner the entire personnel of the 
board of aldermen was changed. 

Had Colonel Moore yielded to the persuasion of many of his 


own excited followers that day, on the streets of Wilmington 
there might have been a carnage of blood. That it was not so, 
but that great results were accomplished at little sacrifice of Hfe, 
is due to the soldierly forbearance, the temperate purpose, the 
wise counsel and determined action of Colonel Moore, the head 
of the Vigilance Organization, sustained and co-operated with 
by such men as Dr. J. E. Matthews, Captain Walter G. MacRae, 
Captain James I. Metts, the late Colonel William R. Kenan, 
John H. Beery and others, nearly all of whom were old Confed- 
erate veterans, whose capacity and experience to handle the sit- 
uation and carry the community through the great ordeal were 
born of their experience and training in war. 

• After the riot Colonel Moore continued in private life, pur- 
suing his business, though he took an active interest in all that 
concerned his community. He was a member of the board of 
directors of the Seaman's Friend Society; he took an active part 
in the Sunday-school work of his church, and in the work of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. He had been for many 
years an active member of Grace Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He held every position of honor and trust in the gift of the con- 
gregation ; he also held positions of prominence in the conference 
and was regarded at the time of his death, which occurred in 
Wilmington, N. C, April 21, 1900, as one of the most earnest 
workers in that church. 

Colonel Moore was twice married. His first wife was Miss 
Rebecca Smith, to whom he was married June 2y, 1861. There 
is no surviving child by this marriage. A son, Roger, died at 
the age of sixteen. His second wife was Mrs. Eugenia Adkins, 
daughter of the late Captain B. W. Berry, of Wilmington, whom 
he married on May 3, 1871. There were born of this union nine 
children, of whom the following survive: 

(i) Miss Anne Moore, who was educated at St. Mary's, Vas- 
sar and the University of Chicago, from which she was graduated 
with the degree of Ph.D. For four years she was the head of 
the department of physiology in the State Normal School at San 
Diego, Cal. She has published books on sociological subjects. 


and is now an investigator of sociological conditions in New 
York City. 

(2) Parker Quince, now serving the people for the second 
time as mayor of Wilmington, was educated at Captain Bell's 
Military School in Rutherfordton, N. C. He married Willie 
May Hardin. 

(3) Roger, now at the head of the firm of Roger Moore's 
Sons Company, and president of Wilmington Rotary Club, at- 
tended the schools of Wilmington and was instructed by private 
tutors. His business training was acquired at a commercial 
college in Baltimore, Md. He married Alice Borden. 

(4) Louis Toomer, a former student at the University of 
North Carolina, and now member of Davis-Moore Paint Com- 
pany, married Florence Kidder. 

(5) Mary Ella, attended St. Mary's School, Raleigh, N. C, 
married Arthur L. Mills, Greenville, S. C. 

Colonel Moore was a man of above medium size, of a strong, 
vigorous constitution, with a warm, cordial and earnest tempera- 
ment. He was energetic in action, but kindly in disposition. He 
was always ready to respond to the call of one weaker than 
himself for help. He was never too tired or too hurried to give 
his time and his business knowledge to a woman seeking advice ; 
he never refused financial aid if it were in his power to grant it 
to a struggling man. The old negroes who had known him as 
a boy came to "Marse Roger" quite naturally for everything 
they wanted. And even in the days of fierce competition he 
never consented to pay less for services rendered him than he 
knew they were worth. He commanded at all times of his life 
the respect, confidence and good will of the people of his native 
city and State ; and in all matters of public moment he was quick 
to respond to any call for his services in a generous and patriotic 
spirit. It is in the lives of such men that the future historian 
of the State will find the sources from which to draw the picture 
of the highest and noblest spirit of the civilization of their day 
and generation. 

Iredell Meares. 


SUCCESSFUL career like that of Senator 
Overman nearly always has an interesting be- 
ginning, and one likes to go back and look at 
the conditions under which it started. So it 
will be of concern to know that his forefathers 
came to North Carolina far enough back in 
the seventeenth century to have a substantial foothold in the 
Indian-named county of Pasquotank, one of the original pre- 
cincts of Albemarle County, a century before the constitution 
was ratified. As long as a hundred years ago an ancestor, Henry 
Overman, was a member of the Legislature from that county and 
was associated with the leading names of the northeastern section 
of the State. 

Senator Overman's father, William Overman, was the first 
of the family to leave Pasquotank County, for while still a young 
man (about 1835) he was attracted by accounts of the unusual 
richness and beauty of that part of the Piedmont called the 
Jersey Settlement, along the banks of the Yadkin and the streams 
which flow into it. Since that day the family has been part of 
the influences most potent in shaping the community of which 
Salisbury has been and is a social and commercial center. This 
William Overman, merchant and manufacturer, was a land- 
owner and farmer as well. His accumulations were largely eaten 


^"^aS C Ikn l^v,,p,ui,PiM2. 


up by the war, and he had to begin Hfe again with little but 
the old home place, on which a son now lives, and a name stand- 
ing for what was upright and Christian. His wife was Mary 
E. Slater, a daughter of Fielding Slater. She stood for every- 
thing self-denial makes a mother and was only at enmity with 
what she thought mean and bad. Major James Smith, one of 
Rowan's foremost worthies, was her great-grandfather. Dr. 
Rumple in his ''History of Rowan County" has preserved the fol- 
lowing facts relative to Major Smith: 

"Before he reached manhood he was an ensign in the armies of the 
British King. When he came to North Carolina he became an American 
than whom very few figured more prominently or did more for the 
cause of liberty in his section of the State. His paternal ancestor emi- 
grated from Holland and came with a colony of young married men 
to North Carolina some time before the Revolution. In stature he was 
over six feet tall, straight as an arrow and of rather a commanding 
appearance. He v/as by occupation a farmer. He had slaves by whom 
he was much loved. They showed this, because when they were carried 
off south by the Tories they made their escape and returned to their old 
home. He has handed down this temperament of kindliness to his de- 
scendants of to-day. He was a member of the Committee of Safety for 
Rowan County, also one of the Committee of Secrecy, Intelligence and 
Observation, and became presiding judge of the court of pleas and 
quarter sessions. At the Halifax Congress, in April, 1776, he was 
appointed major of the regiment of which Griffith Rutherford was 
brigadier-general. He was a member of the famous Provincial Congress 
which met on November 12, 1776, and framed the first civil constitution, 
a constitution which endured until it was recast by the convention of 
1835, of which Nathaniel Macon was president. While in the army he 
made several campaigns with his regiment against the British and engaged 
in several hard-contested battles until he was severely wounded, when 
he was furloughed home. He had not been long returned before the 
Tories heard of his whereabouts and endeavored to capture him. His 
faithful servant, Ben, who lived until i860, told the tale of how he 
was sent to warn Major Smith of the approach of the enemy, when he 
was shot through and left for dead. They then attacked the house 
and demanded his surrender. His wife, who was the equal of her 
husband in courage, is said to have met them and kept them at bay with 
a long-handled frying-pan, such as were used in those days. She was 
overpowered, however, and he was captured and carried to South Carolina 


and imprisoned, where he died of smallpox. His good brave wife fol- 
lowed and nursed him in his last moments." 

His granddaughter, Alice, married Fielding Slater, and became 
the grandmother of Senator Overman. In the Salisbury neigh- 
borhood there are many descendants of this brave and noble man, 
all of whom are noted for their good character and moral worth 
as public-spirited citizens. 

Descended from such ancestry, it is not surprising that Senator 
Overman has their sturdy disposition or that his mind is of the 
conservative type which holds to old principles and is never hur- 
ried into accepting new ones until they can stand alone. 

The schooling which he got was that to be had in the private 
schools of the day, and was good, bad or indifferent as the teacher 
had adaptability for the art of teaching. It was only when he 
went to college that he got insight into what good training could 
do for a lad. The example was before him in the Rev. Doctor 
Braxton Craven, the head of Trinity College. Self-taught, self- 
made, he had learned not only to think, but to teach others to 
think. Here the student Overman had developed in him the 
faculty of purposeful work and a desire for success in whatever 
he undertook. It is most engaging to study the great influence 
of this college, with its simple, meager equipment and frugal life. 
It holds and has held the faith and support of the students who 
have enjoyed its privileges and has made multimillionaires proud 
to be its benefactors. 

It used to be said of the ancient borough of Hillsborough that 
it plumed itself as the home of two United States senators at one 
and the same time. Trinity College, in a neighboring county, re- 
minds its sister colleges that she has two United States senators 
who were fellow-students and are now fellow-senators of high 
rank both in service and esteem. Harvard had the scholar orators 
Hoar and Lodge as colleagues, and the University of North Caro- 
lina had the soldier statesmen Ransom and Vance, who served in 
the Senate together, but it must be remembered that in these 
two instances these senators, while they were graduates of the 
same universities, were not college-mates. 


When young Overman quit college he entered that ante-room 
of the law, the schoolroom. He taught with marked success m 
one of the first important public schools, that at Winston, in 
Forsyth County. 

Mr. Overman began to read law under Mr. McCorkle, of 
Salisbury, in 1876 and finished his course under Mr. Richard H. 
Battle, of Raleigh, N. C. These gentlemen were lawyers of the 
old school, learned, accurate and high-minded. He was licensed 
an attorney at the spring term, 1878, of the Supreme Court. 

In 1877 on the recommendation of many who had heard his 
speeches in the great Vance and Settle campaign of 1876, Gov- 
ernor Vance, on taking office, appointed Mr. Overman executive 
clerk and later private secretary, and when Vance was elected to 
the United States Senate, Governor Jarvis, who succeeded to 
the office, requested him to remain in that confidential relation. 
This he did until he resigned to begin the practice of his pro- 
fession. Schooling in public office was of great influence in 
shaping his political life. It gave him exceptional opportunities, 
which he improved, of acquainting himself with the administra- 
tion of the State's afifairs by the preceding Republican as well as 
by the incoming Democratic administrations. It brought him 
into intimate association with the leaders of thought in every 
county in the State. He had a genius for politics, as Talleyrand 
had for diplomacy, and he had the good sense to study it from 
the standpoint of the student as well as from that of the par- 

His activities in politics may be compendiously stated in this 
way: He began the practice of law in his native town in 188a 
and has been successful; he was five times a member of the 
Legislature — in 1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, 1899. In 1887 he was. 
the choice of the Democrats, being the unanimous selection of 
the caucus for speaker, but was defeated by a coalition of the 
Republican and Independent Democrats by a single vote. In 
1893 he was the unanimous choice of his party, and elected 
speaker of the house of representatives. He was president of 
the North Carolina Railroad in 1894; the choice of the Demo- 


cratic caucus for United States senator in 1895, and defeated 
in open session by the Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard by a combination 
of the Republicans and Populists; was president of the Demo- 
cratic State convention in 1900 and 191 1. For ten years he was 
a. member of the board of trustees of the state University and 
was also a trustee of Trinity College. He was chosen presi- 
dential elector from the State at large in 1900, and was elected 
to the United States Senate to succeed Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard 
for the term beginning March 4, 1903; he was re-elected in 1909, 
and again in 1914, being the first senator elected to the United 
States Senate by a direct vote of the people of his State. Every 
position he has ever held, except the private secretaryship, he 
has won by the votes of the people. 

His course in the Legislature commended him to the people 
of the State and made him stronger in their confidence at the 
end of each session. It was not his habit to speak upon a great 
many subjects, and he seldom made long speeches, but he ex- 
pressed his convictions eloquently, forcibly, at times vehemently, 
always with sincerity. His interest in education never grew 
stale, and in 1885 he brought in a bill for an annual appropria- 
tion for the state University. The bill met with considerable 
opposition on account of rivalries from the denominational 
colleges of the State, and a contrariety of sentiment as to state 
aid for higher schools of learning; but by appealing to state 
pride and by bringing into harmony the various clashing opinions, 
he succeeded in writing the law upon the statute books, where it 
has since remained. The appropriations under it are growing 
larger and larger to meet the legitimate demands of the institu- 
tion. The question of leasing the North Carolina road, in which 
the State held a majority of the stock, was one which divided 
the dominant party; but Mr. Overman had well-defined ideas as 
to what would be the State's true future interest, and he did not 
hesitate to lend his influence, which was a commanding one, 
to the policy of leasing the road. He was severely criticised 
by many of the papers in the State, but as time has gone on 
it has demonstrated that he acted with a thought single to 


the best interests of the State and that his judgment now has 
the approval of sound business men. When the party was almost 
destroyed by the great defection in 1892-94 he was one of the 
few leaders who at every turn opposed temporizing and stood 
unflinchingly by the accepted tenets of the party. This left him 
for several years in quite a minority, but the ill-sorted fusion 
failed to give any relief commensurate with what had been hoped 
for, and the people turned again to the steadfast leaders who 
had warned them against straying after false political gods. 

Mr. Overman rode into the lists for the senatorship when he 
was chosen by his party as their candidate in 1895. In 1903 the 
Democrats were in a large majority in both branches of the 
Legislature, and a trio of the State's foremost men contended 
for the honor of succeeding Jeter C. Pritchard, who had won 
distinction in the Senate during his eight years of service. They 
were Locke Craig, the eloquent representative of the mountains; 
Cyrus B. Watson a gallant Confederate soldier and one of the 
State's foremost advocates, eloquent, witty, and a prime favorite 
of the plain people ; and Lee S. Overman, the veteran legislator 
and leader in every campaign since he came to manhood, and 
their equal in action and speech. It was a battle royal, recalling 
the memorable contests between his distinguished father-in-law, 
senator and afterward chief justice, Merrimon, and Governor 
Vance. It was not so surprising that Mr. Overman won as it 
was that he won and never lost, but retained and increased the 
friendship of his opponents. The followers of these leaders had 
great respect for him, because he fought in the open, and when 
his term expired there was an era of good feehng, and he was 
returned without division. When he stood for his third election 
he had no opposition in his own party. His Republican opponent 
was A. A. Whitener, of Catawba County. 

His senatorial service has been a duteous one and has meant 
not only study of the problems presented in legislation, but in 
never sleeping heed to the requests and needs of the many in- 
dustries of the people whose representative he is. There are few 
representatives who try as he does to respond minutely to every 


letter received by him ; yet he somehow always finds time to see 
every visitor. 

In his attitude toward legislation Mr. Overman has always 
interpreted his duty to lie in the line of economy and frugality 
as regards public expenditures. But there are few senators more 
alert than he in looking after the interests of their special con- 
stituencies whenever benefits follow legislation. There is a belief 
that when the name of any of the unusually varied interests of 
his State, as cotton, fisheries, forests, is even whispered it will 
arouse him from his most delightful slumbers. 

He has served on sixteen committees. This is an extraordi- 
nary number, but it might not mean very much to many a legis- 
lator. To Mr. Overman, however, whose habit is punctually to 
attend every meeting of a committee, and to assist in the prepara- 
tion of the work of the committee, and to follow it before the 
grand committee — the Senate itself — it has meant an enormous 
bulk of work. Then there is a class of committee work of 
which he has taken on more than his share. This is the thank- 
less, uninteresting and unappreciated work of the joint com- 
mittees, to whom is deputed such tasks as the codification of the 
laws. The outcome of this work is a betterment of the statutes, 
for it puts more system and order into a mass of material which 
is of the utmost value in the administration of the law, and in 
that way affects every citizen. It is avoided by those w4io live 
to legislate in the open theater, and may be likened to the drudg- 
ery of rehearsals. 

For years he has held high rank on the Committee on Military 
Affairs and has given much study to the subject of the American 
army, so when the question of preparedness became one of the 
impending issues of the day he was unusually well fitted to lend 
his well-matured views and store of information to the prepara- 
tion of a law that avoided the crudeness of haste and met the 
test of efficiency. One of the first committees chosen by him 
when he entered the Senate was that on Forest Reservations. 
Familiar from boyhood and by study with the admirable and 
exceptional forests of his native State, he appreciated the neces- 


sity for conservation and gave special attention to securing 
scientific management in order that this enormous source of 
wealth might be what it should be to the State. 

For more than five years he has been a member of the great 
Committee on Appropriations. In this responsible position he 
has not sought the popular and spectacular reputation of being 
the watch-dog of the money bags, but he has followed the line 
of making a close scrutiny of all proposed expenditures. When 
these are for the general good of the public he favors hberal 

Senator Overman is not only the chairman of the Committee 
on Rules, but is also ranking member of the Committee on Ap- 
propriations and of the Committee on the Judiciary, two of the 
really big committees of the Senate. On account of the painful 
and extended illness of the chairman of the Judiciary Committee 
he has sat at the head of its table practically the entire time since 
the Democrats assumed control of the Senate. In that time the 
committee has been called to deal with some of the most impor- 
tant questions in the present revolution in politics. This com- 
mittee has been called upon to amend the Constitution itself. 
When President Wilson directed attention to the presence in 
Washington of an insidious lobby for the purpose of unduly 
influencing legislation. Senator Overman was appointed chairman 
of the sub-committee of the Judiciary Committee, in whose hands 
was placed the investigation. 

Soon after he came to the Senate he secured an appropriation 
for the appointment of commercial agents to be sent abroad to 
exploit and extend our commerce with the world. From time 
to time he has secured additional sums for the expansion of this 
work. The reports of the department show that under this 
policy our commerce has increased to the extent of millions of 
dollars, and it has been of special value to cotton, the South's 
greatest product. 

One of the most difficult positions ever voted to Senator Over- 
man by his colleagues is that of chairman of the Committee on 
Patronage. When a party comes into power it is the custom to 


name a committee to distribute to the members of the majority 
the offices connected with the body to which they have the 
privilege of appointment and to give decent recognition to the 
wishes of the minority. The old adage that when a man decides 
between two friends he loses one of them is made harder when 
the decision is among sixty friends. His success in sending 
nearly all away satisfied is largely a tribute to his liberality and 
geniality of disposition. 

The years embraced by his service in Congress have been fruit- 
ful in many radical changes in the laws. They have had to be 
adjusted to the growing demands of public expression, and to 
catalogue those of them or the parts of them for which he may 
be held as author would go beyond the scope of this sketch ; but 
it may be said of him that whatever may be his future *he has 
reached that stage in public career where his opponents cease 
to question his ability. While he acts upon the belief that we 
are bound by the strongest obligations to busy ourselves amid 
the world of men, and that the best laws come out of conference 
and concession, he is a thoroughgoing partisan, but he has both 
a natural and an educated reverence for the Constitution, and he 
believes it is to democracy what the doctrine of divine right is 
to the subjects of kings. 

From his youth up he has been a devoted member of the 
Methodist Church. 

In 1880 he married Margaret P., the eldest daughter of Hon. 
Augustus S. Merrimon, who was in turn a judge of the superior 
court, a United States senator and chief justice of the State. 

His home is made bright and popular by the presence of three 
beautiful daughters, Margaret, the wife of Mr. Edwin C. Greg- 
ory, a prominent lawyer of Salisbury, and the Misses Kathryn 
and Grace. 

P. M. Wilson. 


OVERNOR JOHN OWEN was a member of 
a patriotic and distinguished family, whose 
early history in North Carolina is identified 
with the county of Bladen. He was the son of 
Colonel Thomas Owen, a Revolutionary officer 
of distinction. 

Thomas Owen, the father, was of Welsh ancestry and was 
born in Chester County, Pa., in 1735. When a child his father 
brought him to North CaroHna. By the time he had reached his 
fortieth year the troubles between Great Britain and America 
culminated in the Revolution, and he was one of the earliest, 
most active and decided patriots of the Cape Fear section. On 
September 9, 1775, he was elected major of North Carolina 
militia for the county of Bladen and later became colonel of 
state troops. He fought in the brigade of General Isaac Gregory, 
which so distinguished itself at the battle of Camden on August 
16, 1780. In 1 781, when Bladen County was the scene of des- 
perate partisan warfare, the Whigs being driven out. Colonel 
Owen never relaxed his energy and zeal, and he was one of the 
leaders at the battle of Elizabethtown in August, 1781, in which 
the Tories were routed and their commander killed. 

History describes him as "warm-hearted to a friend, generous 
to a foe, and as brave a soldier as ever drew sword." In addi- 


tion to his military services, he was a member of the Provincial 
Congress at Hillsborough in August, 1775; he was elected a 
justice of the court of pleas and quarter sessions for the county 
of Bladen on December 23, 1776, and served many terms as state 
senator both during and after the war. He died in 1803. He 
married Eleanor Porterfield, daughter of James Porterfield, the 
elder, and a sister of Captain Dennis Porterfield, who was killed 
at the battle of Eutaw Springs. Besides our present subject,, 
there were born to this marriage General James Owen, member 
of Congress, and a daughter Mary, who married Elisha 

John Owen, to whose personal history we shall now confine 
this sketch, was born in Bladen County, N. C, in the month 
of August, 1787. He was a student at the University of North 
Carolina in 1804; and later in life was a trustee of that institu- 
tion for over twenty years— from 1820 till his death in 1841 — 
besides being ex-officio president of that board during his term 
as governor of the State. 

In the North Carolina house of commons of 1812 Mr. Owen 
made his first public appearance. He was re-elected to serve in 
the session of 1813. He was state senator from Bladen County 
in the General Assembly of 1827. 

On December 8, 1828, Mr. Owen was elected governor of 
North Carolina by a joint ballot of the General Assembly. He 
was sworn in before the Legislature by Chief Justice Taylor on 
the twelfth of the same month. In the following year he was re- 
elected, and in 1830 was about to be ballotted on for a third 
annual term when he sent a special message (December 9, 1830) 
making grateful acknowledgments to the General Assembly for 
past honors and saying that circumstances not of a public nature 
made it necessary for him to retire from the office. His term 
ended on December 18, 1830, when Governor Montfort Stokes 
was sworn in as his successor. 

In the constitutional convention of 1835 Governor Owen was 
one of the delegates from Bladen County. He was not in favor 
of entirely disfranchising the free negroes, and he supported Mr.. 


Edwards' proposition abolishing all religious tests as qualifica- 
tion for office. 

The last public service of Governor Owen was when he acted 
as president of the National Whig Convention which met at 
Harrisburg, Pa., on December 4, 1839, ^^^ nominated William 
Henry Harrison for president and John Tyler for vice-presi- 
dent — 'Tippecanoe and Tyler, too." Governor Owen was offered 
the nomination for vice-president by this convention, but modestly 
declined, saying he did not deem it proper to accept a nomination 
from a body over which he was the presiding officer. The nice 
sense of honor displayed on that occasion marked his career 
throughout his life. Had he accepted, the early death of Harri- 
son would have made him president of the United States. After 
receiving the nominations Harrison and Tyler addressed their 
letters of acceptance to Governor Owen, who was chairman of 
the committee appointed by the convention to notify them offi- 
cially of the action taken. The correspondence between them 
and the committee will be found in the Raleigh Register of 
January 14, 1840. It was first made public through the Fayette- 
ville Observer J which was the nearest newspaper to Governor 
Owen's home. 

Governor Owen's home in Bladen County was up the Cape 
Fear River from Elizabethtown and was called Owen Hill. There 
he spent the greater part of his life, but he also had property 
in Chatham County. He died at Pittsboro, in Chatham County, 
on Saturday, October 9, 1841. From the Raleigh Register of 
October 12th we take the following extract concerning his life 
and character. 

"He was not only one of our most distinguished and valuable citizens, 
but was one of the purest and best men that ever lived; and his loss is 
more forcibly expressed by the concern that is on the countenance of 
all than words can portray it. He had so much intelligence and good 
sense, decision of purpose blended with kindness of heart, firmness of 
principle and sincerity of feeling, dignity of person and gentleness of 
manners, equanimity of disposition and delightful cheerfulness, that he 
commanded respect and regard wherever he was known. . . . Governor 
Owen filled for two years the executive chair of his native State, and 


would have been re-elected to that high station by acclamation if the use 
of his name had been permitted ; but in this matter he resisted all the 
efforts of his friends. He repeatedly represented the county of his resi- 
dence in the State Legislature, and filled other stations of trust and 
honor; and in all situations his pleasing manners and uniform urbanity 
rendered him one of the most popular of our public men. But estimable 
as he deservedly was in all the walks of life, it was for the domestic 
and social virtues that he was most conspicuous. The natural turn of 
his mind rendered him unambitious of public distinction; and in private 
life he found ample space for the exercise of those virtues which are 
the best and brightest ornaments of our nature. Though possessed of 
an ample fortune, he did not sit down to enjoy it as if he had nothing^ 
else to do, no duty to perform, or no charity to exercise. He lived in the 
world as one of its members, and shared its cares, its anxieties, its labors 
and its joys. When called upon by public exigencies and private wants^ 
he was always at his post — the first in the front rank." 

The wife of Governor Owen was Lucy Brown, daughter of 
Colonel Thomas Brown, a noted Revolutionary patriot of Bladen 
County, who became a major-general of state militia after the 
close of that war. To this marriage was born an only child, Lucy 
Owen, who became the wife of Haywood Williams Guion, a 
noted North Carolina lawyer, who was born in Newbern July 
9, 1814, and died in Charlotte July 19, 1876. 

Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

^ -r^ ^■^A'^ fi^&zns ^ jSrsr yi^^y^ 



so inseparably woven into the fabric of the 
commercial life, progress and development of 
Durham that Durham, Parrish and Tobacco 
are linked together like the emblematic and 
mystic three links of the Odd Fellows. He was 
one of~the first at the birth of Durham, and no man did more 
to establish, foster and develop the tobacco industry in North 
Carolina and in Durham in particular. 

The subject of this sketch was born near Round Hill post- 
office, then Orange (now Durham) County, on October 20, 1846. 
He is a son of Colonel Doctor Claiborn and Ruthy Anne (Ward) 
Parrish. His father had the peculiar given name of Doctor, be- 
cause .he was the seventh son, in accordance with the old super- 
stition that the seventh son has the gift of healing. Doctor C. 
Parrish was himself a remarkable man. Born in 1807, he 
reached the ripe age of seventy-six. He had the esteem and 
affection of all the people, and at the time of his death, in 1883,. 
was mayor of the city of Durham. 

Young Edward J. Parrish attended the best schools of his sec- 
tion, after which he entered Trinity College, then in Randolph 
County, and under the presidency of the lamented Dr. Braxton 


Craven. Enforcement of what was known as the "reserve act," 
passed by the Confederate Congress, forced him to leave college 
and go to Raleigh, where he became mailing clerk in the news- 
paper office of the Spirit of the Age, 

Arriving at the age of eighteen, he found it necessary to make 
a choice — either enter the service of the Confederacy or desert 
his people. He met the dilemma, as he has met every other in 
life, with courage and decision. He was assigned to Company K, 
Fourth North Carolina Cavalry. He was in service only six 
months before the Civil War closed, but was in several engage- 
ments. His company suffered great loss, and when it reached 
Appomattox only two or three men were left. Young Parrish 
discharged his military duties with signal fidelity. 

Returning home at the end of the struggle, he found his 
father's property had paid the penalty of war, and a new start 
had to be made, with nothing but naked lands and naked hands. 
He went between the plow handles and took up the work of life, 
like the man he is, with renewed hope and courage. His ambi- 
tion leaped into a flame and he left the farm. He went to Raleigh 
and became a salesman in a dry-goods store. He won friends 
there, and was soon recognized as one of the best salesmen in the 
city. His next change was to a government position, which he 
filled in such an admirable way that men began to recognize that 
he possessed capacity as a business man and financier. 

At this period of his life he married, on October 5, 1870, Rosa, 
the youngest daughter of Captain Elias Bryan, of Haywood, 
Chatham County. In 1870 he resigned his government position, 
moved to Durham, and opened a grocery store. Durham was 
then a small railroad station — a little platform and a tank of 
water, and possibly four or five houses — not much more than 
a wide place in the road. The volume of business in his store 
was small, so in May, 1871, he added to his business the duties 
of auctioneer in the first tobacco warehouse opened in Durham, 
of which Mr. Henry A. Reams was proprietor. As sales only 
occurred twice a week, it did not interfere with his duties at 
the store. He remained with Mr. Reams until 1873, when he 


formed a partnership with J. E. Lyon and conducted the Farm- 
ers' Warehouse, in a new building just completed at that time, 
under the name of Parrish & Lyon. 

The panic of 1873 caused the young firm to lose all they had 
accumulated. The warehouse was closed. Undismayed, Colonel 
Parrish decided to resume business. Mr. Lyon withdrew. In 
1876 the Durham Warehouse w^as rented for $2,000 per year, 
which looked to the people of that day as something enormous. 
Colonel Parrish's indomitable energy caused his business to grow 
to such an extent that he built a new warehouse, which marked 
an epoch in the history of Durham. The first sale in the new 
warehouse was on August 29, 1879, and that sale amounted to 
80,000 pounds of tobacco, for which $15,000 was paid. In 1880 
J. W. Blackwell was admitted as a partner. In 1884 Colonel 
Parrish bought Blackwell's interest, paying him $80,000 in cash. 
In the years 1881 to 1883 they sold over 20,000,000 pounds of 
tobacco, which realized about two and one-half million dollars. 
The year 1884 found Mr. Parrish thirty-eight years of age, and 
a commanding figure in one of the greatest tobacco markets in 
the world. 

Mr. Parrish has the gift of drawing men to him, but not mak- 
ing his dignity oppressive, and being full of love for humanity, 
men thronged to him for advice, encouragement and assistance. 
Singularly tenacious in his attachments, both to individuals and 
causes, he never deserted the one or the other, and through life 
has ever been ready to stand by a man as long as there was a 
glimmer of hope for his salvation. 

During his active, busy life he suffered many reverses and 
losses — one a fire that swept away his warehouse and steam 
plant, entailing a loss of $140,000 — but he always came up smil- 
ing with a determination to try again. His feelings toward the 
people with whom he did business is aptly illustrated in two 
instances. While in the warehouse business he loaned many thou- 
sands of dollars to farmers of the tobacco-raising section without 
interest. When the "Black Friday" of the panic struck Durham 
the farmers owed him these thousands. When the claims were 


sold Colonel Parrish bought them in, and never attempted to 
collect a dollar. A patent was secured by a party for covering 
plant beds with cloth. This patent caused much confusion among 
the farmers, and much litigation was imminent. Realizing the 
importance of the plant beds being covered, Colonel Parrish, in 
order to relieve the situation, bought the patent right and pub- 
licly advertised that every farmer was authorized to use the same 
without charge. 

Colonel Parrish was a pioneer in the tobacco industry, as well 
as in the growth and development of the city of Durham, and 
has filled many high and honorable positions in civic life, fra- 
ternal circles and agricultural industries. He was captain of the 
Durham Light Infantry for five years, and was afterward 
appointed colonel of the Third regiment, North Carolina State 
Guard. He is a man who does things. He has a personality that 
is very much himself, and very little of anybody else. He is 
essentially a man of action — aggressive and progressive. He has 
ideas, and ideas that are worth while. He is possessed of ex- 
haustless energy, and succeeds in infusing much of his own 
enthusiasm into any cause he may choose to champion, transmit- 
ting its tremendous impulse to his associates. The North Caro- 
lina State Fair of 191 5 was a shining example of his gifts 
described above, and was one of the most enthusiastic events of 
his life. He was elected president of the Agricultural Society of 
North Carolina in 1914, at a time when the State Fair seemed to 
be waning. He infused new life in the fair, and gave it such an 
impetus that it has served as a stimulus to county and community 
fairs throughout the State. These he advocated in connection 
with his presidency of the Agricultural Society. They are now 
becoming estabHshed institutions and are destined to work great 
good in North Carolina. Several have been held in Durham 
County, Colonel Parrish's home county, and they have done a 
great work toward arousing local competition, which means a 
better quality of products in the home and community. He has 
established the idea of community fairs, which will have exhibits 
in the county fairs, while the State Fair becomes a clearing-house 


for the county fairs. This movement will be a big force in North 
Carolina's development. 

The State Fair of 191 5 was a great success, and the fair 
authorities made Wednesday, October 20, 19 15, the birthday of 
Colonel Parrish, ''Durham-Parrish Day." The people of Dur- 
ham, in attestation of their love and affection for Colonel Par- 
rish, turned out in mass and made it a great occasion. In addi- 
tion to that, the exhibits by the great industries of the city, and 
by the farmers and individuals at the State Fair of 191 5, showed 
the great esteem in which the community held Colonel Parrish 
in their desire to do him honor by making the State Fair a grand 
success. Durham has been always torn asunder by factions, 
which usually followed the cleavage line of the Dukes and Carrs, 
and notwithstanding the fact that Colonel Parrish is a close rela- 
tive of the Carrs, and his affiliation is with the Dukes in business, 
he has never been affected by the estrangement between the fac- 
tions, but has enjoyed the confidence and esteem of all classes, 
and nothing showed that so well as the combined and united 
effort of all Durham to make the State Fair of 191 5 a great suc- 
cess in honor of Colonel Parrish. 

His remarkable business capacity was demonstrated when the 
American Tobacco Company sent him to Japan to get business. 
He not only got the business, but revolutionized the old methods 
of operating through foreign agencies by dealing through the 
Japanese themselves and the Japanese banks, a policy which other 
concerns have adopted since Colonel Parrish blazed the way. He 
met with such high favor among the Japanese that the Emperor 
of Japan conferred upon him the "Third Order of Honor," and 
he was decorated with the "Medal of the Sacred Treasure." It 
was during his absence that another evidence of the esteem in 
which he is held by his home people was manifested. He was 
unanimously nominated to represent Durham County in the Leg- 
islature, by the Democratic county convention, and when sent 
for, he notified them that he was unable to accept. 

Colonel Parrish has enjoyed the public esteem of his fellows 
to such an extent that he could have had any position he desired. 


His nomination during his absence from the county was an evi- 
dence of that fact. 

Returning to New York from Japan, he was offered high posi- 
tions in Mexico or Cuba, but his affections were so strongly 
bound up with the city he had helped to make that he came back 
to Durham and developed a beautiful farm home, Lochmoor, five 
miles out from the city; built many city residences, and gives 
himself generously to everything contributing to the public wel- 

If in this sketch the reader has gathered the meaning of Colonel 
Edward J. Parrish's life, an excellent purpose has been served. 
With the qualities he possesses, had he been moved solely by 
ambition, he might have been a great political leader, or a great 
railroad president, or at the head of some great corporation ; but 
he possesses moderate desires, in so far as material accumulations 
are concerned, and uninfluenced by selfish personal ambitions his 
great energy and capacity have been turned in the direction of a 
life of useful service. He has his reward in the aft'ectionate 
esteem of a constituency as wide as the State of North Carolina, 
and even beyond. He is adding to his good record by making 
of his beautiful farm home an object lesson to the farmers of 
North Carolina, by showing them that a beautiful and well-im- 
proved farm not only adds to the comfort of the owners but also 
to the value of their material possessions, as he did in the man- 
agement of the State Fair of 191 5, and so to the end of all other 
chapters that may be written he is continuing even as he has lived 
— active, energetic, useful. 

James A. Robinson. 



R. ROBERT LEE PAYNE was born at Lex- 
ington, N. C, December 29, 1834, and was 
assassinated there February 25, 1895. His 
father, Dr. C. L. Payne, was born in Virginia, 
but practiced his profession at Lexington. He 
was a Hneal descendant of WilHam Payne of 
Highgate, London, a brother of Sir Robert Payne of Temsford 
Hall, Bedfordshire, England, both of whom were original charter 
members of the first Virginia company. 

His mother was Mary Ann Lewis of Mecklenburg County, 
Va., a descendant of Charles Lewis, known as "Charles of the 
Bird" of Gloucester County, Va. Thus it is seen that his an- 
cestors were people of nobility and rank. His literary education 
was obtained at the old Caldwell Institute, Hillsboro., N. C, 
at Davidson College and the University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill. His education was ample. He was well prepared 
for the study of medicine, which he began at the Jefferson Med- 
ical College, and graduated in 1857. Returning to his home, 
well equipped and proud of his degree, enthused with the work 
before him, he began the practice of his profession in partnership 
with his father, which lasted until the death of the latter in 1865. 
Afterward he was associated in partnership with his brother. 
Dr. C. M. Payne, who became an eloquent and devoted minister 


of the Presbyterian church, lived a life of usefulness and devo- 
tion to his noble calling and died in Washington, N. C. 

For the last seventeen years, and the best years of his useful 
and honorable life, Dr. Payne had the happiness and pride of 
having as a partner his son. Dr. R. L. Payne, also a graduate of 
the Jefferson Medical College. The son is now a skillful and 
distinguished surgeon of Norfolk, Va. His reputation as a sur- 
geon brings to his care many patients from all over Virginia and 
North Carolina. 

The Payne family is remarkable for its gift of able medical 
men to the profession of the State — first, Dr. C. L. Payne; 
second, Drs. Robert Lee Payne and C. M. Payne; third, Dr. R. L. 
Payne ; fourth. Dr. R. L. Payne, Jr., father, son, brother, grand- 
son and great-grandson in the order named. Of all this coterie 
two only remain to honor the name, Dr. R. L. Payne, as before 
stated, and his brilliant young son, Dr. R. L. Payne, Jr., both of 
Norfolk, Va. 

The following most appropriate obituary appeared in the North 
Carolina Medical Journal November 5, 1895, by Dr. C. A. Julian, 
his devoted friend and neighbor, of Thomasville, N. C. : 

"His attainments were fully recognized by his fellows, and as an evi- 
dence of their high regard he was elected vice-president of the North 
Carolina Medical Society in 1870, annual orator in 1871 and in 1872 he was 
elected for six years one of the Board of Medical Examiners, a position 
for which his character and experience particularly fitted him. Conscious 
of the grave responsibility he assumed in this capacity, he made his 
examinations most thorough, but tempered them with such kindness and 
sympathy as to remove much of that embarrassment and dread which 
most young physicians experience when applying for a license. In 1878 
the society conferred upon him their highest honor by electing him as its 
president. In this capacity he exhibited his strong mind and intellect. 
Dr. Payne was elected honorary member of the Abingdon Academy of 
Medicine in 1887. He was elected a member of the North Carolina Board 
of Health in 1879, and served with distinction for a term of six years. 
He was again unanimously elected to succeed himself, but declined the 
proffered honor. He was corresponding member of the Gynecological 
Society of Boston, of the Meigs and Mason Academy of Medicine, and 
was examiner of the Confederate Board and Home Guard Board during 
the late war. For nineteen years he was the attending physician to the 


poor house of Davidson County. His natural kindness of heart and 
his pecuHar way well qualified him for this work. Few have possessed 
more delicate sensibilities, a warmer heart or kinder sympathies. Espe- 
cially did his tenderness manifest itself for those unfortunate beings, 
the poor — none of them were overlooked, none had just cause to feel him- 
self or herself neglected. There was no selfishness in his ambition. One 
of his strongest characteristics was his tenderness for everything weak. 
This was manifested especially toward the young physicians of his ac- 

"Dr. Payne had other qualifications aside from his chosen profession. 
His enterprise and activity among his townsmen won for him great ad- 
miration and high regard for his opinion in municipal affairs, and in conse- 
quence as often as he would accept he was elected magistrate and 
commissioner of his town. 

"Dr. Payne was a man of scholarly and literary attainments. He 
applied himself rigidly to every task, and the works from his pen indi- 
cate an erudition much more extensive than the ordinary. In 1887, 
Davidson College, recognizing his ability and scientific attainments, con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. He contributed 
liberally to the transactions of the North Carolina Medical Society and 
wrote many articles for the North Carolina Medical Journal, Medical 
and Surgical Reporter, Virginia Medical Monthly, Louisville Journal 
and most of the leading journals of the day, and in all his writings he 
exhibited strength of thought, sound common sense and felicity of ex- 
pression. His article on diphtheria deserves especial mention, being pro- 
nounced by some of our most successful practitioners as worth more 
to the physician seeking to cure his patients than all other books and 
papers combined on the subject. This article, with a paper entitled 
'The Health of Our School Girls," were reprinted and largely distributed 
by the Board of Health in the State. 

"Dr. Payne as a practitioner was eminently successful, faithful, skilled 
and much beloved, and enjoyed a very extensive practice. His manner in 
the sick-room was exceedingly nice, for the time being he seemed 
oblivious to everything else, concentrating the whole of his powerful 
nature on the one object of his visit — the relieving of his patient. 

"He devoted his attention largely to surgery and diseases of women, 
and the profession attested his attainments by sending for him in council 
in and out of the State. He was quick to respond to a brother physician 
in distress. He never let an opportunity escape to harmonize the pro- 
fession about him or to elevate its tone. The Davidson County Medical 
Society, of which he was president at the time of his death, owes perhaps 
more to him than to any other man. 

"In May, 1856, Dr. Payne married Miss Winifred T. Wilson, daughter 


of John Wilson, Esq., formerly of Danville, Va. She was a woman of 
excellent traits, with a genial, warm and loving heart — a fit consort for her 
noble husband. She died May 14, 1909. This union was blessed with 
the birth of five children, four of whom survive him — one son. Dr. R. L. 
Payne, on whom the mantle of the father has fallen, and three daughters, 
Mrs. M. P. Fowle, of Washington, N. C. ; Mrs. Fannie T. Sparrow, of 
Washington, and Mrs. Bessie W. Beckwith, of Plymouth, Pa. . . . 

"Dr. Payne was a truly honest, upright Christian physician, and remained 
a faithful and consistent member of the Presbyterian church until his 
death. By precept and example he strove to do his part for the honor 
and glory of his Master. His Christian character, both in life and death, 
was fully exemplified. From 1861 to the day of his death he was a ruling 
elder in his church. He felt the assurance of his reward. His last words 
were, 'Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.' " 

Dr. Payne's strong personality would have made him a marked 
man in any community. With a quiet dignity, he towered like 
a colossus above the ordinary men around him. But there never 
was any spirit of domination in his make-up. He accorded to 
every man his just and full rights. Nature had cast him in a 
large mold — he looked his part mentally and physically. No one 
could see him but that he would recognize a man endowed with 
superior mental and physical gifts. These fitted him, and well, 
for life's battle. In early manhood he adopted duty as his watch- 
word, truth and honor as his armor of defense. These attributes 
followed him through life in every thought and action. Purity 
of purpose always controlled his every impulse. He had a mind 
conscious to itself of its own rectitude. His winsome manners, 
soft smile and handsome face attracted children to him, for they 
knew that he loved them. The ease with which he won their 
young hearts was remarkable. To win children is almost a neces- 
sity in the life of a doctor. If the history of our great medical 
men be searched, it would be found that much of their success 
came by winning children. Dr. Payne loved his native rolling 
hills, the smiling valleys, the fields and flowers, the woodland and 
streams. They appealed to his fine sensibilities in his lonely 
rides, often, too, in the night-time with naught to keep him com- 
pany but his faithful horse and the patient stars looking down 
upon his missions of mercy. He was a brave man. His eye 



never quailed, nor did his cheek ever blanch in the presence of a 
danger. He was full of the pride that an honest man should 
have. Frank, open and sincere, incapable of duplicity, he despised 
it in others. His pleasing address and engaging manner rendered 
him a welcome guest everywhere. But the glamour of society 
held few charms for him, preferring to spend his moments of 
leisure by his own fireside in the bosom of his own family, where 
he was a charming host. 

The writer cannot close this sketch without recording his 
gratitude for the kindness and consideration shown him by Dr» 
Payne when he was an applicant for a medical license — an ad- 
miration and love for the man followed him until his untimely 

L. /. Picot. 


MERICAN history is rich in examples of men 
who have overcome poverty and humble birth 
and wrought out for themselves enduring fame. 
Not many have accomplished the still more dif- 
ficult task of winning distinction, where high 
station and easy fortune were joined with asso- 
ciations indifferent to education and contemptuous of intellectual 
attainment. We enter the name of John Penn upon the roll of 
those who have achieved the higher honor. 

He was born in Caroline County, Va., May 17, 1741. His 
father, Moses Penn, was a gentleman of comfortable fortune, 
but so indifferent to intellectual culture, according to Lossing, 
that he provided his only son no other opportunity of acquiring 
an education than was aiforded by two or three years' attendance 
upon a common country school. He died when his son was eigh- 
teen years of age, and is said to have left him the sole possessor 
of a competent though not large estate. 

His mother was Catherine, daughter of John Taylor, one of 
the first justices of Caroline County. James Taylor, who came 
from Carlisle, England, about 1635, was the first of the family to 
settle in Virginia. The family was an important one and has 
contributed many able and useful men to the public service, 
including two Presidents of the United States — James Madison 


and Zachary Taylor. Hannis Taylor, a distinguished son of 
North CaroHna, John R. McLean of Ohio and Mrs. Dewey, 
widow of Admiral Dewey, are among the distinguished members 
of the family at this time. 

Those members of his mother's family with whom John Penn 
came into closest relations and who most influenced his course 
in life were his cousins, John Taylor of Caroline and Edmund 
Pendleton. The first, nine years his junior, is usually spoken 
of as his grandfather and sometimes as his son-in-law — an un- 
usually wide range of kinship. The last may be true, since the 
family records show that he married a Penn, but more likely a 
sister or other relative than a daughter of John Penn. John 
Taylor of Caroline was born in 1750, graduated from William 
and Mary College, studied law under Chancellor Nathaniel Pen- 
dleton, served in the Revolution, was senator from Virginia in 
1792, 1803 and 1822, and was a writer of much note. 

Edmund Pendleton probably contributed more than any other 
to the shaping of young Penn's career. He was born in 1721, 
and was a scholarly man and able lawyer, of conservative views 
upon political questions. Jefferson, whom he sometimes opposed, 
says : ''He was the ablest man in debate I have ever met." Upon 
the death of Moses Penn, Pendleton gave to his young kinsman, 
who resided near him in the same neighborhood, free use of his 
extensive library, an opportunity that was improved to such 
advantage that the defects of early education were largely over- 
come, and without teacher or other aid than his own industry 
young Penn studied law, and was admitted to the Bar of his 
native county when he reached the age of twenty-one years. 

Of Mr. Penn as a lawyer Lossing says: **His practice soon 
developed a native eloquence before inert and unsuspected, and 
by it, in connection with close application to business, he rapidly 
soared to eminence. His eloquence was of that sweet, persuasive 
kind which excites all the tender emotions of the soul, and pos- 
sesses a controlling power at times irresistible." 

Mr. Penn remained in Virginia but a few years. In 1774, while 
yet a young man of thirty-three years, he came to North Carolina 


and settled near Williamsboro, in the northern part of Gran- 
ville, then the most important place in the county. Whatever 
may have been his attitude toward political questions prior to 
that time, his ardent nature quickly responded to the intense 
sentiment of patriotism that prevailed in his new home. He soon 
became a leader of the people in their great crisis. The year 
after locating in Granville he was sent by the inhabitants of that 
county to represent them in the Provincial Congress, which met 
at Hillsborough, August 20, 1775. Here he proved himself more 
than a pleasing speaker, and won the cordial recognition of the 
Congress. There were a hundred and eighty-four members, yet 
he was appointed on some fifteen or twenty committees, nearly 
all the important ones, and his work was extraordinarily heavy. 
These committees included that 

(i) To confer with such inhabitants as had political or re- 
ligious scruples about joining in the American cause, and secure 
their co-operation. 

(2) To form a temporary form of government. 

(3) To prepare a civil constitution. Then a constitutional 
convention had never been heard of, and the very idea of inde- 
pendence itself was held in abeyance, while men wondered what 
sort of government should clothe it. In January, 1776, Mr. 
Wythe of Virginia sat in the chambers of John Adams and the 
two talked of independence. Mr. Wythe thought the greatest 
obstacle to declaring it was the difficulty of agreeing upon a form 
of government. Mr. Adams replied that each colony should 
form a government for itself, as a free and independent State. 
He was requested to put the views there expressed in writing, 
which, upon his compliance, were published anonymously by 
R. H. Lee, under the title 'Thoughts on Government, in a 
Letter from a Gentleman to his Friend." Later the delegates 
from North Carolina, by direction of the Provincial Congress, 
called on Mr. Adams for advice concerning a form of govern- 
ment for this State. He furnished Mr. Penn, whom he calls 
"my honest and sincere friend," a letter similar to the pamphlet 
just mentioned. The conformity of the constitution afterward 


adopted to this letter in many particulars shows the practical 
use to which it was put. The letter was afterward given by 
Mr. Penn to his cousin, John Taylor of Caroline, who used it in 
his work on the constitution. 

(4) To review and consider statutes, etc., "and to prepare 
such bills to be passed into laws as might be consistent with the 
genius of a free people." 

The impress of this stranger, so recently from another colony, 
upon the Congress was something wonderful. On September 8, 
1775, less than a month from its assembling, it elected him to 
succeed Richard Caswell as delegate to the Continental Congress, 
with William Hooper and Joseph Hewes. In this connection it 
is stated in Jones's ''Defence of North Carolina" that he was 
*'a man of sterling integrity as a private citizen, and well deserved 
the honor which was now conferred upon him." This choice 
was undoubtedly due in large measure to the influence of his 
friend and neighbor, Thomas Person, also a member from Gran- 

The idea of the province at that time was to secure a redress 
of grievances, not a dissolution of political relations with the 
mother country. Indeed, the Provincial Congress declared: "As 
soon as the causes of our fears and apprehensions are removed, 
with joy will we return these powers to their regular, channels ; 
and such institutions, formed from mere necessity, shall end 
with that necessity that created them." But the trend of events 
was beyond their choosing. No accommodation with British 
authority was practicable. The end was inevitable, and Penn 
was one of the first to realize the true situation. He wrote 
Thomas Person, February 14, 1776: 

"Matters are drawing to a crisis. They seem determined to persevere, 
and are forming alliances against us. Must we not do something of the 
like nature? Can we hope to carry on a war without having trade or 
commerce somewhere? Can we even pay any taxes without it? Will 
[not?] our paper money depreciate if we go on emitting? These are 
serious things and require your consideration. The consequence of mak- 
ing alliances is, perhaps, a total separation with Britain, and without 
something of this sort we may not be able to procure what is necessary 


for our defense. My first wish is that America be free ; the second, that 
we may be restored to peace and harmony with Britain upon just and 
proper terms." 

Person was a member of the Council. By the advice of that 
body the Provincial Congress was convened on April 4. On the 
7th Penn and the other delegates reached Halifax from Phila- 
delphia. On the 8th a committee, which included Thomas Per- 
son, was appointed to take into consideration "the usurpations 
and violences attempted and committed by the King and Parlia- 
ment of Britain against America, and the further measures to be 
taken for frustrating the same and for the better defense of the 
province." This committee reported, and the Congress adopted, 
a resolution which empowered the delegates to the Continental 
Congress to "concur with the delegates from the other colonies 
in declaring independence and forming foreign alliances." By 
virtue of this authority William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and John 
Penn, in behalf of North Carolina, joined in the execution of 
the Declaration of American Independence. Colonel William 
L. Saunders says: "This was the first authoritative, explicit 
declaration, by more than a month, by any colony in favor of a 
full, final separation from Britain, and the first like expression 
on the vexed question of foreign alliances." It may be added 
that both resulted from Mr. Penn's initiative, as just shown. 
It is entirely possible that the influence of Penn may have reached 
across the border and moved his cousin, Edmund Pendleton, to 
follow and improve upon the example of North Carolina, and 
offer the Virginia resolution directing the delegates from that 
colony to propose a declaration of independence. 

It is not to be ignored that the first delegates to the Continental 
Congress — Hooper, Hewes and Caswell — were from the east, 
"and had not ceased to regard the Regulators ... as red-handed 
traitors," while Penn must be classed as a representative of the 
Regulator element. He "was the friend of Person and was not 
cordially esteemed by Caswell, possibly because of that intimacy. 
Caswell in a letter to Burke cliaracterizes Person as "more 
troublesome to this Assembly, if possible, than formerly." 


Hooper, Hewes and the men of their party were for what we 
call the aristocracy, for want of a better name. They *Svere in 
favor of a splendid government, representing the property of the 
people, and thus giving by its own independence and splendor a 
high character of dignity to the State." They had not learned 
the truth that men constitute a State. Even Hooper, almost 
unapproachable in fineness of spirit, in splendor of intellect and 
loyal patriotism, lacked sympathy and faith in the people. In 
consequence, his life was incomplete and his power failed at a 
time when the State had much need of his learning and great 
ability. Penn and Person, with their party, stood for the people, 
and had constant accessions of strength with every trial of their 
faith and sympathy. Mr. Penn soon became the senior member 
from North Carolina. Others became gloomy and discouraged. 
Penn, more trustful of the people, quietly, steadily, hopefully 
and uncomplainingly remained at his post and wrote home to 
Person: "For God's sake, my good sir, encourage our people; 
animate them to dare even to die for their country." 

There can be no doubt that the position of a delegate to the 
Continental Congress was beset with great difficulties. Under 
much more favorable conditions the conflict would have been 
unequal. But situated as the colonies were, the outlook was 
appalling. A government and all its departments had to be 
created outright, a currency and credit established, an army or- 
ganized — all in the face of any enemy ever ready for war. There 
were also domestic problems that embarrassed the national ad- 
ministration at every step. The Confederation was little more 
than a rope of sand and the government had little power to 
enforce its policies. In North Carolina the militia were not 
even available to oppose the invasion of Georgia and South Caro- 
lina, by which the British would reach this State, until an act 
was passed by the General Assembly authorizing their employ- 
ment without its borders. The delegates also abounded in labors 
wholly foreign to their legislative duties. These have been strik- 
ingly summarized in Dr. Alderman's address on Hooper: 

"They combined the functions of financial and purchasing agents, of 


commissary-generals, reporters of all great rumors or events, and, in gen- 
eral, bore the relation to the remote colony of ministers resident at a 
foreign court. . . . They kept the Council of Safety well informed as 
to the progress of affairs; they negotiated for clothing and supplies for 
our troops. In the course of only two months they expended £5,000 in 
purchasing horses and wagons, which they sent to Halifax loaded with 
every conceivable thing — from the English Constitution to the wagoner's 
rum — ^pamphlets, sermons, cannon, gunpowder, drums and pills. They 
scoured Philadelphia for salt pans and essays on salt-making; they hag- 
gled over the price of gray mares, and cursed the incompetency of sloth- 
ful blacksmiths whose aid they sought." 

None of these difficulties moved John Penn. His courage and 
hopefulness were invincible. The delegates served almost with- 
out compensation. A salary of £1,600 per annum was allowed 
for a time, but the depreciation of the currency was so great that 
the amount proved wholly inadequate, and it was determined to 
pay their expenses and defer the fixing of compensation to a 
future time. As illustrating the depreciation of the money, Ire- 
dell wrote in 1780: "They are giving away the money at the 
printing-office in so public and careless a manner as to make it 
quite contemptible." 

The scope of this sketch does not permit a more detailed dis- 
cussion of Penn's congressional career. It may be added that 
while he made no conspicuous public display, Mr. Penn's serv- 
ices were highly efficient and useful, and entirely acceptable to the 
people he represented. Another distinguished honor that fell 
to him during his congressional career may be barely mentioned : 
with John Williams and Cornelius Harnett, he ratified the Arti- 
cles of Confederation in behalf of North Carolina. 

In 1777 he was appointed judge of the court of oyer and termi- 
ner for the Hillsboro District. He questioned the legality of the 
court and declined the appointment with what his associate in 
the appointment, John Kitchin, called "inflexible obstinacy." But 
Samuel Johnston in like manner refused to exercise the same 
office in the Edenton District and notified Governor Caswell that 
the Bar concurred in his opinion. 

Upon the retirement of Governor Caswell, Abner Nash be- 



came governor. He complained to the Assembly that he derived 
no assistance from his council, and suggested the creation of a 
Board of War. This was acceded to and the constitutional pre- 
rogatives of the governor were probably infringed by the powers 
granted. It was charged with the control of military affairs 
within the State, and was composed of Colonel Alexander Mar- 
tin, John Penn and Oroondates Davis. It organized at Hills- 
borough in September, 1780. The other members had occasion 
to leave for their homes within two or three days after its organ- 
ization, and Mr. Penn became practically the board, and exercised 
its powers alone during the greater part of its existence. He 
conducted its affairs with great energy, decision, tact and effi- 
ciency. Finally he became ill and unable to exercise the office. 
In a little while thereafter there was a clash with the governor, 
who had become vexed over the invasion of his dignity and au- 
thority. He carried his complaint to the next Assembly, who 
discontinued the Board of War and elected a new governor. 
There was some disposition to belittle the Board of War and its 
operations, particularly by General W. R. Davie. But Governor 
Graham, who was familiar with the records, and whose fairness, 
diligence and ability to judge correctly are beyond question, 
views their work very differently. He says : 

"They undertook the work devolved on them in the most devoted 
spirit of patriotism, and with a proper sense of its magnitude, and exe- 
cuted its duties with fearlessness, ability and eminent public benefit." 

Mr. Penn did not thereafter re-enter public life with any great 
activity. In July, 1781, he was appointed a member of the gov- 
ernor's council, and was notified to attend a meeting at Williams- 
boro, near his home, Thomas Burke, his old colleague in the Con- 
tinental Congress, being then governor. He replied : 

"My ill state of health . . . will perhaps prevent my undertaking to 
act in the office you mention. As I have always accepted every office 
I have been appointed to by my countrymen, and endeavored to dis- 
charge my duty previous to this appointment, I expect my friends will 
not blame me." 


After the war he was appointed by Robert Morris receiver of 
taxes in North Carolina, but resigned after holding the office 
about a month. He was yet a young man, but his work was done. 
In September, 1787, at the age of forty-six, he died at his home 
in Granville County and was buried near Island Creek, whence 
his dust was moved to Guilford Battle Ground a few years ago. 

Mention has been made of the bitter political differences be- 
tween the patriots of the Revolution. These developed at an 
early period. The election of Penn to the Continental Congress 
was the beginning of democratic representation from North Caro- 
lina in that body. The real struggle came over the formation of 
the State constitution. The aristocratic party were deeply 
chagrined and resentful of democratic dominance, and proved 
sadly inferior to their opponents in self-control. The most emi- 
nent of their leaders was Samuel Johnston, a man of great ability 
and character, whom the State delighted to honor. Intemperate 
language from such a man indicates something of the prevailing 
tone of party feeling. He wrote: ^'Everyone who has the least 
pretence to be a gentleman is suspected and borne down per 
ignobile vulgiis — a set of men without reading, experience or 
principle to govern them." Very naturally Mr. Johnston lost 
his place in the governor's council and his seat in the Provincial 
Congress ; and in the congressional election next enusing, upon a 
contest between Penn and his old colleague, Hewes, the latter 
was defeated. Throughout these controversies Penn seems to 
have borne himself with such prudence and moderation as to 
avoid personal entanglements and command the respect of those 
who opposed him. Aside from Governor Caswell's petulance and 
Governor Davie's silly sneer, he was almost uniformly spoken of 
in respectful terms, even in the free and confidential correspon- 
dence of Johnston and Iredell. 

It is unfortunate that so little is known of Penn as a man and 
in his personal relations. At the age of twenty-two years he 
married Susan Lyme, by whom he had two children, Lucy, who 
married Colonel Taylor, of Granville, and died without issue, 
and William, who removed to Virginia. No mention is made of 


Mrs. Penn in his will, written in 1784, nor in his correspondence. 
Messrs. James G. Penn, of Danville, Va., and Frank R. Penn, of 
Reidsville, N. C, are among the descendants of William. A sis- 
ter married Hunt, of Granville County, and many de- 
scendants of that marriage yet live in Granville and Vance coun- 
ties, useful and honored citizens. That Penn was an orator is 
proof that he possessed warmth of feeling. The absence of 
controversy marks him an amiable and discreet man. His labors 
show him to have been a patriot, endowed with judgment, tact, 
industry and ability. That he was not devoid of social tastes 
is very clearly recognized by his colleagues in the Continental 
Congress. Burke wrote from Philadelphia : ''The city is a scene 
of gaiety and dissipation, public assemblies every fortnight and 
private balls every night. In all such business as this we propose 
that Mr. Penn shall represent the whole State." One anecdote 
is preserved of his life in Philadelphia. He became involved in 
a personal difficulty with Laurens, president of the Congress, 
and a duel was arranged. They were fellow-boarders, and break- 
fasted together. They then started for the place of meeting on 
a vacant lot opposite the Masonic Hall on Chestnut Street. 'Tn 
crossing at Fifth Street, where was then a deep slough, Mr. Penn 
kindly offered his hand to aid Mr. Laurens, the older man, who 
accepted it. He suggested to Mr. Laurens, who had challenged 
him, that it was a foolish affair, and it was made up on the 

His fidelity could not shield him from criticism, but as he made 
no complaints of hardships, so he made no effort to justify him- 
self, and was content in saying to Governor Nash : "I have done, 
and still am willing to do, everything in my power for the inter- 
est of my country, as I prefer answering for my conduct after 
wt have beaten the enemy." Others were more considerate of 
his reputation. Burke wrote Governor Caswell, declaring his 
own dihgence, and said of Penn, "nor did perceive him in the 
least remiss." Harnett wrote the governor, "his conduct as a 
delegate and a gentleman has been worthy and disinterested." 
The General Assembly on July 29, 1779, directed the speaker 


of the house to transmit to him its resolution of thanks in part 
as follows: 

"The General Assembly of North Carolina, by the unanimous resolves 
of both houses, have agreed that the thanks of the State be presented to 
you for the many great and important services you have rendered your 
country as a delegate in the Continental Congress. The assiduity and 
zeal with which you have represented our affairs in that Supreme Council 
of the Continent, during a long and painful absence from your family, 
demand the respectful attention of your countrymen, whose minds are 
impressed with the sense of the most lively gratitude." 

Neither the country nor the State which Mr. Penn represented 
with such fidelity and credit has erected any memorial to his 
memory. But the Guilford Battle Ground Company, which is 
making a veritable Westminster Abbey for North Carolina, has 
been more mindful to render honor. Major Joseph M. Morehead, 
president of the company, writes: 

"There is a handsome monument at Guilford Battle Ground, twenty 
feet in height, crowned with a statue of an orator holding within his 
hand a scroll — the Declaration." It bears this inscription on a bronze 
tablet : 


William Hooper and John Penn, Delegates from North Carolina, 1776, 

to the Continental Congress, and Signers of the Declaration of 

Independence. Their remains were reinterred here 

1894. Hewes' grave is lost. He was the 

Third Signer. 

To Judge Jeter C. Pritchard primarily the State is indebted 
for an appropriation out of which this monument was erected. 

After all, the value of the man's life rests in its example of un- 
selfish, devoted patriotism, its fidelity to principle, its loyalty 
to the great spirit of Democracy — in that he lived not for man 
but for mankind. 

Thomas M. Pittman. 

Z''2^ 3!/I'!}^li^ri^^^s ^^ivJ/l^ 

dT'ia ? Z 7^^ j^^^tr^. J^^.^',s 


'HOMAS CARLYLE wrote that life was but 
a struggle for existence. In this great battle of 
life the subject of this sketch made an heroic 
fight and achieved a notable success. He was 
born March 3, 1845, '^^ Bertie County. He 
came from a long line of honest and worthy 
ancestors. His American ancestors on his paternal side go back 
to Philip Perry and wife Grace, of Isle of Wight County, Va., 
who were among the early settlers of that State. Philip Perry 
died in 1669, aged seventy years. He was of Irish stock and was 
the uncle of Micajah Perry, the alderman who was later Lord 
Mayor of London, during the reign of William and Mary, and, 
also a wealthy commission merchant in London, with whom the 
colonists in Virginia and North Carolina did business in the sev- 
enteenth century, and who was well known in the eastern sections 
of these two States. Micajah's brother, Peter Perry, settled in 
York County, and from him some of Virginia's best peo- 
ple trace their ancestry. Micajah Perry, the old Lord Mayor, 
died in 1721 and left grandsons, Micajah and Philip Perry. 
He is mentioned in many of the old wills in Isle of Wight County, 
where his uncle Philip lived. 

Joseph W. Perry was the son of Joseph J. Perry and wife, 
Mary E. Sessoms, of Bertie County. His father was a success- 


ful planter, was born December 25, 181 7, and was the son 
of Freeman Perry and wife, Pattie Simons, of Bertie County. 
J. W. Perry's great-grandparents were Josiah Perry, who was 
born in Perquimans County, N. C, first married Miss EHzabeth 
Twine, and Hved in Pasquotank County, N. C. ; after her death 
he moved to Bertie County and married A. Millicent Freeman 
of that county, who was the great-grandmother of J. W. Perry. 
The Freemans were also of Irish descent. Josiah Perry was a 
man of great wealth, and was a direct descendant of Philip 
Perry, who died in 1669, and his wife Grace. J. W. Perry's 
mother was the daughter of William Wynn Sessoms, of Bertie 
County, who was the son of a gentleman of the same name who 
married Miss Van Pelt. The first of the Van Pelts who came to 
Hertford County about 1722 from York was John. Sev- 
eral of the members of these old families served with distinction 
in the War of the Revolution. J. W. Perry was also related to 
the families of Walton, Simons, Winborne, Sharp, Askew, of 
Hertford County, and the Balfour, Mercer and Sessoms fam- 
ilies of Edgecombe County, N. C, and the Tylers and Lowes of 

When the Civil War began in 1861, Joseph W. Perry, then 
about sixteen years of age, was at school at an academy of 
high grade in the town of Harrellsville, in Hertford County, 
N. C. The school was soon closed after hostilities began. He 
returned home and assisted his father to manage his plantation 
until 1863, when he entered the Confederate Army as a private 
in Captain Langley Tayloe's company. Later, when the Sixty- 
eighth North Carolina regiment was organized, with James W. 
Hinton, of Pasquotank, as colonel and Edward C. Yellowly, of 
Pitt County, lieutenant-colonel, young Perry was made sergeant- 
major and served in that capacity until February, 1864, when he 
was ordered to report to Colonel James M. W^ynn, as adjutant 
of Wynn's Fifteenth battalion of cavalry and was there promoted 
to lieutenant. His battalion then did service in Northern Vir- 
ginia until the close of the war. In the sketch of the Fifteenth 
battalion in the "Regimental Histories of North Carolina," it is 


said, *'No braver or better officers were in the army than J. W. 
Perry, Captain J. G. Holloday and Lieutenant Branch." This 
is a monument to the record and character of young Perry. 

tie inherited much of the energy, business tact and skill, the 
Irish courage and frankness, great benevolence and nobility of 
heart and soul, that so strongly characterized his great-grand- 
father and his early ancestors who first landed on American soil. 
In 1867 he entered the Eastman College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
and graduated from that institution, and on his return in 1868 
began the lumber and mercantile business in Winton, N. C. He 
married April 21, 1872, Miss Mary Harrell Jernigan, daugh- 
ter of Lemuel R. Jernigan and wife, Mary Harrell, of Hertford 
County, N. C. She was the sister of Hon. Thomas R. Jernigan 
and a near relative of Chief Justice William N. H. Smith, of 
North Carolina, her grandfather being the brother of Chief Jus- 
tice Smith's mother, Nancy Harrell, who was the daughter of 
Nathan Harrell and wife, Elizabeth Sharp, the daughter of the 
first Starkey Sharp and wife, Sarah Winborne, of Hertford 
County. In 1870 Mr. Perry was appointed by the judge of the 
district, clerk of the superior court of Hertford County, which 
office he held until January 2, 1872, when he resigned to renew his 
lumber and mercantile business. This he had found very profit- 
able. On January i, 1877, he moved to Norfolk, Va., and on 
May I, 1877, formed a partnership with George W. McGlaughan 
and began the cotton commission business in, that city, under 
the firm name of McGlaughan & Perry. Colonel McGlaughan re- 
tired from business May i, 1879, ^^^ Perry continued alone 
for two years, when he associated his brother-in-law, Thomas R. 
Jernigan, as a partner with him. Mr. Jernigan retired May i, 
1883, and Mr. Perry continued the business under the name of 
J. W. Perry & Company until September i, 1893. On that date 
his firm was incorporated under the corporate name of the J. W. 
Perry Company, which is the style of the business to-day. He 
was the president of the company, which is one of the leading 
commission houses in Norfolk, Va. Mr. Perry met with great 
success in his business enterprises and was one of Norfolk's 


most influential citizens. He was public-spirited, and was prom- 
inently connected with nearly every public enterprise in his city. 
For twenty years he was first vice-president of the Citizens' Bank 
of Norfolk, and also president of many of the business enterprises 
which have done so much to make Norfolk one of the leading 
cities of the States. While Mr. Perry was loyal to his adopted 
State, North Carolina had no truer and more devoted son than 
this man. He was constantly giving evidence of his love for 
the place of his nativity, and he was admired and respected by 
all who knew him. His name was a synonym for honesty and 
honorable and fair dealing. He died at his home in Nor- 
folk, Va., on June 19, 1913, and is survived by his widow and 
two daughters, Mrs. Maud S. Hinton and Mary Lemuel Perry. 
My study of the "Perry Family" (Raleigh, N. C, 1910) gives 
the history of his ancestors for nearly three hundred years. 

B, B, Winhorne, 

rr,.n h £ f' 'M//rams ^. Bre .4/1' 



)N the great industrial awakening that has come 
to North CaroHna during the past generation, 
no county has taken a higher stand for im- 
provement than Gaston. Among the foremost 
of the citizens of that county, who have always 
striven for the upbuilding of all those interests 
for the best welfare of the State, stands the subject of this 
sketch, George Washington Ragan, now a resident of Gastonia. 
He was born in the southern part of Gaston County, September 
1 6, 1846. His father, Daniel F. Ragan, was a farmer, magis- 
trate, representative in the state Legislature, and chairman of 
the county court. The Ragan family is of Irish descent, the 
name being found in history prior to the Revolution. There is 
strong indication that this branch of the family descended from 
Timothy Reagan, who was a soldier in the Revolution, being 
seriously wounded at the battle of Brandywine. The mother 
of George W. Ragan was Miss Harriet Frances Glenn, a daugh- 
ter of Robert Glenn, a farmer of Gaston County. The Glenn 
family history has been traced and recorded back to the twelfth 
century, when its members took a prominent part in shaping the 
affairs of Scotland. The grandfather of Harriett Frances Glenn, 
John Glenn, was frdm Pennsylvania, while her mother was a 
Gregory from Virginia. Her grandfather Gregory participated 


with the American forces in the battle of King's Mountain. In 
the life of the matured man of to-day can be found the result 
of the influences from this ancestry and especially from the de- 
voted father and mother, who gave to their boy that priceless 
heritage, — a good name and a clean family history. The father 
was kind and indulgent to his family, generous in all capacities 
to his neighbors, strong of character, and one who taught his 
children that integrity and honor were first to be considered. 
The mother was quick to uphold the father in all his teachings 
and precepts, and gave to her boy additional traits of strong 
character and convictions. 

The life of George W. Ragan as a youth was very similar 
to those of practically all who were reared on small farms at that 
period. He was healthy, vigorous and very active, and per- 
formed in a careful, manly way those tasks that usually fall to 
the small boy on the farm. It is probable that the active life he 
led at that time has done much in giving him that strong con- 
stitution which has stood him in good stead all through the years 
of his life. His school advantages were limited to the common 
schools as they existed at that time. The desire for learning 
was there, however, and at an early age he became an insatiate 
searcher after knowledge and literally devoured every book he 
could secure, especially those on biography and history. 

All of this life was rudely interrupted by the oncoming of the 
Civil War. The Ragan family, like every other household with 
intense love for the Southland, was deeply interested in the strug- 
gle, and an older brother soon entered the army, being in service 
in Lane's Brigade under Stonewall Jackson. On account of 
his youth, George W. Ragan did not enter until May, 1864, en- 
listing in Anderson's Battalion, which was later organized into 
the Seventy-first regiment. He participated in all the move- 
ments of his regiment from this time to the close of the war, 
practically all of which took place in eastern North Carolina. 
These troops took a prominent part in the campaign around 
Belfield, Va., in checking the raid in December, 1864, made by 
a detachment of cavalry from Grant's army, for the purpose of 


destroying the railroad bridge at Weldon. During this time the 
weather was intensely cold, and the southern troops suffered un- 
told agony from it, augmented by hunger. On March 8, 9 and 
10, 1865, his command, which was a part of Hoke's Division, 
participated in the fighting around Kinston. On March 19th, 
^oth and 21st, they fought Sherman at Bentonsville. Later they 
retreated to Smithfield, thence to a point in Randolph County, 
near Trinity, where, on April 26, 1865, surrender was made. 
Along with his comrades he turned his face homeward, disap- 
pointed at the unsuccessful outcome of the cause he fought for, 
but by no means dismayed, and with an ambition for the future 
that meant much. 

He returned to his father's home on the farm and took up 
again the active duties connected with that life under the trying 
times prevalent just after the close of the war. He did not 
spare himself, but went at his work with zeal, and performed 
all kinds of labor common to farm life without large means, 
from the lightest task to splitting rails. In early manhood the 
active management of the farm was turned over to him by his 
father, and he continued in this work until he was about twenty- 
seven years of age. 

An active business life was Mr. Ragan's true vocation, and 
the life on the farm was merely preparatory for what followed. 
In 1873 he entered the mercantile business, and for nineteen 
years conducted his a^airs successfully at South Point, Lowell, 
McAdenville and Gastonia. As a merchant he would be con- 
sidered unusually successful when one considers the circum- 
stances surrounding the mercantile business in this section at that 

In 1889 Mr. Ragan was one of the original stockholders and 
organizers of the First National Bank of Gastonia, and served 
for a time as president. In 1892 he resigned this position to 
organize and build the Trenton Cotton Mill, having associated 
with him G. A. Gray, L. L. Jenkins, T. C. Pegram and others. 
Mr. Ragan was first president and later treasurer of the mill, 
and as such was in active control of its affairs. In this position 


he carried out one of the most striking policies of his hfe, that of 
giving his undivided time and attention to the work he had in 
hand. As a result, the success of the Trenton Cotton Mill was 
phenomenal and has attracted great attention among mill men 
all over the country. It was a pioneer in the manufacture of fine 
yarns in the South. In 1899 Mr. Ragan disposed of his holdings 
in the Trenton Cotton Mills, and retired from the active man- 
agement of same. He immediately organized and built the Ar- 
lington Cotton Mill, and it is a source of pride to him that its 
stockholders are largely among those who owned stock in the 
Trenton Cotton Mills, thus exhibiting in the strongest way pos- 
sible their great confidence in his ability. In equipping the 
Arlington Cotton Mill, the manufacture of yarns of still finer 
numbers was provided for, and it too has set an example in that 
respect. It has been Mr. Ragan's ambition to make a product 
that could be placed in competition with the best yarns made in 
New England or any other section of the country, and in this 
laudable effort he has been eminently successful. He still re- 
tains his original position of president and treasurer of the Ar- 
lington Cotton Mill, and gives his entire time to its affairs. It is 
needless to add that this mill has an enviable reputation, both for 
the quality of its product and for its strong financial condition. 
The mill has paid large dividends regularly, and the stock is now 
held at a very high figure, being considered so valuable and 
desirable by investors that it rarely changes hands. Mr. Ragan; 
has always had great faith in the future growth and development 
of his town and country, and in addition to his cotton-mill in- 
terests, he has made large investments in real estate. At present 
he is the largest holder of real estate in the business district of 

In 1883 Mr. Ragan married Miss Zoe Reid, a daughter of 
J. W. Reid of Gaston County. After a happy married life of 
some years, Mrs. Ragan died, leaving one living child, Mary 
Reid. Two children, Julia and Laura, had died in infancy. 
Mr. Ragan's second wife was Miss Bettie Caldwell, a daughter 
of Robert A. Caldwell, of Gastonia. To them have been born 


six children — Caldwell, Helen, George W., Jr., Elizabeth, 
Marian and Virginia. The life in this home is singularly attrac- 
tive, and Mr. Ragan finds there, rather than in other channels, 
congenial company after the exacting duties of the business 
world have been put aside each day. 

In church affairs, Mr. Ragan is active, being connected with 
the Presbyterian church, in which he has been a deacon and 
elder for a number of years. In politics he has been a lifelong 
Democrat, his first ballot being cast in 1868, for Ashe as gov- 
ernor and Seymour as president. He has never striven for po- 
litical preferment, but has chosen to do his work for the party 
in a quiet, unostentatious manner. In 1897-98 he served as 
mayor of Gastonia, and did much in that capacity to build up the 

In boyhood, as has been stated previously, Mr. Ragan's edu- 
cational advantages were limited, but that has not prevented long 
years of careful study, by which he has acquired a wonderful 
store of information, with, especial reference to history and 
biography. The period of history including the events and causes 
leading up to the Civil War, and from that time to the present, 
has been most attractive to him, and he has made a critical study 
of its interesting phases and its prominent men. He is famihar 
to a minute degree with the lives of all the leaders in both of the 
great political parties, and has followed their careers with inter- 
est for years. The campaigns of the Civil War have also been of 
engaging interest to him, and of these he has made close, careful 
study, taking up in detail the various strategic points, following 
them out in a manner surprising in one who has not made the 
science of warfare a life study. Mr. Ragan possesses in a great 
degree many of those characteristics that go to make up the 
successful military leader, and had his age not operated against 
him, he doubtless would have made a great record as a soldier. 

The great secret of the success attendant upon his efforts is 
undoubtedly contained in the policy of concentration which has 
been characteristic of Mr. Ragan all through his life. He has 
always been determined to do well that duty first at hand, and 


has not been lured aside by the many tempting opportunities to 
expand in the business world. Time after time he has been 
importuned to take charge of more mills or to engage in a meas- 
ure in other lines of business, but all of this he has steadfastly 
declined. How wisely this rule has operated is shown in the 
reputation he has established and his present standing in the 
financial world. In all of his business dealings, honor and in- 
tegrity come first, and a transaction of any kind that would 
tend to compromise him or the name of the business he manages, 
would be spurned instantly. Giving this kind of treatment to 
all with whom he deals, he asks nothing in return but the same 
kind of consideration. These strong traits of character, coupled 
with his unusual executive ability, have enabled Mr. Ragan to 
make a success of every venture he has undertaken, there being 
in his life not one failure. He is kind and considerate to all of 
those in his employ, and does all possible to make their lives 
pleasant and profitable. His charitable deeds are many, but are 
done in such manner that the world at large knows nothing 

The life of George W. Ragan should mean much to the 
youth of the State. In this day, when there is so much in all 
phases of life to condemn, it is profitable and refreshing to con- 
template the successful career of a man who, starting life with- 
out advanced education, wealth or influence, has by long years 
of honest toil acquired all of these things. In him can be found 
one who is content to live a life of quietude, without show or 
display, not seeking the applause of the multitude, but satisfied 
with the active and conscientious discharge of his duties to his 
family and loved ones, his business affairs, his church and his 

L. L. Hardin, 

!\&co-n /^j./!/?j^- 


IHEN Wake County was established in I77I^ 
the high sheriff thereof, commissioned by the 
royal governor, was Michael Rogers, later a 
lieutenant-colonel of North Carolina militia 
during the Revolution, and a member of sev- 
eral legislative bodies of the independent State. 
He was a native of Virginia, but one of his brothers died in 
that State, leaving a son, Sion, who came after the Revolution, 
to join hia uncle in Wake County. 

The Sion Rogers just mentioned was a planter, and his home- 
was a few miles from Raleigh. He married Mary Peebles 
(sometimes known as ''Polly" Peebles), and died in the latter 
part of the year 1800, leaving a son, also named Sion. The 
younger Sion Rogers, also a planter, married Narcissa Gray 
Jeffreys, and died in the spring of 1859. He left several chil- 
dren, one of these being our present subject, Sion Hart Rogers,, 
born in Wake County September 30, 1825. 

After due preparation at the Lovejoy Academy in Raleigh,^ 
Sion H. Rogers matriculated at the University of North Caro- 
lina, and graduated as Bachelor of Arts in 1846. His alma 
mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts in 1849. 
Having determined upon a legal career, Mr. Rogers entered 
the law office of United States Senator George E. Badger, and 


in due time was licensed to practice. In politics prior to the 
war Mr. Rogers was a Whig, and he first came into public notice 
as a public speaker when his party nominated him for the North 
Carolina house of commons in 1852. His opponent was Judge 
Romulus M. Saunders, an adroit politician and experienced de- 
bater. At the election on August 5 Saunders was victorious by 
a majority of only twenty-seven, when nearly three thousand 
votes were cast. Two years later, the brilliant canvass by Rogers 
was still remembered, and he became the nominee of his party 
for Congress. Though only twenty-eight years old, he carried 
the district against Hon. Abram W. Venable, Democrat, by a 
small majority. Alluding to the election of Mr. Rogers the 
Raleigh Register of August 10, 1853, said: 

"He will be, probably, the youngest man in the house of representatives, 
but not a whit the less useful for that. Prompt in the discharge of duty, 
and always willing and ready to render active service, we predict for 
him a career in every way acceptable to the people of the district and 
highly honorable to himself." 

Mr. Rogers served only one term in Congress before the war, 
though he was again elected to that body nearly twenty years 
later. After his first retirement from Congress he became solici- 
tor (prosecuting attorney) for the judicial district in which he 

On May 21, 1861, Mr. Rogers entered the Confederate service, 
being commissioned first lieutenant of Company K, Fourteenth 
North Carolina regiment. William Henry Harrison (later mayor 
of Raleigh) was his captain, and the regiment was then under 
the command of Colonel Junius Daniel, who afterward became 
a brigadier-general and was mortally wounded at the battle of 
Spottsylvania Court House. Lieutenant Rogers remained in the 
Fourteenth regiment nearly a year. He was commissioned 
colonel on April 8, 1862, and placed in command of the Forty- 
seventh regiment at the time of its formation. 

In the third volume of Clark's "North Carolina Regiments, 
1861-65," the history of the Forty-seventh regiment, contributed 


by Captain John H. Thorp, says, referring to the formation of 
that command: 

"As the companies were coming together, Newbern was taken by the 
Federal general, Burnside, and those that had arrived at Raleigh were 
sent, without guns, below Kinston, under Major Sion H. Rogers, to 
assist in staying the Federal advance. These remained there a week or 
two, when they returned to Raleigh, and with the other companies, now 
arrived, completed their organization, with Sion H. Rogers, colonel; 
George H. Faribault, lieutenant-colonel, and John A. Graves, major." 

In November and December, 1862, Colonel Rogers served with 
the Forty-seventh regiment, when General John G. Foster was 
operating with his Federal forces in eastern North Carolina. 
Reporting operations near Kinston at that time, in an official 
communication, dated December 20, 1862, Brigadier-general 
Nathan G. Evans, of the Confederate army said: 

"Re-forming my line with the additional re-enforcements of Colonel 
S. H. Rogers' Forty-seventh regiment North Carolina troops, in a com- 
manding position in the rear of the town, I again awaited the attack. 
About 3 P.M., Major-General Foster sent his staff-officer (Colonel Pot- 
ter) to summon me to surrender, which I promptly declined. In an hour 
he commenced shelling the town, but hesitated to renew his direct attack. 
Taking advantage of my position, I retired in column to Falling Creek, 
where the major-general commanding had forwarded me additional re- 
enforcements. At this point (a very strong position) I encamped for 
the night. ... I here sent Colonel Rogers to march on Kinston, and 
held my other forces in readiness to move in either direction. Finding 
the enemy had retired across the river and burned the bridge, I ordered 
my whole command to Moseley Hall, a position where I could support 
General Robertson." 

Owing to the tremendous odds against the Confederates during 
the above campaign, they were on the defensive most of the 
time, and it is wonderful that they held out as long as they did. 
A day before the arrival of the regiment of Colonel Rogers, 
General Evans had some hot work to perform. He said in a 
report : 

"General Foster attacked Kinston yesterday with 15,000 men and nine 
gunboats. I fought him ten hours. Have driven back his gunboats. His 
army is still in my front. I have only four regiments, and will await 
his attack this morning. I think I can hold my position." 


In the fall of 1862 Colonel Rogers was elected attorney-general 
of North Carolina, and resigned from the army on January 5, 
1863, to enter on his new duties. He served as attorney-general 
until October, 1865, when his office (along with all others in 
the state government) was vacated by an ordinance of the con- 
vention of that year. After this he resumed his practice as a 
lawyer, but did not long remain in private life. Like most 
southern Whigs of former days, he had become a Democrat 
after the war, and that party set a high value upon his services. 
As the Democratic nominee he was elected a member of Con- 
gress, serving from May 23, 1872, till March 3, 1873. He was 
delayed in taking his seat in the last-named body by an election 
contest inaugurated by James H. Harris, a negro whom the 
Republicans had nominated. After the expiration of this term, 
Colonel Rogers was again placed in nomination by his party, 
but the Republican nominee, William A. Smith, defeated him 
by a majority of 724 votes. The number of votes polled for 
Mr. Smith was 13,870, while Colonel Rogers received 13,146. 

Probably the most important legislation secured by Colonel 
Rogers while a member of Congress was the appropriation by 
which the handsome granite building was erected for a post- 
office. Federal court house, etc., in Raleigh. The corner-stone 
of this building was laid with masonic rites by Grand Master 
John Nichols on July 4, 1874, but the work was not completed 
until after the death of Colonel Rogers. The efforts to obtain 
this building for Raleigh were begun by Colonel Rogers prior 
to the war, when he was a young man, during his first con- 
gressional term. Shortly thereafter a site was secured, but 
the war came and the matter was neglected for a time. During 
the progress of hostilities, one citizen claimed that the land had 
reverted to North Carolina in view of the fact that it had been 
taken up in the name of a government now at war with the 
State, and he began legal steps in the Confederate courts to 
enter it as unoccupied public land; but before this perplexing 
legal question was judicially determined Sherman's army arrived 
in Raleigh, and the proceedings came to a painfully sudden stand- 


still. It was on this site that the new building was ultimately 

Colonel Rogers died suddenly in Raleigh on August 14, 1874. 
Commenting upon his life and character, Josiah Turner, Jr., in 
the Sentinel of that date, said : 

"We knew the deceased for more than thirty years. We knew him as 
a boy and as a man, as a statesman and as a soldier. His comrades and 
acquaintances always held him in honor and esteem. Whether in the 
field, in the cabinet or at the Bar, his judgment and even temper were 
equal to any trial. 'Sweet,' was the term a friend used to-day in speak- 
ing of his temper, and well he might, for no complication of perils and 
embarrassments would vex or perplex him. The State has lost a loyal 
son ; the citj'^ a high-toned, chivalrous citizen ; society a useful member ; 
little children a fond father; an aged mother a dutiful son. Our heart 
bleeds for all." 

Another Raleigh paper, the Daily News, in its issue of August 
15, said, in part: 

"He was equal to any position that he was called to fill, and dis- 
charged his public trusts with eminent fidelity and decided ability. No 
man was more generallyv esteemed than Colonel Rogers. His affability 
of manners, kindness of heart and generosity of disposition made warm 
friends of all with whom he was brought in contact. In all the private 
and domestic relations of life he was irreproachable. As a lawyer he 
was able and successful; and as a citizen he was public-spirited and 
useful. He will be greatly missed in all those capacities, and he leaves 
to his children and to his State the legacy of a bright record and a 
good name." 

Colonel Rogers married Jane Frances Haywood, daughter of 
United States Senator William H. Haywood, Jr. Besides sev- 
eral children who died young he had three sons and a daughter. 
These were: William Haywood Rogers, who married Kate 
Avera Wilder, and has two sons and a daughter; Allen Gray 
Rogers, a naval officer (mentioned below), who married Mar- 
garet Trapier and has two sons; Sion Hart Rogers, M.D., 
now deceased, who married Elizabeth Woodard, but left 
no surviving issue ; and Minnie Baker Rogers, who married Ed- 
ward S. Hughes, formerly of Newbern, N. C, but now a resi- 
dent of Texas. 


Allen Gray Rogers, above mentioned as the second son of 
Colonel Rogers, was born in Raleigh on December 25, 1859, ^^^ 
entered the United States Naval Academy as a midshipman on 
June 12, 1874, by appointment from Hon. William A. Smith, 
member of Congress from the Raleigh district. From the Naval 
Academy Mr. Rogers graduated in 1878, and later rose by suc- 
cessive promotions in the navy to the grade of commander, which 
is his present rank. Commander Rogers had retired from the 
navy, and resided in Raleigh until the outbreak of the war with 
Germany in the present year (1917), when he was once more 
placed in active service and detailed for duty in the Navy Yard 
at Charleston, S. C. 

Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 




^ .6- ^. 


LL.D., born in Camden County, February 22, 
1843, died in Baltimore, Md., November 6, 
1899, was one of those rare men whom versa- 
tility does not spoil. 

Leaving off the preparation for life at Wake 
Forest College at seventeen years of age to enter the Con- 
federate army, he returned from war to the completion of an edu- 
cation marked for profound learning and high polish, became 
a nationally recognized minister of the Baptist Church, entered 
afterward upon a highly successful political career, and ended 
his life generally esteemed as the possessor of remarkable powers 
and loved among his people as a compelling personality, a bril- 
liant companion and a true friend. 

Forced by ill-health to give up an important charge as pastor 
of Franklin Square Baptist Church in Baltimore, to which he 
had been called at the early age of twenty-eight, Dr. Sanderlin 
retired, in 1876, to a farm in Wayne County. Agricultural life 
did not still his pen, however, and as a writer on questions con- 
cerning the farm and on other subjects that appealed to the 
masses of the people, he became widely known and trusted. 
When, therefore, he became a candidate for state auditor, in 
1888, he easily obtained the nomination of the Democratic party; 


and in the ensuing campaign, although a novice in political life, 
made a canvass that marked him as a profound student of popu- 
lar conditions and one of the most captivating speakers that 
the State had known. Elected auditor, Dr. Sanderlin served for 
four years, until 1893, when he retired after having been one 
of the most formidable candidates for governor before the 
Democratic convention of 1892, which nominated Elias Carr. 
During the campaign of 1892, when the latter was a candidate 
Dr. Sanderlin again threw himself into the political battle, and 
was one of the most potent influences toward the success of the 
state and national tickets. 

After retiring as auditor of the State, Dr. Sanderlin was ap- 
pointed, by President Cleveland, deputy auditor of the Interior 
Department, a position which he held until 1896, when he was 
forced by ill health to lay down his official duties. 

After his death in a Baltimore hospital. Dr. SanderHn's body 
was brought to Raleigh and interred in Oakwood Cemetery with 
the highest honors from the official and religious life of the 
capital and from many sections of the State who had known, 
admired and loved the man. His life of fifty-six years had been 
packed with incident and lived consistently in honor and achieve- 

George W. Sanderlin was one of the thirteen children of 
Maxcy Sanderlin, a substantial and highly honored planter of 
Camden County, and Martha Sanderson, of Currituck. He 
claimed descent, therefore, from the Scottish strain which has 
done so much to render steadfast and vigorous the character of 
the State, and which has given to the commonwealth so many 
of the men who have rendered it notable in every crisis in the 
life of its own people or that of the nation. His boyhood was 
spent on the farm and his education began in the schools of 
Elizabeth City, from which he entered Wake Forest College in 
1858, giving there, as throughout life, clear evidences of the 
scholarship to which he afterward attained. 

He left college in August, 1861, to enter the Confederate serv- 
ice, enlisting at the age of eighteen as a private in Company E, 


Thirty-third regiment, North CaroHna Volunteers, of which 
the gallant Isaac E. Avery was colonel. The four years' war 
record that followed was of a piece with the devotion to duty 
that characterized the man. He was intrepid in service and un- 
deterred in danger. For conspicuous gallantry at Newbern he 
gained his promotion to a lieutenancy. A brilliant charge of the 
company, under his command, on the third day of Gettysburg, 
brought him the rank of captain. In command of three hundred 
sharpshooters at Petersburg, he repelled a force of three thou- 
sand attacking Federal troops. He was at the side of General 
Maxcy Gregg, of South Carolina, when the latter fell at Fred- 
ericksburg, and was near General L. O'B. Branch, at Sharpsburg, 
and General Stonewall Jackson, at Chancellorsville, when those 
two lamented heroes of the Confederacy were shot down. At 
Appomattox he was with his regiment, which was actively en- 
gaged when General Custer rode up and announced the sur- 
render of General Lee. He had served from 1861-65, partici- 
pated in over forty battles, was only once in the hospital, was 
never taken prisoner, received but one brief leave of absence 
and had missed scarcely a skirmish, fight or march participated 
in by the Army of Northern Virginia. A record of the engage- 
ments in which he bore a part would constitute a working history 
of the great struggle between the states. Of his record in the 
war General R. F. Hoke said truly: "I know his war record 
thoroughly. I know that he was always present for duty and 
always true to duty." 

As previously stated. Captain Sanderlin at the close of the 
war felt called to the ministry, and to that end entered as a 
student the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary at Green- 
ville, S. C, from which he was graduated in 1867, having in the 
meantime been given the honor of graduation from Wake For- 
est College, as of the class of 1862. During his collegiate course 
he was noted for his ability as a linguist and also displayed great 
talent as a classical and scientific scholar. 

After his graduation from the Seminary he engaged in general 
Sunday-school work in North Carolina for a year, and in 1868 


was ordained to the ministry in the Wake Forest chapel. After- 
ward for three years he was pastor of the church at Goldsboro, 
but resigned for the purpose of making a tour of Egypt and 
Palestine with the famous Dr. John A. Broadus, who awaited 
him in Rome, but on account of the mischance of missing the 
steamer was compelled to abandon the trip. 

Soon after this opportunity came to the young preacher in 
the form of an invitation to deliver a sermon in the Franklin 
Square Baptist Church of Baltimore. This sermon was of such 
power and eloquence that when the pastor, Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, 
resigned, the congregation unanimously called Dr. Sanderlin to 
the charge. It was in the five years of arduous but brilHantly per- 
formed labor at this church that his further career as an active 
minister was compassed, at the end of which, as stated, ill health 
compelled him to retire and find recuperation in country life. 

During the whole of his life Dr. Sanderlin was very popular 
and had great influence both with the Baptist denomination and 
the people of the State generally. He was vice-president of the 
Baptist State Convention, prominent as an Odd Fellow and 
Pythian, devoted to every charitable, religious and educational 
cause. The degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him 
by both Wake Forest and Judson colleges. 

Dr. Sanderlin was happily married to Miss Eliza J. Wooten, 
a daughter of Council Wooten, Esq., of Lenoir County. To 
their union six children were born, of whom four daughters 
Beulah, Georgia, Pattie and Rosalie, survive. 

In personality Dr. Sanderlin was a fine type of open-hearted, 
genial and generous-tempered manhood. His manner was the 
refinement of simplicity and of interest toward his fellow-man. 
Friendships sprang up naturally about him wherever he went; 
and a keen arid wholesome wit, combined with a spontaneous and 
free-flowing humor, made his charm as personal companion or 
public speaker irresistible. As an orator he frequently touched 
true eloquence and spoke always in elegant diction. 

Robert T, Gray. 

Sn^ ij,jr^^^//r^^s ^^r-^ JV"^ 

\ P> ^^.L^ 


^4a f Z /--S^ .A/^^^^^. ^^.^-fe ^7^r 


HEN Cromwell disbanded his Ironsides he set- 
tled them on confiscated estates in Ireland, and 
their descendants remain there to the present 
day, with but slight admixture of their English 
blood with the surrounding Celtic population. 
They preserve their traditions with tenacity, 
and are distinguished for their simple piety, adherence to prin- 
ciple, love of truth, staunch integrity, and rejection of the aes- 
thetic, both in the church and in their homes. Some have 
migrated to the United States, and their numerous descendants 
have been often confounded with the Scotch-Irish, and even 
with the Irish. 

Four brothers of this race came to America before the Revo- 
lutionary War, bearing the family name of Shearer. Their sim- 
ple names, John, James, William and George, have passed to 
numerous descendants. They settled, one in New York, two in 
Pennsylvania, and one in South Carolina. Their descendants 
may be traced west and south, across the Mississippi. It has 
been said of them everywhere that not a man of them uses 
tobacco or drinks whiskey, and not a woman has her ears bored. 
Their principles and practices long antedate modern crusades 
against these things. 


James Shearer, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, 
came from Pennsylvania about 1788, when five years of age, 
and died in his ninety-sixth year in Appomattox County, Va. 
He illustrated the iron constitution, the simple habits, and the 
sturdy virtues of his ancestors, and he transmitted them to sons, 
grandsons and great-grandsons, and the end is not yet. 

His son, John Akers Shearer, born in 1809, died in his eighty- 
eighth year — a man greatly honored and beloved in his genera- 
tion because he lived only for others. John Bunyan Shearer, 
the subject of this sketch, was the oldest of the seven children 
of John Akers Shearer and his wife, Ruth Akers Webber. He 
was born July 19, 1832. Two of his brothers still survive. Rev. 
James William Shearer and Henry Clay Shearer. 

The name Akers indicates a large infusion of the blood of a 
most remarkable family. William Akers, a Welsh immigrant, 
was in West Jersey in 1698, nine generations ago. His grand- 
son, Simon, is said to have married a girl named Akers, who 
was kidnapped from Wales in childhood. There we get pure 
Welsh blood. His son, William Akers, came to Augusta County, 
Va., where he married Elizabeth Marte, whose parents came 
from Holland in 1730, and settled in the Augusta colony. They 
finally came to Campbell County, Va. They had three sons and 
seven daughters. There are to-day hundreds of descendants 
from these children, reaching down five generations of adults, 
and to a numerous progeny of minors in the sixth and seventh 
generations, even down to the eleventh generation in some 
branches of the family. All of this is set forth and far more in 
collateral lines in a genealogy, "The Shearer-Akers Family," re- 
cently published by Rev. J. W. Shearer, D. D. 

Of all this number there have been few of dissipated habits 
or unsuccessful lives, and these are accounted for by unfortunate 
marriages. Such is the power of blood and heredity. Ruth 
Akers married John Webber, a Hollander, and Elizabeth Akers 
married James Shearer. The cousins, Ruth Akers Webber and 
John Akers Shearer, married, and their oldest son is the subject 
of this sketch. It is evident that he is a composite of Dutch, 


Welsh and English Puritan stock in about equal proportions. 
It might be a matter of interest to trace these three heredities 
in his person and character. Suffice it to say that it is now 
popular to discover the differentiating element in the American 
people in just such combinations as these. 

The name John Bunyan is a sufficient indication of the spirit, 
piety and ambitions of the parents. His childhood and growth 
seemed commonplace enough. He was reared on a farm and 
had the usual training of farmers' sons, except that every year 
but one, from six to seventeen, was spent in school at Union 
Academy, in Appomattox County, Va., a school that was founded 
when he was six years old. His first vocabulary was gotten 
from the blueback spelling book. At six he entered school, hav- 
ing made good previous progress in spelling, reading, writing 
and arithmetic. At ten he had finished the usual course of 
arithmetic, IMurray's English grammar and exercises, universal 
history and geography, for his mother had heard all the lessons 
at her knee before he started to school. He now dropped all his 
other studies and began the study of Latin under a new teacher 
at the academy, Henry Flood Bocock, a member of an illustrious 
family of Buckingham, afterward Appomattox County. He 
studied nothing but Latin for three years, and read nearly all 
t4ie classic Latin extant. The omissions were parts of Virgil 
and Livy, and all of Catullus. He had a cousin, Tazewell Akers, 
for a classmate, and they never supposed that they were doing 
anything more than any ordinary boy might easily do. At thir- 
teen he began Greek, and studied it almost exclusively for two 
years in the same comprehensive way. At fifteen he began 
algebra, and compassed the usual course of mathematics, except 
calculus, in eighteen months. He was then employed as an as- 
sistant in Latin and Greek in the academy, and spent the year 
in reviewing his Latin, Greek and mathematics under William 
C. Hagan, a distinguished teacher who had succeeded Mr. Bo- 
cock three years previously. 

He entered Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia, in his eight- 
eenth year, and graduated with honors in two years with the 


degree of A.B., in 1851. In October he entered the University 
of Virginia for a three years' course, and took the degree of 
M.A. in 1854. After the first year in the University of Virginia 
he made his own expenses by teaching private pupils, the sons 
and daughters of the professors and others; and also students 
of the University who needed coaching. This he kept up later 
in the Theological Seminary. This, with a year's teaching at 
Gordonsville and colportage and preaching work in vacations 
and partly during the session, enabled him to earn and spent 
about $2,500 on his education. 

He was married in 1854 to Lizzie Gessner at Hampden-Sidney, 
Va., four years before finishing his education. From this time 
on she was, under God, his inspiration and his strength. They 
were so identified in sympathy and labors and aims for nearly 
fifty years that to write the life of one is to write the life of 
the other. She passed to her reward January 15, 1903, in her 
seventy-first year. Her works do follow her. 

He finished his theological course in 1858, in Union Seminary, 
at Hampden-Sidney, under Drs. Dabney, Smith, Wilson and 
Hoge. He served Bethlehem and Concord churches two vaca- 
tions and one session. The membership in one was much in- 
creased and more than doubled in the other, but they have been 
self-sustaining to this day as the result of this ministry. In 
the meantime he had been licensed to preach the Gospel by 
Roanoke Presbytery on April 17, 1857. 

On finishing at the Seminary he was called as pastor to the 
church at Chapel Hill, N. C. He entered upon his work there 
in September, 1858; was ordained by Orange Presbytery and 
installed the first pastor of that church in February, 1859. He 
served this church till July, 1862, when he resigned because the 
war had largely disorganized the Uniiversity, and 'then took 
charge of Spring Hill Church in Halifax County, Va., where he 
remained preaching and teaching for eight years. There was 
but a handful of members in two hundred and forty square 
miles south of Dan River, but his ministry was greatly blessed 
in this field. Mt. Carmel Church was founded; Spring Hill 


was greatly strengthened; and that field is self-sustaining to 
this day. Mr. Shearer so approved himself as a teacher in the 
Cluster Springs High School that Providence seemed to indicate 
this as his life work. In 1869 he was called to the presidency 
of two colleges in Tennessee, and to the chair of Greek in David- 
son College, N. C. 

In May, 1870, Mr. Shearer took charge of Stewart College, 
Clarksville, Tenn., under the care and patronage of the Synod 
of Nashville. This was almost the last forlorn remnant of facili- 
ties for higher education left by the Civil War to the Southern 
Presbyterian church west of the Alleghanies. His reputation 
made at Cluster Springs, as a man of affairs, farmer, teacher, 
preacher and financier, added to his well-known broad and liberal 
scholastic training, seemed to justify this call. The result proved 
the wisdom of the selection. 

Stewart College was founded by the Masons at Clarksville, 
Tenn., about 1850. It failed of success for reasons that need 
not be mentioned. The property was purchased by nine citizens 
of Clarksville, and transferred first to the Presbytery and then 
to the Synod of Nashville about 1855. It was then named for 
Professor William M. Stewart, its most liberal patron and 
friend. The war cut short its initial success ; the buildings were 
dismantled and the equipment destroyed by military occupation. 

Dr. Shearer was made president by a local board of trustees 
of unusual wisdom and sagacity, chief among whom was Hon. 
D. N. Kennedy, a banker, a wise counsellor, and a generous 
helper and friend of the school in every emergency. He sur- 
vived all the rest, and the institution was identified with his 
most cherished interests for thirty-three years. The friendship 
of Dr. Shearer and ]\Ir. Kennedy was like that of David and 
Jonathan. Each was in the habit of giving the other credit for 
founding the Southwestern Presbyterian University on the nu- 
cleus of Stewart College. It would doubtless be fair to state it 
thus: Dr. Shearer was the active and aggressive agent and 
administrator, and Mr. Kennedy was the silent partner and coun- 
sellor at every step. In eighteen years of associated effort they 


never differed on any matter of principle or policy — each seemed 
the other's self. 

The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the McCown 
School in 1872, by Hampden-Sidney College in 1873, and the 
degree of LL.D. by the Southwestern Presbyterian University 
in 1889. 

As president, Dr. Shearer became the factotum of the college, 
with supreme power, backed by his board of trustees, and with 
supreme responsibility for success, both scholastic and financial. 
Thanks to the generous support of the trustees, he never failed 
to present a clean balance sheet at the close of each year. Twice, 
however, he made the closure with a check for half his salary. 

He organized a faculty and called for patronage, which in five 
years grew to one hundred and fifty-one students. In the mean- 
time he started negotiations which culminated, in 1875, in the 
union of the southwestern synods for founding a university. 
This resulted in adopting Stewart College as the nucleus of 
the Southwestern Presbyterian University. The permanent or- 
ganization was effected in 1879. In the meantime Dr. Shearer's 
health was broken by untiring labors as president and financial 
agent, so that the year 1878-79 was almost entirely lost from 
work. He ceased to be the head of the institution, withdrawing 
in favor of Rev. John N. Waddell, D.D., LL.D., whom he nomi- 
nated as chancellor of the University. He retired to his class- 
room duties, although the business interests of the University 
were still left largely in his hands. His department was Biblical 
instruction in the English, and also in the original Greek and 
Hebrew languages. The fidelity and success of his teaching are 
attested by the large number of pupils who passed under his 

So he passed eighteen years of a busy life — nine years at the 
head, laying the foundations, and building the walls of a great 
institution, and nine more of useful service in the halls, teaching 
God's Word, both to academic and theological students. 

In 1885 and later he received numerous overtures from vari- 
ous quarters, north and south, to take charge of other institu- 


tions, but he turned a deaf ear to them all. Tn 1888, however, 
he accepted the presidency of Davidson College, N. C, which 
position he held for thirteen years. He then resigned the presi- 
dency partly because he was approaching three score years and 
ten, and wanted a more active man in the saddle, and partly be- 
cause he wished to husband the residue of his days in such 
literary work as would enable him to leave his life work in some 
permanent form. He nominated Dr. Henry Louis Smith to be 
his successor, and himself took the place of vice-president of 
the college. The result has shown the wisdom of the arrange- 
ment. He continued to teach in his favorite department of 
Biblical instruction and philosophy. Owing to broken health 
for many months after the death of his wife, in January, 1903, 
Rev. M. E. Sentelle, D.D., a favorite pupil, was elected to be 
adjunct professor of Biblical instruction and professor of phi- 
losophy. At this writing Dr. Shearer's health has been largely 
restored, and now, at eighty-four years of age, he seems capable 
of much efficient and vigorous work in the class-room, in his 
study and in authorship. 

The question occurs whether there is anj^thing in the life work 
of Dr. Shearer to entitle him to a place among the distinguished 
men of North Carolina. What institutions has he founded or 
nurtured, what principles has he enunciated, what policies has 
he championed, and what influences have started with him which 
shall abide after him, and which differentiate him from many 
another man equally consecrated and faithful in his life work 
of service? It will be not amiss to enumerate some of these 
things : 

He founded the Cluster Springs High School in Halifax 
County, Va., fifty years ago, and its success and promise of 
usefulness are brighter to-day than ever before. He there re- 
tested and revivified the wisdom of the fathers when the teach- 
ing preacher made education the handmaid of religion, and laid 
broad and deep foundations for the Church in the school-room 
as well as in the pulpit. Backed by his experience, he has formu- 
lated and advocated the policy of sending either the teaching 


preacher, or the teacher and the preacher together, into all the 
mission fields of the church, at home as well as abroad, until 
this is now the settled policy of the Southern Presbyterian 
church, and the results in many quarters are beyond cavil or 
criticism. He is the virtual founder and father of the South- 
western Presbyterian University at Clarksville, Tenn. Every 
line of its constitution was drawn by his own hand, and all its 
policies were shaped by him for eighteen years. Its forty-six 
years of organized life and growth give promise for a century 
to come. 

Dr. Shearer originated and first put into practice the idea that 
the English Bible ought to be a necessary part of all education, 
and have a place in every school-room. This dates back to 1870 
in Stewart College, when the Bible was placed in the rank of 
the severe studies and was required of every student. When the 
college became the university this was the differentiating element 
and prominent characteristic: "In connection with every course 
there shall be given a thorough and comprehensive Biblical 
training, so as to make an intelligent scriptural faith the con- 
trolling principle of the institution." For forty-six years his real 
vocation has been, at Clarksville and at Davidson, to teach the 
English Bible to college and university students as the "uni- 
versal book." He places it on the pedestal amid scholastic and 
scientific studies, and challenges them all to make the Bible the 
unifying course of all sound learning. This principle and prac- 
tice made the Southwestern Presbyterian University possible and 
is the raison d'etre of a church school. This principle is to-day 
so prevalent and aggressive — verified by so many years of trial — 
that it is adopted in varied form and measure throughout his 
church and is rapidly winning its way in other denominations. 
His enthusiastic advocacy of this principle on a hundred plat- 
forms, and perhaps a hundred times more before churches, syn- 
ods, presbyteries, assemblies, conventions, institutes, associations, 
schools and colleges, sometimes got him the name of a crank and 
"a one idea man," but he smilingly replies, "One man, and time, 
are a clear majority of everybody." The origination of this 


idea and successful propagation of it entitles him to the universal 
and lasting gratitude of the Christian world. If he had done 
nothing else but this he might well be styled the Christian college 
reformer. Dr. Shearer became president of Davidson college 
when it was at low-water mark. The internal administration 
was gradually revolutionized, its courses expanded, its esprit de 
corps improved and intensified, its name popularized, and its 
patronage increased, so that the college seemed to take on a new 
lease of life in the second half century of its existence. He has 
been styled its second founder. He has been regarded as the 
special advocate of "Church and Christian education." He drew 
the paper defining the policy of his church which was adopted 
by the convention and by the general assembly in 1871, and was 
the author and champion of the paper adopted in 1899, under 
which his church is working to-day, with an enlarged and en- 
larging success. He is the chairman of the general assembly's 
permanent committee of Church and Christian education, and 
the organ of communication with similar committees of all the 
synods and presbyteries. Under his chairmanship in the Synod 
of North Carolina great progress has been made, especially in 
female education. His theory is to conserve state education by 
keeping in fair and honorable rivalry, and to make public educa- 
tion as distinctly Christian as possible. He advocates schools 
under church control wherever practicable ; private schools under 
Christian teachers ; mission schools in mission fields ; Christian 
teaching in the public schools, and the Bible as a text-book 
everywhere. He is the author of numerous volumes putting his 
life work into useful and permanent form. These include a 
"Bible Course Syllabus," in three volumes, outlining a three- 
year course in the English Bible — not a course in theology, 
which belongs to a later stage — ^but such a knowledge of the Bible 
as every educated man ought to have. It is used in a number 
of schools and colleges. He has pubHshed on the Otts founda- 
tion lectures on "Modern Mysticism," a book much commended 
for its timeliness, originality and thoroughness. He has also 
published: "Studies in the Life of Christ," "The Sermon on 


the Mount," "The Scriptures — Fundamental Facts and Fea- 
tures," "Selected Old Testament Studies," "Hebrew Institutions 
— Civil and Social," "One Hundred Brief Bible Studies." He 
also edited "Prayer Meeting Papers," prepared by Lizzie Gess- 
ner Shearer. This is intended as a memory volume and contains 
a sketch of her life. 

When occasion arose there was never a more liberal giver 
than Dr. Shearer, as was shown in the fact that on more than 
one occasion he balanced the accounts of the Southwestern Pres- 
byterian University by giving half of his salary. Later on he 
endowed the chair of Biblical instruction in that University. He 
spent $10,000 in enlarging and remodeling the old chapel at 
Davidson College as a memorial of his deceased wife, and re- 
founded the Statesville Female College at a large cost. Access 
to Dr. Shearer's books would reveal other and larger aggregate 
gifts to institutions. 

Dr. Shearer was naturally a leader among men. He was not 
self-assertive or needlessly obtrusive in his methods, but having 
conceived a valuable idea he never rested until that idea was 
embodied, tested and put into successful practice. He knew that 
principles required time and patience to produce desirable fruit, 
and so he was content to wait for the harvest. 

As a preacher and pastor Dr. Shearer was successful from 
the beginning of his ministry. Souls were converted, churches 
were established, and Christians edified by his faithful labors. 
And though he ceased to have a regular charge when he became 
a college president, he did not cease to preach the Gospel when 
occasion offered. Intelligent and thoughtful people were always 
glad to listen to his sound, strong, orthodox preaching. But it 
was "strong meat which belongeth to them which are of full 
age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised 
to discern good and evil," and not by any means merely milk 
for babes. 

As a friend and companion he is dignified, and at the same 
time affable and genial in manner. Forty years of teaching 
has naturally given him the teaching habit, and he never seems 



happier than when communicating to his friends what he re- 
gards as useful information. 

No memorandum has been kept of the numerous tokens of 
confidence, appreciation and love that have been lavished on Dr. 
Shearer from so many sources. It is not amiss to mention one 
that touched his heart beyond expression. Fifteen or twenty 
years ago the Presbyterian Church at Chapel Hill, N. C, was 
repaired and renovated. Dr. Shearer was invited to rededicate 
the building. Imagine his tears of surprise and gratitude when 
he saw from the pulpit a memorial window of himself — an open 
Bible on the upper sash; and on the lower sash this inscription: 
"Rev. J. B. Shearer, D.D., LL.D., the First Pastor of This 
Church — 1858 to 1862." Such a memorial is seldom made in 
one's lifetime. This memorial at the state University will keep 
his memory alive long after he has gone to his reward. 

/. Rumple. 


IZETTE GESSNER was born November 19, 
1832, at Munster in Westphalia, Prussia. She 
died at Davidson, N. C, January 15, 1903, and 
is buried there. She was the second daughter 
of Johan Gessner, a Lutheran, and his wife, 
Katrina Blumenthal, a CathoHc. Her older 
sister was named Francesca and her younger sister was named 
Bernardina. The father had two bachelor brothers, Karl and 
Josif, at Mannheim-am-Rhein. The mother was an orphan, the 
last of her race. She died from exposure in doing penance, en- 
joined by the priest, for going with her husband to his church. 
The father escaped to America with his children in order to save 
them from the claims of the Romanists. His brother Josif came 
with them, and they landed in New York. They soon went to 
Texas, where they opened up a farm near Houston. This was 
in 1840. Soon his brother Josif enlisted and perished in the 
unfortunate Santa Fe Expedition. Lizzie was then eight years 
old, Frances was about sixteen, and Bernardina about five. 

Frances was about to be married to a Mr. Jones, but she died 
of a malignant fever, and the father soon died of the same 
disease. The two orphans were beautiful and attractive children 
and there was a rush to get possession of them for adoption. 
But Judge McFarland, of the court, took them in charge. He 
sent Bernardina to his two maiden sisters at Huntsville, Ala., 
where she grew into a beautiful woman and received the best 
advantages in reach. When about eighteen years old she mar- 
ried a Mr. Pearson from Chapel Hill, Texas, and died within a 

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year. The sisters never met again except that Dina visited Lizzie 
in Virginia for a few months before her marriage. 

Judge McFarland gave Lizzie to Mr. George Everette and his 
wife, Maria Ann EHza. Her maiden name was Bradley and 
her kinspeople in Richmond, Va., were the Pleasants, Gordons, 
Bradleys, and others. She was the widow of a Presbyterian 
minister named McKenzie. She bore eight children, but she 
cherished the orphan as if in anticipation of the loss of them 
all, and right well did the orphan requite the outpouring of her 
kindness and love. 

Mr. Everette was a trading man of a roving disposition. He 
made brief homes at all the principal places between Victoria, 
Texas, and Cleveland, Ohio. He finally settled down at Mobile, 
Ala., and built a beautiful cottage home, but not for long, foi* a 
fearful epidemic of yellow fever laid the city low in 1843. The 
entire family was stricken down. The mother, her two youngest 
children and the orphan came out of the wreck. By a wonder- 
ful good Providence the Mr. Jones who lost his betrothed in 
Texas found the orphan, delirious from fever, in a deserted 
house, and nursed her to recovery. 

After a year or two the widow and her two little children and 
the orphan left their beautiful home and went to Richmond, 
Va., her native place, hoping to collect a legacy left by her 
father. In this she failed, and the story of her proud poverty 
is pathetic indeed. The "Song of the Shirt," "Stitch, stitch, 
stitch," was popular then and caused sentimental tears to flow. 
Societies were formed of sympathetic women who gave their 
family sewing to the poor, sometimes at shamefully scant prices. 
And why? If they paid full prices they would be imposed upon. 
Besides, "the poor might be thankful to get work at any price." 
No wonder the widow rejected such help with scorn, and left 
on the secretary's table the half pay offered. 

In the midst of it all her own two little girls died of croup 
within a week. Nobody now but the widow and the orphan. A 
distant relative was touched and proposed to help the widow 
if she would "give up that waif." It is almost like sacrilege to 
try to tell how the "mother" folded the "daughter" in her arms. 


founders of Hickory, and for many years the 
most influential citizen of that town, was born 
on his father's farm in Catawba County on 
November 13, 1841. His first progenitor to 
settle in North Carolina was John Shuford, 
who came from Pennsylvania before the Revolutionary War, and 
located in what is now Lincoln County, being one of that stream 
of pioneers who subdued the wilderness in that fertile section 
of the State. From him has descended a progeny among whom 
have been many excellent citizens, patriotic and self-sacrificing, 
both in war and peace. The father of the subject of this sketch 
was Jacob H. Shuford, a farmer and justice of the peace, who 
was a man of strong convictions and moral courage and whose 
influence was felt in church and local affairs in his section of the 
country. His mother, Catherine Shuford, was equally remark- 
able for her character. She was devoted to her church and zeal- 
ous in training her children, over whom she exerted a strong 
moral and spiritual influence. In youth their son Abel was al- 
ways healthy, strong and helpful. He did all kinds of farm 
work, and at the age of thirteen was given entire charge of the 
farm. He could only spare the three winter months in each year 
for educational work at the old free school in the vicinity. Other 

£riaS.L.Vi,i A%'/'='/^, P'^-i 


than this he had no educational advantages except those enjoyed 
at home. The Shufords and their connections were always inter- 
ested in politics and public matters, and when the war came on, 
although but nineteen years of age, the subject of this sketch, 
animated with the zeal that permeated all that section of the 
country, hastened to enlist, and joined the Catawba Guards, 
which was the second company organized in that county. Event- 
ually it became Company F of the Thirteenth regiment of North 
Carolina Volunteers, afterward known as the Twenty-third State 
Troops. M. L. McCorkle was his captain, and John F. Hoke 
colonel, the latter afterward succeeded by Colonel Christy and 
Colonel Charles C. Blacknall. Enlisting as a private Mr. Shu- 
ford later was promoted to sergeant, served with his company 
in Virginia, and underwent all the vicissitudes of its varied ex- 
periences until he fell wounded at Gettysburg. He suffered one 
wound below Richmond, but fortunately escaped in all the other 
terrible and bloody battles in which he was engaged during the 
first two years of the war. The Twenty-third regiment was in 
Iverson's Brigade, a part of Ewell's Corps, and toward the end 
of June, 1863, it pressed on to Carlisle, Pa., where it rested for 
several days, occupying the Federal barracks there, that being 
the most northern point reached by Lee's army when it threat- 
ened Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania. It was from that 
very section that the emigrants from Pennsylvania who had set- 
tled in Catawba and Lincoln had originally come. On their re- 
turn southward, Iverson's Brigade led Ewell's Corps, and was 
the first to become engaged, burying forward to succor A. P. 
Hill, then hard pressed. 

The late Henry Clay Wall, in his narrative of that affair, 

"Pressing forward with heavy loss under deadly fire, our regiment, 
which was the second from the right, reached a hollow or low place, 
running irregularly northeast and southwest through the field. We were 
then about eighty yards from the stone fence to the left and somewhat 
further from the woods to the right, from both of which, as well as 
from the more distant corner of the field in our front, poured down 
upon us a pitiless rifle fire. Unable to advance, unwilling to retreat, the 


brigade lay down in this hollow or depression in the field and fought 
as best it could. Terrible was the loss sustained, our regiment losing 
the heaviest of all in killed, as from its position in line, the cross en- 
filading fire seems to have been the hottest just where it lay. Major 
Blacknall was shot through the mouth and neck before the advance was 
checked; Colonel Johnston was desperately and Colonel Christy mortally 
wounded as the line lay in the bloody hollow. There, too, fell every 
commissioned officer save one; the recorded death roll footing up 52 
killed and 82 wounded. Ramseur was now hastening to our relief. 
The weary foe, aware of this, swarmed over the wall and rushed down 
upon our weakened line. Leaving the wounded, they drove oft with 
bayonets and clubbed with muskets 49 prisoners and carried our flag 
with them. This was all over in a moment, for Ramseur was coming 
up. . . . General Rodes said that Iverson's men fought and died like 
heroes. When the brigade went from its position in the hollow its dead 
and wounded lay in distinctly marked line of battle from one end to the 
other. The imperfect returns show 512 killed and wounded. The most 
careful estimate makes it over 750." 

It was in this bloody affair that Sergeant Shu ford was 
wounded and fell into the hands of the enemy. For twenty-one 
months he suffered imprisonment at Fort Delaware and Point 
Lookout. Previously he had been elected second lieutenant of 
his company, but because of his capture was never commissioned. 

Upon the return of peace in 1865 Mr. Shuford located at the 
little cross road station, which has since grown into the fine town 
of Hickory, and opened a mercantile business there. It soon 
became the center of a trade with the northwestern counties, 
which Mr. Shuford himself developed. He had his wagons run- 
ning far into the mountain recesses and established a large busi- 
ness, which soon became lucrative. He made the opportunity, 
and his good judgment and capabilities are attested by the re- 
sult. The training he received in the military camp now bore 
fruits, and the vigor and energy he displayed as a young soldier 
brought him success in the paths of peace. For twenty-five years 
he continued his merchandising operations, and in the meanwhile 
Tlickory had grown from a wayside station to a thriving town, 
and Mr. Shuford reaped a rich harvest from his enterprise, pros- 
pering greatly with the growth and development which his energy 


had largely contributed to create. Abandoning the business of 
merchandising in 1890, he entered on a new career as a manu- 
facturer and banker. He boldly invested his means in new enter- 
prises and gave the impetus to the further development of 
Hickory by promoting the establishment of factories and of the 
:financial institutions that were needed to facilitate their opera- 
tions. He became president of the First National Bank of Hick- 
ory and president of the Shuford National Bank of Newton. 
He was also interested in the First National Bank of Morgan- 
ton, and was a leading director. He was instrumental in estab- 
lishing the Hickory Manufacturing Company, of which he be- 
came president, and the Ivey Mill Company. He was vice-presi- 
dent of the Piedmont Wagon Company, and secretary and treas- 
urer of the Granite Falls Manufacturing Company. In all of 
these corporations, whose extensive business has contributed so 
much to the prosperity of Hickory, he was practically the man- 
ager and moving spirit. It has been his good fortune to see the 
little station where he first began business as a pioneer in 1865 
develop, largely because of his own enterprise, into a beautiful 
and prosperous city. 

But Mr. Shuford did not content himself with merely build- 
ing up his own personal fortune. He also interested himself in 
local affairs, served as a county commissioner, and for twenty 
years was one of the aldermen of Hickory. Always interested 
in political matters, for fifteen years continuously he served as 
chairman of the Democratic executive committee of Catawba 
County, and gave to that work his time and attention; but his 
valuable services were not confined to his own section. For 
years before the railroads penetrated into the northwestern coun- 
ties there were no means provided by the public for the dissem- 
ination of political literature among the communities of that out- 
lying section; and Mr. Shuford habitually used the wagons that 
brought produce to his store at Hickory for the purpose of send- 
ing large packages of public documents and political literature to 
the remote counties of Ashe, Alleghany and Watauga. He thus 
rendered invaluable assistance to the Democratic executive com- 


mittee in charge of the state campaign. Very largely the con- 
version of the people of those counties to the support of Democ- 
racy is to be ascribed to his persistent work in that way. While 
too busy a man to desire political preferment, he served in 1885 
in the Legislature, but he did not find it to his taste and never 
desired to repeat the experience. In 1901 he gave the public 
the benefit of his services as a director in the State Hospital at 
Morganton. He manifested his practical interest in education by 
serving as a trustee of Catawba College in Newton and of Clare- 
mont College at Hickory, and he always gave what aid and 
assistance he could for the promotion of schools and colleges. 

He was a member of the Reformed Church in the United 
States, and for thirty-two years was a deacon, rendering faith- 
ful service and being consistent in his profession. Notwithstand- 
ing his extended and diversified interests and the important mat- 
ters which engaged his attention he still found time to manage 
a small farm which he attended to largely for recreation, finding 
enjoyment and relaxation in its cultivation. 

Mr. Shuford's success in life was another illustration of what 
the poor North Carolina boy can accomplish without the advan- 
tages of educational training, but by means of his own pluck, 
energy and judgment. On December 18, 1873, Mr. Shuford was 
happily married to Miss Alda V. Campbell, who bore him eight 
children, of whom seven survive, some of the sons being now 
among the rapidly rising business men of the community where 
they were born. Mr. Shuford died in Hickory May 3, 191 2. 

S. A. Ashe, 


judge of the superior court, and a distinguished 
lawyer of Asheville, N. C, is a native of 
Buncombe County, and was born on his 
father's farm on Hominy Creek, in that county, 
August I, 1855. 
The Shuford family was originally of pure Germanic stock, 
and came in early colonial days from their home in the Palati- 
nate, on the Rhine, to Pennsylvania, and, some years before the 
Revolutionary War, George Shuford removed with his family 
from that province and settled in North Carolina, on the Ca- 
tawba River, in what is now Catawba County. Just when he 
came to North Carolina is not known, and just what family he 
brought with him is also unknown, but it is certain that he acquired 
land here as early as 1755. His son, John Shuford, who signed 
his name Johannes Schuferdt, or sometimes Shufert, in two 
deeds, bearing date June 3, 1788, and of record in the county of 
Lincoln, executed by him to his sons David and Daniel Shuford, 
for certain lands on the south fork of the Catawba River, con- 
cludes each with the following recital: "Being part of a larger 
tract of land conveyed by John Clark to George Shufert by a 
deed of lease and release dated the 19th and 20th of September, 
1755, and by the said George Shufert willed to his son, the 


above-named John Shufert, as by reference to said will and con- 
veyance will more fully and at large appear." And the will of 
pioneer George Shuford, which bears date August i6, 1762, is 
also of record in the county of Mecklenburg, which then em- 
braced the present county of Catawba, and in it he devises all 
his lands to his eldest son, without naming him. These records 
seem to establish the fact that George Shufert or Schuferdt was 
the progenitor of the Shuford family in North Carolina, and 
that he was here and acquired land here as early as the date 
above stated. They also establish the fact that George Shuford 
was the father of John Shuford who lived and died on the 
south fork of Catawba River, in the present county of Catawba, 
and whose history and the history of whose family is well authen- 
ticated and generally known in North Carolina. 

John Shuford was evidently the eldest son of George Shuford, 
and most probably came with his father from the State of Penn- 
sylvania, and was also a pioneer settler in the Catawba Valley. 
This John Shuford, who signed his name Johannes Schuferdt,' 
had six sons, and according to family tradition they were noted 
for their strength and stature, all being over six feet in height. 
Most of them were farmers, prosperous and independent. The 
early records show that they filled various places of honor and 
trust, standing well in their community for intelligence and per- 
sonal integrity. The family has contributed to society in each 
generation lawyers, doctors, preachers and many successful 
farmers and business men. 

George Shuford, one of that family of six brothers, the great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, crossed the mountains 
some time in the year 1800, according to the best information 
which can now be obtained, and settled in that portion of Bun- 
combe County which has since been erected into the county of 
Transylvania. He left one son, David, who was noted in his 
generation for his industry, generosity, hospitality and high in- 
tegrity. Endowed with a strong intellect and esteemed for his 
nice sense of honor and justice and his liberality of view, he 
was highly regarded in his community, and bore to his neigh- 


bors somewhat the relation of a patriarch, being often their 
counsellor and the arbiter of their controversies. His eldest son, 
George Shu ford, the father of the subject of this sketch, in his 
earlier years was largely engaged in mechanical arts, in which 
he became both skillful and successful, but later in life abandoned 
all other occupations save that of his farm. He married first 
Miss Louisa M. Beacham, a native of Greenville County, S. C, 
who was of English descent. By this marriage Mr. Shuford 
had one daughter and five sons, of whom the subject of this 
sketch was the fourth. On the death of his first wife he married 
Mrs. Caroline C. Jones, a widow, who had five children by her 
first marriage, and by whom he himself had one daughter. 

The rearing and support of so large a family entailed a burden 
upon Mr. Shuford which prevented him from bestowing upon 
his children that thorough education which he desired them to 
acquire. He, however, gave to them a more priceless legacy — 
the record of a spotless life and an untarnished name. Among 
his most notable characteristics were honesty, frankness, square 
dealing and simple and economical living, and by precept and 
example he instilled these traits into the youthful minds of his 
children. The mottoes which he sought most to impress upon 
his sons were: "Tell the truth regardless of consequences;" 
"Live Vv^ithin your income;" "Never spend money before you 
get it." 

George A. Shuford, the subject of this sketch, determined early 
in life to acquire for himself a more advanced and broader edu- 
cation than his father was able, under existing circumstances, 
to give him. As a child he was never robust, and was conse- 
quently shielded from much of the heavy labor of the farm, but 
was benefited physically by the lighter duties he was required to 
perform. He was always fond of books and took but little 
interest in mechanical arts, while he had even less fancy for the 
life of a farmer. Until fourteen or fifteen years of age he re- 
sided in the country, attending the schools in his neighborhood, 
notably Sand Hill Academy, in Buncombe County, and David- 
son's River Academy, in Transylvania County. Afterward his 


father purchased a farm adjacent to the village of Brevard, and 
removed there with his family and resided there for several 
years. At this place the subject of this sketch attended the high 
schools for which that village was for several years noted. At 
first he was a pupil of Dr. McNeil Turner, a noted educator, 
originally from Charleston, S. C, then of Professor Hugh Mc- 
Kay at the same place. Later he entered the Franklin High 
School, and then the Waynesville High School, of which schools 
Professor Dan M. Jones was principal. To acquire means to 
pay for his education, he devoted his vacation to selling books, 
collecting debts for business men, etc., and also assisted his 
principal in teaching during school sessions. In one vacation 
of less than three months he was so successful in selling books 
that he was able to pay from his profits all his expenses for 
the next scholastic year, including board, tuition, text-books and 
clothing, and in another vacation he made enough by collecting 
accounts to pay all his expenses at a boarding-school for an 
entire year. Thus for seven years he worked during vacations 
and assisted during sessions of the school in teaching mathe- 
matics, in which he was well advanced, while reciting to his 
principal lessons in Latin, Greek and the sciences. When twenty- 
one years of age he entered the sophomore and junior classes at 
Emory and Henry College, Virginia, where he undertook a 
special course of study designated by the college as the "Latin 
scientific course," but ill health and a lack of means prevented 
his pursuing his studies at this institution for more than one 
year and necessitated his giving up his scholastic studies one 
year short of graduation. He began the study of law at Waynes- 
ville, N. C, under Hon. J. C. L. Gudger and Hon. Garland S. 
Ferguson, and later he entered the law school at Greensboro, 
taught by Judge Dick and Judge Dillard. Having obtained his 
license in January, 1879, to practice law, he returned to Waynes- 
ville and soon after became associated with Mr. Alden Howell, 
an experienced practitioner. This copartnership proved success- 
ful and satisfactory, and continued as long as Mr. Shuford re- 
mained in Haywood County. In 1882 he removed to Asheville 


and entered into partnership with Hon. Thomas D. Johnston 
(q.v.) and between these two a most intimate and cordial friend- 
ship was soon formed, which lasted without interruption until 
the death of the latter in 1902. In his new home Mr. Shuford 
early made friends and established himself in the confidence and 
esteem of his fellow-citizens, so that before two years had ex- 
pired he was chosen presiding judge of the inferior court of 
Buncombe County, which was afterward converted into the 
criminal court of that county. For four years he presided over 
that court with great acceptability, exercising his judicial func- 
tions with firmness and impartiality, and also tempering justice 
with mercy, when in his judgment wise considerations justified 
it. He later formed a partnership with Mr. William W. Jones, 
a lawyer of much professional learning and wide experience at 
the Bar, and this firm immediately commanded a leading practice 
in the courts of western North Carolina. In February, 1892, 
on the resignation of James H. Merrimon as judge of the twelfth 
judicial tdijstrict of North Carolina, Governor Holt tendered 
Judge Shuford the appointment to the vacancy, and he accepting 
it, rode the circuits that year with such satisfaction to the people 
that at the succeeding election he was nominated and elected to 
the office by the vote of the people of the entire State, and was 
commissioned for a full term of eight years. A question arose, 
however, as to the length of the term for which he, with certain 
other judges of the State, were elected, and while the attorney- 
general of the State held that he and these other judges were 
elected for a full term of eight years, Judge Shuford promptly 
decided to relinquish all claim to a full term and to re-submit 
his election to the people. This contest, together with the po- 
litical upheaval at the following election, led to Judge Shuford's 
retirement from the Bench, on January i, 1895. During his 
term of service of three years on the superior court Bench he 
established a high reputation as a judicial officer, and it was 
with general regret that he left the Bench which he was so well 
qualified by his virtues and learning to adorn. He has since 
continued the practice of the law at Asheville, and has enjoyed 


a lucrative business, while maintaining the high regard of both 
his professional brethren and of the community in which he 

In no sphere of action has Judge Shuford's ability been more 
conspicuously shown than in the actual legal conflicts of the 
court room. In his more active professional career he was es- 
sentially a trial-lawyer, and in no other department of his pro- 
fession did effective effort contrast him to a greater advantage 
than when he was actually engaged in the trial of a cause at 
Bar. His quickness to grasp the purport of a proposition and 
his acuteness in discrimination enabled him readily to seize the 
salient and discard the non-essential, and his deductions and 
conclusions of law and fact were always "clear, strong and con- 
vincing." Possessed of unusual equanimity, his judgment was 
never thwarted by the many exciting incidents which are common 
in hotly contested trials, and which often confuse and sometimes 
defeat the best directed efforts of otherwise able lawyers. How- 
ever fiercely shafts of irony, sarcasm or adverse criticism might 
be hurled at him. Judge Shuford always emerged from the con- 
flict with that same equanimity of mind and fixedness of purpose 
which characterized him in his coolest moments. In the exami- 
nation of witnesses he was especially adept, always propounding 
his questions with a definite aim in view, and without needless 
circumlocution, seeking by his examination to elicit only such 
testimony as was germane to the issue. In his addresses to the 
jury he was never oratorical, in the common acceptance of that 
term, but resorted solely to logical reasoning and frank state- 
ment to impress the truth and justice of his claims upon the 
minds and consciences of the court and jury. While it was 
never his habit to indulge in rhetorical or metaphorical speech, 
he often used, with marked effect, analogous illustrations drawn 
from his experience in life and from his reading, especially from 
the Bible. He often repeats that no incidents can elsewhere be 
found which are so illustrative of human conduct and human 
motives and so effective with a jury as the familiar stories of 
the Sacred Writings. 


In his political affiliations Judge Shuford has ever been a 
Democrat, and in his earlier professional life was active in dis- 
charging such duties as his party friends desired at his hands, 
but in his later years his professional duties have pressed so 
heavily upon him that he has had little or no time to devote to 
politics. As a member of the state Democratic convention in 
1888 he served on the committee on platform, and as one of a 
sub-committee of two he was instrumental in drafting the plat- 
form which was adopted by the convention and on which his 
party gained the splendid victory of that campaign. Later he 
differed with the majority of his party friends on the question 
of the free coinage of silver, but nevertheless voted for Mr. 
Bryan for President, but under protest as to his free-silver 
platform. While a young lawyer he served as chairman of the 
county Democratic executive committee, and of the executive 
committee of his judicial district, and has at all times manifested 
a strong interest in the success of the Democratic party, al- 
though not an aspirant for public station nor seeking any reward 
for party services. Unusually gifted as a public speaker and 
with a pleasing address, Judge Shuford might well have strayed 
off from the hard drudgery of the Bar into a political career, 
but he decided that public applause was to be won only by 
methods and by a subordination of independent sentiment which 
he was not willing to adopt. 

In private life Judge Shuford is as excellent as he is eminent 
in his professional career. With agreeable manners he unites 
fine conversational powers and his thought is enriched by his 
familiarity with the best literature of the day. He is also 
endowed with an abundance of mother wit, which bubbles forth 
and overflows into his conversation in a quaint, dry, realistic 
way that at once captivates his listeners and make his company 
the more sought for and enjoyed. His humor is genuine and 
is never meaningless nor tiresome, and always serves to illustrate 
some moral or make plain some point of the subject under dis- 

On December 2.'], 1892, Judge Shuford was happily married 


to Miss Julia Dean, the daughter of Mr. Henry W. Dean and 
Jane Adams Dean, of Floyd County, Ga. Mrs. Shuford's 
father, Captain Dean, as he was familiarly known, was a typical 
Southern planter and gentleman of the old-school type, and her 
mother was a descendant of one of the oldest and most highly 
respected families of Georgia. Mrs. Shuford is a woman of 
strong personality, clear and comprehensive judgment and deep 
convictions. She believes in "woman's rights," but believes that 
the highest right of woman is to become the helpmeet of her 
husband, and that her influence can best be exercised in the 
proper training of her children. She has been a stay and a 
benediction to her husband, and to her he owes much of the 
firmness and strength of character which has characterized him 
in later years. Their union has been blessed with two children, 
George Adams and Mary Frances Shuford. One of Judge 
Shuford's most observable characteristics is his devotion to his 
home and family. 

In his church relations Judge Shuford is a member of the 
Methodist Church, and while he has always contributed gladly 
to the support of the institutions of his church, he has never been 
active in church work. The causes which touch his heart and 
purse quickest are the needs of helpless children and young men 
struggling to make their way in life. 

Judge Shuford, never strong or robust, for the last five or 
six years of his life has suffered much from impaired health, 
and has also been under the handicap of partial deafness, which 
have caused him to abandon the active practice of the court 
house. He has continued his office practice uninterruptedly, 
however, and has been connected with much important litigation 
in an advisory way. The hope of his friends is that his day 
of usefulness is not nearly at an end. 

Arch, D. Monteath. 


United States senator, was, like so many other 
North CaroHnians who have attained distinc- 
tion, born and reared on a farm — the nursery 
of the great, strong men who have directed the 
affairs of the American people. 
His father, Furnifold Green Simmons, having married Miss 
Mary McLendell Jerman, and being inclined to lead the inde- 
pendent life of the country gentleman, settled down as a farmer 
in Jones County, and through his industry and assiduity as the 
years passed increased in prosperity. He was a man whose 
intelligent and strong convictions, firmness and determination 
brought him prominence in his community; while his single- 
ness of purpose, candor and dislike of all shams and detestation 
of all subterfuges won for Mm the entire respect of those ac- 
quainted with him. He lived in an atmosphere of purity and 
was the soul of candor. Although he had no ambition for public 
life, he took an intelligent interest in public matters and was 
warm in his political affihations, and on three occasions yielded 
to circumstances and represented his county in the state Legis- 
lature. His chief care was his family and the cultivation of his 
farm, where he made his home amid abundance and all the com- 


forts of country life; and it was there, on the Jones County farm, 
that his son Furnifold, the subject of this sketch, was born on 
January 20, 1854. 

In his early life Senator Simmons was delicate, and remained 
at home doing light work on the farm and attending neighboring 
schools. When old enough to leave home he spent a year at 
Wake Forest College and then entered Trinity College, where 
he graduated in 1873. He was of a bright mind and studious, 
and had a strong ambition even in those early days to excel — 
a disposition that was greatly strengthened by his intercourse 
with Dr. Craven, then the president of Trinity. Mr. Simmons 
ascribes with gratitude to Dr. Craven great potency in indoc- 
trinating him with a spirit of self-reliance, in teaching him to 
think and act for himself, and in stimulating an ambition to 
accomplish high purpose in life; and the remembrance of Dr. 
Craven's character, example and precepts continues to be an 
unfailing inspiration to him. At his graduation he received the 
degree of A.B. and his alma mater has since conferred on him 
the honorary degrees of A.M. and LL.D. In 191 5 the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, in recognition of his great public 
services and high distinction, likewise conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. 

At the age of twenty-one Mr. Simmons, having received his 
license, began the practice of law, but continued to reside on. 
his father's farm. It was nearly two years before he opened an 
office in Newbern, and entered actively in the contest for the 
business with the able practitioners of that section. The political 
complexion of Craven and the adjoining counties was decidedly 
Republican and there was no avenue for local political prefer- 
ment. Still Mr. Simmons had very strong political convictions, 
and, like the other members of the Bar, kept in touch with po- 
litical movements and sought to exert an influence in public 
matters. Kindly in his disposition, imbued with correct prin- 
ciples and a man of sterling merit, he was soon appreciated by 
the people, and his popularity led in 1886 to his selection by 
the Democrats of that district as their candidate for Congress. 


The district contained a large majority of negroes, and it was 
generally a hopeless race on the part of any Democrat to seek 
an election against such overwhelming opposition. But on that 
occasion there were two Republican candidates in the field and 
the negro vote was divided, while Mr. Simmons by an active,, 
energetic campaign brought all the white men to the polls, se- 
cured a plurahty of the vote cast and was elected. He served 
his district very acceptably in Congress, but at the next election 
the Republicans again united and elected their candidate. Mr. 
Simmons thereupon returned to the practice of his profession 
at Newbern. Later he spent about a year at Winston, N. C.,. 
where he had some investments, and there, as at Newbern, his 
admirable personal characteristics, his energy, activity and wise 
counsel established him in the confidence of the people. The 
West, as well as the East, now realized his worth and capacity,, 
and in 1892 he was elected chairman of the executive committee 
of the Democratic party, and in the conduct of that campaign 
he developed a high order of administrative ability. The Popu- 
list party was organized that year, its adherents being drawn 
mostly from the Democratic party, whose supremacy was threat- 
ened by the defection. It polled forty-seven thousand votes,, 
but Mr. Simmons succeeded in keeping the State Democratic 
and in electing Elias Carr governor, also securing the electoral 
vote of the State for the Democratic candidate for President. 
His successful management under adverse conditions brought 
him a fine reputation, and he became still more prominent 
throughout the State, being ranked as one of the most influen- 
tial men of the party. During Mr. Cleveland's second term Mr. 
Simmons was appointed collector of internal revenue for the 
eastern district ; he administered its duties with fidelity and with 
such sagacity that while the laws were strictly enforced the 
odium that had previously attached to the collection of the in- 
ternal revenue in the district largely disappeared. Moreover, 
his administration was so able and satisfactory that the depart- 
ment at Washington regarded him with the highest favor and 
considered that he was the best collector in the service. At the 


election in 1894, as Mr. Simmons was holding a Federal office, 
he resigned his position as chairman of the party, and its affairs 
were managed by others. At that election the Populists and 
Republicans fused and the Democrats fell into a minority in 
North Carolina. The opposition, having control of the Legis- 
lature, elected Mr. Butler and Mr. Pritchard as senators. Two 
years later the opposition was again united, and Daniel L. Rus- 
sell, a Republican was elected governor. The Legislature was 
again controlled by the "fusion," as it was called, which had 
possession of the state offices and the patronage of all the great 
departments and great public institutions. It also had a ma- 
jority of the Supreme Court and several superior court judges 
and solicitors, and the whole machinery of the state government 
was in its hands. At the election in 1898, as Mr. Simmons's 
term had then expired and he was holding no official position, 
he was again chosen to the chairmanship of the state Democratic 
committee, with the hope that he might restore his party to 
power. Success seemed almost beyond the pale of hope, but 
nevertheless with resolution he addressed himself to the task. 
Realizing the necessity of healing the dissensions among the 
Democrats who had been alienated from each other because of 
the issues springing from the money question and from the 
adoption of the Chicago platform, he sought to draw around him 
the influence of every public man, and he made every exertion 
to unite the Democratic people. The course of the opposition 
in the Legislature and in the administration had been unwise and 
they had undertaken to carry into operation the Republican 
doctrine of race equality, also seeking to abolish the system 
which the Democrats had for thirty years been building up and 
maintaining in the State. This system had secured peaceful 
relations between the races and had been attended with quiet, 
order and prosperity. The effect of the changes inaugurated by 
the Republican administration had been to usher in a period of 
great disorder, and scandals had come to life in some of the 
departments. Seizing on this and on the maladministration that 
had marked the accession to power of the fusion leaders, Mr. 


Simmons began the organization of white supremacy clubs, and 
by dint of unwearied exertions and by prudent management and 
the exercise of great sagacity achieved one of the most re- 
markable political victories in the annals of the State, the Demo- 
crats regaining control of the Legislature. Mr. Simmons then 
began to develop plans for amending the state constitution, limit- 
ing suffrage, and he despatched Mr. Josephus Daniels to Louis- 
iana to inquire into the workings of a constitutional amendment 
that had been adopted in that State. Satisfied with the result, 
he devised a suffrage amendment and carried the measure 
through the Legislature. At his instance, the state election and 
the election to be held to ratify the amendment was fixed for 
August, 1900, while the national election was to be held in 
November of that year. He made a vigorous campaign for the 
ratification of the amendment, and again achieved a great vic- 
tory, the amendment being adopted by a majority of 54,000. 
By this measure suffrage in the State was put upon a basis that 
thereafter intelligence was to be the test. Great impetus was 
thus given to education, and the blot of illiteracy which had 
so long been a reproach to North Carolina began to be in proc- 
ess of obliteration, while at the same time the administration of 
local affairs in the eastern counties was confined to white citi- 
zens. This great measure, which has had more bearing on the 
welfare and happiness of the people of the State than any other 
adopted in its history, is mainly to be ascribed to the efforts and 
determination of Mr. Simmons. It may be well considered the 
greatest accomplishments of any statesman in the history of 
North Carolina. After that overwhelming victory in August, 
1900, a primary was held throughout the State, at the time of 
the presidential election, at which all of the Democrats were 
privileged to vote for the purpose of nominating a United States 
senator to succeed Senator Marion Butler; and because of the 
great popularity which Senator Simmons was then enjoying and 
the gratitude which the people felt for his successful manage- 
ment of the preceding campaign, and for his patriotic leadership, 
there was a general feeling that he should be elected to the 


vacant senatorship. However, one of the leading Democrats 
of the State, who had long aspired to high position, and who 
by his talents, liberality and personal popularity might well have 
aspired to the office, entered into the race, but Mr. Simmons, 
notwithstanding the most strenuous efforts made in behalf of 
his opponent, received 103,000 votes out of the 150,000 polled, 
and the Legislature, agreeably to this expression of popular will, 
elected him to the United States Senate. 

On attaining the high position of United States senator Mr. 
Simmons did not consider himself as withdrawn from state af- 
fairs, and he sought to promote measures that would tend to 
the betterment of the social condition of the people. He has 
been in line with those who have been striving to attain better 
educational advantages for the children of the State, and at the 
Assembly of 1902 he co-operated with Mr. A. D. Watts, who 
was his secretary at Washington, and bore the closest association 
with him, in promulgating and drafting the temperance legisla- 
tion, known as the Watts bill. Indeed, it may be said to be the 
offspring of Senator Simmons's own brain. Under it the sale 
as well as the manufacture of spirituous liquors in the State was 
brought directly under the supervision of the police. It was 
considered a great step in advance, and it is notable that a man 
who, like Mr. Simmons, had for years been a political manager 
in the State, should exercise his influence for the promotion of 
these social reforms ; but it is on a line with all his actions dur- 
ing his public career, to be of use to the people in matters of 
the highest concern. That legislation being adopted consider- 
able opposition arose to the law, and in the campaign of 1904, 
when it was violently attacked, Senator Simmons retained his 
position as chairman of the party, and conducted the campaign 
to meet this opposition. He made a strong canvass and delivered 
some speeches of the first excellence. In one of them he said: 

"It is a boast of the Democratiq party that it never turns a deaf ear 
to the appeals of the fireside. It is a glory to the Democratic party that 
church and school and home are written large all over and all through 
its legislation. Upon these foundations the Democratic party has builded 


the political house in which we live. There may be — indeed there are — 
murmurings and mutterings and threats to tear away these foundations 
and leave the house exposed to the tempest and the storm. But as sure 
as God lives in heaven and reigns on earth, the storms may come and 
the winds may blow, and the rains may descend and beat upon the 
political house we have built, but it will not fall, for it is built upon 
the rock of God's eternal truth and society's safety." 

From this extract an idea may be gained of the general pur- 
pose of Senator Simmons in his pubHc career. He has sought 
the elevation of the people, amicable relations between the races 
and the amelioration of the social conditions of the whole State ; 
and to attain those ends he hazards his political popularity and 
exerts all the influence that he possesses. 

As a member of the Senate Mr. Simmons soon took a high 
stand. A lawyer of ability, he has been conservative in his 
judgment and careful to consider every question before taking 
his position on it. He felt that it is no part of a senator's duty 
to live in the dead past, and that he should deal with the live 
■questions of the day from the standpoint of the welfare, honor 
and needs of his country. He has been animated by a broad 
patriotism and well reflects the true sentiments of the citizens 
of his State. 

On several occasions in the Senate during his first term Sena- 
tor Simmons's position and his argument unexpectedly altered 
the course of his Democratic colleagues. This was notably so 
in reference to the measure to construct the ship canal across 
the Isthmus of Panama, which he advocated with great power; 
and also in regard to the Cuban treaty, both of which measures 
some of the Democratic senators proposed to antagonize chiefly 
on the ground that they were measures of the Republican ad- 

Mr. Simmons's six years' service in the Senate was so accep- 
table that at the end of his term he was re-elected without oppo- 
sition. On the re-organization of the Senate, in 1909, he became 
a member of the Democratic steering committee, and was as- 
signed to the Committee on Finance and to the Committee on 


Commerce, having in charge the River and Harbor bills. He 
was able to render valuable service for the State and country in 
promoting the navigation of our inland waterways. As a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Commerce he was on the commission 
to visit Alaska and likewise to make an extensive investigation 
of waterways in Europe, and the information^ gained by these 
personal examinations more thoroughly equipped him for his 
important duties. 

Chief among the works of internal improvement that appealed 
to him were the improvement of the Cape Fear River, both 
above and below Wilmington; improvement of the Neuse and 
other rivers in North Carolina; the opening of a ship canal for 
the eastern part of the State, a part of which was the Albemarle 
and Chesapeake Canal through the Dismal Swamp, the purchase 
of that canal by the government being promoted and secured 
by him; and the construction of a breakwater at Cape Lookout, 
creating there a safe harbor of refuge for our coast commerce. 

By his advocacy of good roads, of the extension of the rural 
carriers' system, of measures dealing with the problems of trans- 
portation, and of measures enlarging the operation of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, Mr. Simmons has rendered distinct and 
notable service to the people engaged in agriculture in every sec- 
tion of the Union. He began the agitation for good roads in 
1904, and his leading addresses on the subject of good roads 
commanded the attention of the country, and by their inexorable 
logic and comprehensive treatment of facts awakened thought 
and bore fruit, giving impetus to the movement that eventuated 
in the most beneficial results. In 1912 he offered an amend- 
ment to the Post Office bill appropriating $1,000,000 for experi- 
mental improvement of roads used in rural delivery, each com- 
munity benefited furnishing half the cost of construction, and 
after a long effort he obtained in conference $500,000 for that 

Again in 1915 he secured a similar appropriation; and at the 
next session, the work having resulted favorably, his efforts were 
crowned with success, and an appropriation of $85,000,000 was se- 


cured, based on the principles he had formulated, local co-opera- 
tion and for betterment of roads used in rural deliveries. 

But as interesting, important and beneficial as this service has 
been, it has been his work on the Finance Committee that has es- 
tabhshed him as the most powerful Democratic senator, and made 
him famous among the great historic characters of this genera- 

At the session of 191 1 Mr. Simmons was a conferee on the 
River and Harbor bill, and on the several tariff bills, and the 
Panama Canal bill. It often happens that in the exercise of their 
large powers the conferees almost re-write the bills, and this 
was what actually happened with regard to the Canal bill. Its 
character was entirely changed in the committee. Speaking of 
that incident. Senator Bristow said: 

''The bill, as reported from our committee of conference, I think the 
most important piece of legislation passed by Congress at this session. 
The Conference bill is a great improvement over either the House or 
Senate measures. I am much gratified at the part Senator Simmons took 
in getting in the bill provisions that mean so much to the people of the 
United States. The North Carolina senator, who knows how and when 
to fight, stood with me faithfully, making possible the great victory won." 

Mr. Simmons's capacity and efficiency as a manager and his 
important services to the Democratic party are well illustrated 
by the incidents connected with the passage of the tariff bills at 
the session of 191 1. A Democratic house had been elected on 
the issue of tariff reform and there was a handful of insurgent 
Republican tariff reformers in the Senate. At the special ses- 
sion of 191 1 these co-operated, and the bills were passed, re- 
ducing some of the most excessive duties; but President Taft 
vetoed them. At the regular session the House again passed these 
bills, but the Republican insurgents in the Senate refused to 
co-operate. Hope of any action was lost. However, the Demo- 
cratic senators asked Mr. Simmons, who was the ranking Demo- 
crat on the Finance Committee, to take charge, committing the 
situation entirely to him. For weeks he worked quietly, trying 
to secure the co-operation of the insurgent Republicans, and at 


length he succeeded. When it was announced that he had enough 
votes to pass the bill, there was great rejoicing, not only in Con- 
gress, but throughout the country at large, while the stand-pat 
Republicans were dismayed. Only on one bill was a Democratic 
vote lost, and the bills passed the Senate, but with some unde- 
sirable Republican amendments, and went to conference. In' 
conference, Mr. Simmons, with great address and persistent ef- 
forts, finally got the bills in such shape that they were ratified 
by the caucus of Democratic senators and supported by enough 
Republican insurgents to secure their passage against the vehe- 
ment opposition of the stand-pat Republicans. However, they 
were again vetoed by the President, but the result was the de- 
feat of the Republican party and the election of Woodrow Wil- 
son as President at the next election. 

At the election in 191 2 it was expected that the Senate would 
become Democratic, and Senator Simmons, being the ranking 
Democratic member of the Finance Committee, would naturally 
succeed to that great chairmanship. He was then standing for 
his third term, and he was strenuously opposed by Governor Wil- 
liam W. Kitchin, of high personal popularity, an orator of un- 
usual strength and power, and a public man of large experience, 
who had a host of ardent friends and many strong connections. 
Chief Justice Walter Clark was also an aspirant. One of the 
most unusual campaigns in the history of the State marked the 
contest. Governor Kitchin opened the campaign early in an 
address abounding in personalities and bitterly assailing some of 
Senator Simmons's positions on public questions. The assault 
was immediately answered by the publication of the full record 
of the senator's votes and course. But Governor Kitchin per- 
sisted, becoming constantly more aggressive, and the public mind 
was inflamed. Eventually, after Congress adjourned and Sena- 
tor Simmons was free, he began his canvass at Charlotte in one 
of the strongest and most admirable political addresses ever made 
by a North Carolinian. It fairly brushed aside Governor Kitchin 
and overwhelmed his opponents. 'T am not running away from 
my record," exclaimed Senator Simmons, *'but I am running 


on it." He was proud of his record ; and although William Jen- 
nings Bryan, who had many followers in the State, took sides 
against him, the campaign was day by day a series of triumphs 
for Mr. Simmons, until at length the victory was recorded on 
election day, when he received more than five votes for every 
one cast for the chief justice and nearly two for every one cast 
for Governor Kitchin. It was a veritable Waterloo for those 
who had sought to supplant him. 

At the meeting of Congress Mr. Simmons took his place as 
one of the principal leaders of the Democratic majority. 

As chairman of the Finance Committee, and as acting chair- 
man of the Committee on Commerce, and as one of the most 
successful party leaders ever in Congress, he came to be esteemed 
as the most powerful of all the senators, and his relations with 
the President, and members of the cabinet, and with the pubHc 
generally was on that footing. 

When the Underwood tariff bill came from the house, Mr. 
Simmons was already prepared, by arduous study, to consider 
it. There were, as ever, many varying views entertained by 
senators and many conflicting interests. Mr. Simmons sought 
to impress upon the measure his own views of what a tariff law 
should be in the interest of the entire country, and he proposed 
to supplement the customs duties by a heavier tax on the larger 
incomes, making property contribute its just proportion toward 
maintaining the government. Under his supervision the bill was 
thoroughly considered and amended, there being six hundred 
and seventy-six senate amendments to the bill, of which five hun- 
dred and twenty-five were incorporated into the text of the law. 
Mr. Simmons's management of this measure in committee, in the 
conference of Democratic senators, and on the floor of the Senate 
was superb, not only claiming the support of his party col- 
leagues, but winning from his Republican opponents an expres- 
sion of admiration, for they said on the floor of the Senate that 
no other tariff bill in the history of the country had ever been 
passed with so little friction and personal ill-will. The bill car- 
ried lower duties than any tariff bill ever passed except alone 


that of 1846. The free list was enlarged, particularly as to com- 
modities consumed by the people; the duty on wool was re- 
moved, and the duties on woolen goods reduced about one-half. 

Another measure of importance — one urged by the administra- 
tion — was the bill imposing tolls on all American ships passing 
through the Isthmian canal. The repeal of the law exempting 
American vessels engaged in coastwise trade from payment of 
tolls on the Panama Canal was a policy which in measure re- 
versed the expression of recently accepted Democratic belief on 
that subject, but the requirements of our treaty obligations de- 
manded it. Before bringing the issue before Congress the 
President took counsel of the Committee on Inter-Oceanic Can- 
als, and found in the committee determined opposition to his 
proposal. Indeed the Committee had a majority favoring an 
adverse report. Mr. Simmons overcame this antagonism so far 
as to have the bill brought in without recommendation. Almost 
single-handed he conducted the hearings, and turned the com- 
mittee to a reluctant support of his contention. When the bill 
was in debate he proposed the amendment which has since borne 
his name, and which became the vehicle of carrying it through. 
At first it did not find favor with the President, who, however, 
eventually yielded to the reasons pressed by Mr. Simmons. It 
is now conceded that without the amendment the bill, if passed 
at all, would have remained a floating derelict in party pohtics. 
If the administration had suffered defeat, it would have had a 
divided and dispirited following. As it was, harmony followed 
the accomplishment of a bold but hazardous determination and 
the danger of division and dissension was passed. The fortunes 
of the time were wrapped up in this famous amendment. It is 
the capacity to meet difficult situations that measures the worth 
of the statesman. 

In putting through the great programme of constructive legis- 
lation which has made the Wilson administration stand out as 
an epoch-making period in our national affairs. Senator Simmons 
has had a leading and illustrious part. As one achievement after 
another has proved his ability, his importance and influence have 


steadily grown until he has reached a position of high distinction 
and eminence in the legislative history of the country. 

Since the breaking out of the war in Europe, emergency has 
followed emergency to test his ability as a statesman and his skill 
as a leader. The sudden falling off of our imports, and conse- 
quently of our revenue receipts from customs duties, gave rise to 
a serious problem of restoring the nation's income. Senator 
Simmons had charge of the revenue bills in the Senate, and to 
his masterful handling of them in the face of bitter opposition, 
their successful passage was largely due. Indeed, he had the 
pleasure of seeing important provisions which grew out of his 
own particular views incorporated into them. As an illustration, 
it was his idea, in the second additional revenue bill, to do away 
with the stamp taxes and raise the needed revenue by a tax on 
munitions of war and on corporations, and by increased inherit- 
ance taxes. 

Senator Simmons also had charge of the bill creating the Ship- 
ping Board, providing for the establishment of a merchant marine 
and an auxiliary naval force. It was a measure that he had much 
at heart, for with wise prevision he had long realized that the 
future welfare of the country was dependent on an adequate navy 
and a sufficient merchant marine. The bill met with strenuous op- 
position from the shipping interests, and its successful enactment 
into law was largely due to his incessant labor, broad knowledge of 
the subject, firmness, and the adroit skill with which he disarmed 
the opposition. His address in presenting the bill in the Senate was 
at once masterful, and an illustration of the rare ability of Senator 
Simmons to foresee the needs of the country, for within a few 
months the functions of the Shipping Board became of the ut- 
most consequence, and the successful issue of the great world 
war turned on the operation of this measure, whose enactment 
he had so powerfully advocated and so timely secured. 

Senator Simmons stood with President Wilson in all of his 
efforts to avert war with Germany; but when at length it be- 
came inevitable, he announced that no course was left but to 
declare that a state of war existed, and to enter on hostilities with 


a resolute determination to win victory. He concurred in all the 
plans of the administration, and in conference with Secretary 
McAdoo, the preliminary measure was devised to issue three bil- 
lions of bonds, the proceeds to be lent to the Allies, and two 
billions for our own use, along with two bilHons of certificates ; 
and to utilize every resource to aid the Allies and sustain them 
at home and in the field. 

In presenting to the Senate this measure, carrying the most 
stupendous appropriation ever made, Mr. Simmons said : 

"The time for action has arrived. The time for counting the cost and 
consequences is past. We must press forward. Let us do this heartily, cor- 
dially, unanimously and without hesitation. Let us do it in the spirit of 
men who thoroughly understand and comprehend the great cause in which 
we are fighting, and who are entering into it without thought of profit, 
without thought of financial loss, without thought of bodily discomfort, 
without thought of the sacrifice, but ready and willing to make every sac- 
rifice, even of our lives and our fortunes, in defense of our outraged 
rights, in the cause of democracy and humanity throughout the broad ex- 
panse of the earth." 

Subsequently, Mr. Simmons supported the administration 
measure of a selective draft, and putting the entire resources of 
the country at the disposal of the President. 

His addresses in the Senate illustrate that type of oratory 
which is coming to be most highly approved to-day ; that is, they 
are made with a view solely to successful achievement. Thor- 
ough in detail, masterpieces of logical statement, devoid of ap- 
peals to unreasoning prejudice, they carry a message and are 
remarkably effective in producing results. A brief enumeration 
of the measures (aside from tariff and other revenue bills), 
which Senator Simmons has championed with notable and suc- 
cessful speeches will serve to illustrate his wide range of inter- 
est and knowledge and the broad influence that he has had upon 
the more important legislation of recent years. Among these 
may be mentioned addresses advocating the location and con- 
struction of the Panama Canal, Cuban reciprocity, extension of 
our merchant marine, establishment of the Appalachian Forest 


Reserve, the literacy test for immigrants, the short-haul provi- 
sion of the railroad rates law, development of water transporta- 
tion, repeal of the Panama Canal tolls exemption act, and in op- 
position to Canadian reciprocity. 

In these addresses, as in all of his public utterances. Senator 
Simmons has presented his views so masterfully as to excite ad- 
miration, so powerfully as to win conviction and so skillfully as 
to disarm antagonism ; and he wields an influence second to that 
of no other senator. 

Indeed, it may be said that no otlier North Carolinian in the 
history of the government has filled a larger place in Congress 
than Mr. Simmons, that no other North Carolinian has ever 
accomplished more for the benefit of the country and for the ad- 
vantage and honor of the Democratic party, and that no othei- 
North Carolinian has ever achieved more distinction among his 
colleagues for high capacity, sterling worth and spotless integrity, 
and that none has enjoyed a more perfect confidence as to the 
patriotism of his course or the sincerity of his convictions. And 
so thoroughly has his personality been interwoven with all the 
great measures that have engaged the attention of the Senate 
in these later years that a history of his work would, in fact, 
be a history of the Senate itself. At this writing he is at work 
on the war tax bill, seeking to place its burdens where they can 
be best supported — on incomes, excess profits, tobacco and 

Mr. Simmons first married Miss Eliza Hill Humphrey, by 
whom he had three children; and on July 29, 1886, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Belle Gibbs, by whom he has had two 

For ten years he made his home in Raleigh, while practicing 
law at Newbern and in those counties of the East where he has 
long enjoyed a lucrative business ; and since 1900 he has resided 
at Newbern, where, as well as in Jones County, he is largely 
interested in his farms. 

S. A. Ashe. 


j(F a sketch of the Hfe of Jesse Smitherman 
Spencer is to be written such as he himself 
would have approved, it is essential that it 
should be brief and that it should be devoid 
of superlatives. If he was anything, he was 
straightforward, simple and sincere. He had a 
"career" undoubtedly, but there was nothing spectacular about it ; 
and yet it stirs one's enthusiasm to consider the simple story of 
his quiet life. 

He was born in a section of the country remote from the 
marts of trade, but he heard the far-off call, and answered it; 
and it was not so very many years until he appeared one day 
in the metropolis of his native State, in the place where the 
captains of industry were assembled, and they, observing him 
to be one worthy of a seat among them, made room for him in 
their midst. What is more inspiring to the youth of the land 
than such a story? 

He was born on February 25, 1836, near Asheboro, N. C-, in 
what was at that time a part of Moore County. His parents 
were Herbert Spencer and Nancy Smitherman Spencer, He 
received his early education in the schools of Asheboro, and 
when eighteen years old he was planning to enter the state Uni- 
versity, but was prevented from doing so by an attack of 
rheumatism, which continued for two years. 

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S"^ i^Z'.O'.imii^'Tzs ^^i-o.^.y^ 


His parents having died in his early youth, he removed to 
Troy, N. C, and became associated in the mercantile business 
with his uncle, Noah Smitherman. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War he raised a company, of which he was elected captain, but 
a second attack of rheumatism forced his retirement from mili- 
tary service after a few months on the field of duty. 

Shortly after he returned home from the war he was elected 
clerk of the court of Montgomery County, and later was elected 
a member of the famous constitutional convention of 1868. 

Some years after this he removed to Rockingham, N. C, and 
became a member of a large mercantile firm, under the name 
of Leak & Spencer, the senior member being John W. Leak, one 
of the most prominent citizens of that section of the State. The 
business of this firm was a marked success. 

Mr. Spencer was, however, looking out for larger enterprises. 
He seems early to have recognized that Charlotte was destined to 
be the center of trade for the Carolinas, and he moved to that 
city in the year 1875. 

In Charlotte he began business as the head of the firm of 
Spencer & Allen, jobbers and wholesale merchants. He con- 
tinued to conduct business of similar kind under different names, 
and built up a trade covering a large part of the Carolinas. 
Incidentally it may be stated that he trained under him a large 
number of young men who themselves have now become leaders 
in large enterprises, and it cannot be doubted that their success 
has been due in great measure to the experience gained under 
his guidance and tutelage. 

Quite early in his business life he became interested in banking 
and in the cotton-mill industry, and finally decided to abandon 
the mercantile business altogether and to devote himself to other 
and larger spheres of activity in the commercial world. In 1887 
he became president of the Commercial National Bank of Char- 
lotte, retaining this position until his death, and under his wise 
leadership the institution gained in financial standing and popu- 
larity and became one of the foremost banks of the country. 

As showing his achievements in the cotton-mill business, it 


may be noted that at the time of his death he was president of 
the Henrietta Cotton Mills, and of the Florence Cotton Mills, 
both of Forest City; of the Anchor Mill, at Huntersville ; of the 
Columbia Cotton Mill, at Ramseur, and vice-president of the 
Highland Park Manufacturing Co., of Charlotte. 

In his early manhood his health was very poor, but in after 
years he became much stronger, and while never robust, he was 
able to discharge with great regularity and fidelity the manifold 
duties devolving upon him. His health, however, began to fail, 
and he passed away rather suddenly on September 8, 1904, at 
his residence in the city of Charlotte. 

There is one material factor which contributed no doubt more 
largely than anything else to Mr. Spencer's success in life, and 
that was his fortunate marriage. In 1858 he married Miss 
Henrietta McRae, of Montgomery County. It is said to be a 
physiological fact that after long association a husband and wife 
frequently grow like each other in outward appearance. By a 
stronger token and much more frequently is it true that in case 
of a congenial marriage the husband and wife grow like each 
other in thought, in ideals, in tastes. Such undoubtedly was the 
case with Mr. and Mrs. Spencer. Much that is written in this 
biographical sketch could with equal truth be said of the noble 
woman who now survives him. Their home was a center of 
widespread influence. Their hospitality, while simple, was so 
genuine that it charmed all who came within the circle of their 
home life. 

Besides his widow there were left surviving him five children. 
The only son, J. Leak Spencer, is one of the prominent young 
business men of Charlotte, holding the responsible position of 
treasurer of the Highland Park Manufacturing Company, an 
institution which his father founded. 

The four daughters — women of marked character and dis- 
tinction — were all happily married to men of the highest type 
of citizenship: Mrs. SalHe Anderson, wife of D. H. Anderson, 
prominent and influential in church and business affairs; Mrs. 
Lola Tanner, wife of S. B. Tanner, who is at the head of 


several of the largest cotton mills of the South; Mrs. Jessie 
Bell, wife of James A. Bell, one of the foremost lawyers of the 
State; Mrs. Hope Whisnant, wife of Dr. A. M. Whisnant, a 
specialist who enjoys a well-deserved practice second to none 
in the Carolinas. Another lovely daughter pre-deceased him, 
Mrs. Mary Smith, wife of Joseph C. Smith, a man who was 
trained up for large usefulness and successful business under 
Mr. Spencer. 

For more than twenty years prior to his death Mr. Spencer 
was an ardent member of Tryon Street Methodist Church in 
Charlotte, and no member was more loyal to the cause of re- 
ligion and to the church. He contributed liberally of his ample 
means to the support of all religious and charitable institutions. 

To the writer, who knew him well for many years, the most 
notable traits of Mr. Spencer were his alertness and his harm- 
lessness. He seemed to have in mind always to be obedient to 
that injunction of the Scriptures, "Be ye wise as serpents, and 
harmless as doves." He was rarely misled or deceived in a 
business matter. Certainly no one ever "gulled" him ; yet he was 
trustful, almost confiding. 

He was about as well informed a man as one would meet in 
a week's journey. In his daily intercourse with those about 
him, the familiar question he asked was: "What's the news?" 
He knew what was going on in the social, religious, political 
and business world. 

A prominent business man of Charlotte, who had large and 
intimate associations with him, was asked to name the charac- 
teristics about Mr. Spencer that were most impressive. This 
friend reflected for a moment and then gravely answered : "The 
most noted things to me about Mr. Spencer were his unfailing 
kindness to young men; his freedom from jealousy and bitter- 
ness ; his loyal support to his associates in every busines venture 
into which he entered, appreciating success, yet bearing without 
complaint reverses, which not infrequently came." 

"He that hath friends must show himself friendly," are the 
words of the Wise Man of the Bible ; and putting this aphorism 


into daily practice, Mr. Spencer had friends without number in 
all walks of life. To the millionaire business associate and to 
the mechanic repairing his garden fence he showed, without 
distinction or favoritism, the same kindness of heart. Yet with 
all his kindness toward his fellows, he used a wonderful plain- 
ness of speech. He spoke often with a candor that approached 
bluntness; but if his words produced wounds, they were recog- 
nized to be "the wounds of a friend." 

Among many other marked characteristics that might be noted 
one will suffice, namely, his fidelity to every trust reposed in 
him. An incident will illustrate this: He was at the head 
of a large influential corporation, and a certain combine of busi- 
ness* interests desired that this corporation should enter the 
combination. Mr. Spencer examined the plan and rejected it. 
With a view of eliminating him, and in this way securing the 
co-operation of this great corporation of which Mr. Spencer was 
president, the men interested offered him a fancy price for his 
stock. He said: *T will be glad to sell my stock at that price, 
but will do so on one condition, namely, that you offer the same 
price to every other stockholder." It need not be added that 
the project fell through. 

To those that knew him and his wide influence there is an 
added reason for believing that, unlike the Roman of old, the 
evil that he did, if any, was interred with his bones, and the good 
that he did lives after him. 

The writer of this sketch will feel that he has done posterity 
a marked benefit if he shall help in ever so slig